Exam 5: (Final Study Guide)
Exam 5: (Final Study Guide) Hist 150
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaitlyn Hamke on Saturday December 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Hist 150 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Hall in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 179 views. For similar materials see The West in the World in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 12/12/15
HIS TORY 150 STUDY GUIDE EXAM 5 FINAL EXAMINATION Hitler and the Road to War Treaty of Versailles 0 Germany loses overseas colonies 0 Germany required to agree to allied occupation of the Rhineland for 15 years and its demilitarization 0 Germany forbidden to create an air force and any limited to no more than 100000 men 0 War Guilt Clause 0 Germany and allies forced to accept full responsibility for the war Hitler39s foreignpolicy goals 0 1 Create a greater Germany 0 2 To begin a search for Lebensraum 0 Acquiring different territories for the German people 0 3 To overturn the Treaty of Versailles Appeasement 0 1930 s Britain and France started out following a policy of appeasement in order to preserve peace and attempt to satisfy Hitler 0 Why did the countries do this 0 1 War weariness o 2 Guilt For being too harsh towards Germany 0 3 AntiCommunism o Better Hitler than Stalin Anschluss 0 Union between Germany and Austria 0 Depicted as a peaceful takeover o In reality was really brutal I Germans arrested thousands of people and organized street violence Munich Conference September 1938 o Hitler and representatives of the other powers hold a conference 0 They give in to Hitler s demands 0 Sudetenland becomes part of Germany NaziSoviet NonAggression Pact signed August 1939 0 Between Germany and the Soviet Union 0 Two nations agreed on how to divide up Poland and other territories in the event of war I Hitler sees this as green light to invade Poland regardless o Pact that neither country would invade the other so as not to create a two front war 0 Germany ignored the pact and invaded Poland 0 Britain and France of cially declare war on Germany World War Two and the Holocaust Blitzkrieg 0 German word for ghting war Invasion of Poland 0 September 1 1939 Germany invades Poland 0 Part of Poland was annexed and becomes part of Germany 0 Part of Poland was annexed by the Soviet Union 0 State of Poland practically disappears Battle of Britain 0 Air battle between the Luftwaffe aka German Air Force versus the RAF Royal Air Force 0 Germany had developed a lot of bombers and ghters Invasion of the Soviet Union 0 Operation Barbossa 0 Plans for an invasion of the Soviet Union 0 Hitler was determined to destroy the Soviet Union I War of Extermination 0 June 22 1941 0 Germany invades the Soviet Union Battle of Stalingrad o A part of Operation Barbossa Hitler believed this campaign would only last about 10 weeks Germany of cially involves itself in a two ont war Launched on June 22 1942 o Stalin was stunned at Hitler s invasion Germany seizes millions of miles of Soviet territory Battle of Stalingrad 0 Turning point of the war for Germany 0 Endless series of small and deadly street battles I Rattenkrie g War of Rats Normandy Invasion o June 6th 1944 DDay o US British and Canadian Forces land on the beaches of Normandy in Northwest France 10000 casualties and wounded Overwhelming air superiority by the Allied Powers 2000000 men landed in France Paris liberated in August 1944 0000 End of World War Two in the West 0 May 1945 Germans surrender to the Allied powers thus ending World War II 0 August 14 1945 Japan formally surrenders unconditionally following the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Nuremberg Laws 0 Stripped Jews of citizenship Jews become subjects of the German State Illegal for Jews and Germans to marry of have sexual contact Party organizes informal boycotts of Jewish businesses gt quot Many Jews wanted to emigrate from Germany but were having trouble establishing citizenship in other countries Kristallnacht 0 Night of Broken Glass 0 Many Jewish businesses were broken into or destroyed by Nazis 0 Nazis targeted Jewish businesses synagogues and even seized Jews Reichstag Speech January 1939 o Hitler gives a speech proposing an export battle and increase German foreign policy 0 Calls for the annihilation of the Jewish race Einsatzgruppen 19411942 0 Special squads ofthe SS 0 Followed Germany into the Soviet Union 0 Were to round up and occupy territories o Responsible for 12 million deaths of Jewish men women and children 0 Would use mobile vans to kill their victims in mass execution Wanesee Conference 1942 0 Nazi conference to organize the extinction of the Jews 0 Many state of cials were present 0 Logistics ofthe Final Solution Heinrich Himmle r and the 88 0 Given bro ad powers over a network of prison and labor camps The Final Solution 0 Nazi plan to organize the extinction of the Jewish population Auschwitz 0 Most lethal Nazi death camp 0 Used this camp to produce German weapons for the war effort 0 Many companies even began to open outposts in the concentration camps to capitalize on the Jewish labor of their own pro t 0 Large st extermination camp The Cold War Battles of Iwo J ima and Okinawa 0 Battle of Iwo J ima o 5 week battle where the US Marines landed on the island with the goal of taking it over and capturing severalJapanese air elds 0 One of the bloodiest battles of World War 11 against Japan 0 Code named Operation Detachment 0 Battle of Okinawa o The larges amphibious assault during the Paci c war during World War II o US forces invaded in the hope of using the island as a base for air craft operations 0 Code named Operation Iceberg Manhattan Project Project to create the rst atomic bomb in the race of weapons of mass destruction 2 billion dollars Employed 150000 people Summer of 1945 0 Robert Oppenheimer and General Leslie Groves were leaders of the project 0 Tests proved successful and the US had to of cially decide whether to use the weapon Development of the Atomic Bomb 0 The rst ever of its kind 0 Robert Oppenheimer and General Leslie Groves 0 US had the decision to use this new weapon Harry Truman 0 Held the fate of the atomic bomb in his hands 0 Decided to use it against Japan Hiroshima and Nagasaki 0 August 6 1945 1St Bomb dropped on Hiroshima o On August 9th 1945 2nd bomb dropped on Nagasaki I 2 weeks later the Japan surrenders unconditionally to the US thus ending the war with Japan Dwight D Eisenhower 0 Originally opposed to the bombing of Japan Hydrogen Bomb 0 US 1952 Soviet Union 1953 o Destructive power of 750x the power of the atomic bomb International Ballistic Missile 1957 A new delivery system of bombs Launched with little warning New launch pad Could be put on submarines for a more discreet attack Move volatile and unpredictable Cuban Missile Crisis 0 Nikita Khrushchev Soviet Leader 0 Puts missile in Cuba as a deterrent to the US 0 John F Kennedy 0 Puts quarantine on Cuba both by land and sea 0 US agrees to withdraw missiles in Turkey NATO 0 North Atlantic Treaty Organization 1949 o US Turkey France Britain and Canada Warsaw Pact 0 Created in 1955 by the Soviet Union Czechoslovakia etc Textbook Questions Western Civilizations The Atomic Bomb and Its Implications pp 644 645 0 July 1945 Scientists working on the Manhattan Project began debating over the use of the atomic bomb Some even began signing petitions relating to thieve views None of these petitions actually reached Pres Truman o A Petition to the President of the United States I This petition outlines the belief that many of the scientists felt that the danger of a counter attack by another type of atomic bomb was no longer a worry due to the surrender of Germany I Believed that attacks by atomic bomb on Japan were unnecessary and irrational unless Japan was rst given the opportunity to surrender I The US sets the bar for the use of atomic bombs in warfare and is thus responsible for releasing this type of destructive technology I Asks Truman to fully think of the moral responsibilities of the US and to fully consider their main points of concern as expressed in their petition 0 President Truman s Memoirs I Truman says that he took the facts of possible morality and casualties in account when deciding to use the bomb I He concluded that simply holding a demonstration of the bomb in a remote area would prove ineffective to the US if it happened to be a dud and not work this leaving the US looking weak and with one less weapon I Truman and his advisors set up meetings in order to choose the most strategic city for the bombings 0 They ultimately chose Hiroshima and Nagasaki because both locations were strongly associated with military activity thus making the bombings a clear weapon of war The Marshall Plan pp 652 653 0 The US countered the expansion of the Soviet Union by backing multiple military endeavors in Western Europe 0 The Truman Doctrine 0 Pledge to support the free peoples to communism and prevent its spread o The Marshall Plan 0 A plan of economic aid to Europe by providing a European Recovery Program 1948 0 April 1949 Canada US and other representatives of the we st created NATO aka The North Atlantic Treaty Organization 0 The West AntiCommunism I Germany back in everyone s good graces since they opposed the Soviets ideas on communism The Chinese Revolution p 661 0 Civil war in China since 1926 with Mao Zedong s communist insurgents in the north who were in revolt against the Nationalist forces of J iang J eishi 0 Mao and his followers took over the Chinese government and sent the opposing Nationalists into exile 0 Mao took ideas of Marxism to a completely different level 0 Western powers feared the possible fall of China 0 The Chinese Revolution intensi ed the anxiety of both the military and diplomatic heads The End of the British Empire in India and Palestine pp 662 663 The British Empire Unravels 0 India was the rst and largest of the British colonies to win self government after W11 0 During the early stages of WWII the Indian National Congress called for the British to leave India 0 Mahatmas Gandhi 0 Indian nationalist o Pioneered anticolonial ideas and tactics o Advocated nonviolence selfrule and urged fellow Indians to collectively develop their own resources and withdraw from the British imperial economy 0 Proposed going on strikes refusing to pay taxes and boycotting imported textiles by wearing homespun cloth 0 India was torn by religious con ict between The Muslim League and the Hindu Congress 0 Cycles of rioting 0 June 1947 British India was split into the nations of India the Hindus and Pakistan the Muslims o Brutal religious warfare developed due to the split 0 Gandhi continued to protest this Violence and focused on overcoming colonialism I January 1948 Gandhi assassinated by a Hindu zealot Palestine 0 1948 End to the British mandate on Palestine 0 1939 To maintain regional stability the British limited Jewish immigration 0 Tried to maintain this limit after the war but faced pressure irom thousands of Jewish refugees from Europe 0 1947 3 way war within the area 0 Palestine Arabs ghting for independence 0 Jewish settlers and Zionist militants determined to defy British restrictions 0 Britain faced with moral plight regarding the Jewish refugees and maintaining a good relationship with the AngloArab population I British respond with military forces I Fighting of these groups eventually forced the British to leave I Not long after Israel declared independence in May 1948 it was invaded by 5 other neighboring states Gorbachev and Soviet Reform pp 687 688 0 1989 The collapse of the Eastern European communist regime 0 Led to the end of the Cold War and disintegration of the Soviet Union 0 1985 39N ew generation of of cials in the Soviet Union had begun to slowly take over and reform the government 0 Mikhail Gorbachev I Leader of the Soviet Communist Party I Critical of repressive aspects of communist society as well as its economy I Twin Policies 0 Glasno st Intellectual openness o Aimed towards the privileges of the social elite o The immobility of the state bureaucracy I Greater freedom of speech I Competitive elections I Limiting terms of of ce 0 Perestroika Economic restructuring o A shift from the centrally planned economy set in place by Stalin a mixed economy combining state planning with the operation of market forces 0 Ethnic unrest threatened to split apart the Soviet Union 0 1988 Czechs staged demonstrations against the Soviets The Collapse of the Soviet Union p 689 0 Soviet in uence eroded in Eastern Europe and in the Soviet Union people began to get frustrated 0 Failure of Perestroika economic reconstruction led to the rise of power of a rival to Gorbachev BorisYeltsin 0 Boris Yeltsin I Elected president of the Russian Federation who ran on an Anti Gorbachev platform in 1990 I Weakened Gorb achev s power to maneuver independent factions in Politburo and the military 0 After sensing their fall of political power many Communist party officials staged a coup in August 1991 0 Make Gorbachev and his family prisoners in their own villa 0 Led by Yeltsin they gathered support in the Soviet republics and the military called their bluff o Gorbachev was back in power and put the coup leaders in prison 0 December 8 1991 The presidents of the republics of Russia Ukraine and Byelorussia declared the fall of the Soviet Union 0 The collapse of the Soviet Union put Russia back up for grabs by its former imperial dominions and the Cold War of cial came to an end Textbook Questions Technology A World History and N ight World War Two and the development of new technologies pp 130 137 0 On July 16th 1945 the rst atomic bomb was tested in New Mexico 0 In World WarI many new technologies were developed such as poison gas explosives poison gas radio and airplanes o Taught military strategists that they needed to actively create new weapons to help win wars 0 By 1940 Germany and Britain had developed extensive radar networks to detect possible attacks 0 Jet airplanes were developed during World War II o In 1940 Leo Szilard and Albert Einstein wrote to President Franklin D Roosevelt that Germany was trying to develop an atomic bomb 0 The US quickly put together a team in attempts to beat Germany in the development of this advanced weaponry o 1942 The US developed the Manhattan Project to build the atomic bomb 0 When Germany surrendered rst before the US bombs were nished the US then used the bombs on Japan 0 The early concept for the computer developed around World War II as a way to calculate mathematical equations that could be used in designing bombs and calculating the trajectory of missiles 0 World War II also led to the development of rockets 0 Development of antibiotics o 1928 English physician Alexander Fleming discovers Penicillin Notatum a natural mold that kills the bacteria known as staphylococcus o 1940 Microbiolo gist Ernst Chain developed a way to use penicillin to cure infections I By 1943 US and Britain produced enough penicillin to treat their troops wounded on the eld 0 After World War 11 many nations were devoting time and money to new developments in science and technology 0 After World War II the US and the Soviet Union began a heavy arms race to develop new weapons and technology such as long range missiles and nuclear weapons 0 The development of nuclear power plants to produce energy for countries without oil or coal 0 October 1957 Russia launched Sputnik 1 into orbit around the world 0 The Space Age between the US and Russia led to many developments in both technology and space exploration 0 July1969 America landed on the moon 0 By the 1990 s many countries joined the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization offering worldwide instantaneous global communication 0 We ve gone from the atomic age the space age the information age The rise of the computer and the World Wide Web pp 140 143 0 The telephone system became increasingly advanced since the 1940 s 0 0 First telephone cable across the Atlantic was laid in 1956 By the 1990 s ber optic cables linked together all the nations of the world and could carry out phone calls and television stations simultaneously across the world 0 The computer out did all other devices 0 O 0 Use of binary digits strings of 1 s and 0 s Carry out a wide range of tasks of varying levels Started its development around the 1950 s as rather large and expensive only used for military and government projects By the 1970 s the computer became a smaller less expensive household item Today nearly everyone has access to a computer or other technological device to spread and communicate information around the world Night Where were Wiesel and his family transported to 0 They were taken to the Auschwitz concentration camp What was the journey like 0 Wiesel and his family were transported from their home in the Jewish Ghetto and put on a train along with hundreds of other people They were all locked into train cars and traveled from a long period of time The conditions were very dirty and they couldn t even sit down Who was Madame Schechter and why did he write about her 0 She was a woman who became extremely distraught during the deportation She became crazy and began rambling nonsense about re but every time they looked out the window they saw nothing until they arrived at Auschwitz and saw her hysteric vision come to life I believe that Wiesel wrote about her because it is a very chilling picture where this woman practically predicted what everyone else was afraid to believe What happened to them when they arrived at their nal destination 0 When they arrived at their nal destination they were horri ed to nd smoke coming from the chimneys of a crematorium Madame Schechter s vision had become true and they were con onted with the smell of burning esh When they were unloaded from the train cars Wiesel was forever separated from his mother and sisters when the men and women were separated Wiesel spent his time desperately ghting to stay with his father What impact did the brutality of everyday life in the camps have on Wiesel and his fellow inmates o The brutality became the everyday norm for many of the inmates They became used to the brutal scenes of the crematorium and the hangings They almost became indifferent to the brutality that occurred on a day to day basis How did his experiences in the camps affect Wiesel s relationship with his father 0 In the beginning they did as much as they could to stay together As their time at Auschwitz began to lengthen Wiesel s relationship with his father took its toll Towards the end Wiesel became indifferent to the problems and illness of his father until eventually he died of dysentery and was taken to the crematorium Wiesel never even said goodbye How did his experiences in the camps affect Wiesel s ideas about God 0 He lost faith in God s ability to care and watch over the human race He couldn t understand how a God who was supposed to be so loving of his creation that he could watch them be brutally murdered in a sick political scheme
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