Study guide for exam 2
Study guide for exam 2 PSY 151
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Patrece Savino on Saturday April 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 151 at Wake Forest University taught by Dr. Schrillo in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Wake Forest University.
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Date Created: 04/02/16
Chapter 11: Intelligence and Thinking Intelligence is defined as a person’s ability to… o learn and remember information o recognize concepts and their relations o apply the information and recognition by behaving in an adaptive way Crystallized vs. Fluid Intelligence o Raymond Cattell’s 2 factors of intelligence o Fluid intelligence: detecting relations in specified informational contexts; closely related to a person’s native capacity for intelligence Classifying figures Seeing patterns o Crystallized intelligence: drawing on previously acquired information and skills; things a person has already developed using their fluid intelligence Vocabulary Arithmetic Information learned in school Spearman’s “g” theory o Spearman proposed the “g” factor – a general factor of intelligence that applies to all areas of intelligence Common to performance on all intellectual tasks Includes 1. Apprehension of experience 2. Drawing out of relations 3. Drawing out of correlates o Common task on tests of intellectual ability solving analogies (requires all three principles) Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence o Successful intelligence is the ability to analyze and manage personal strengths and weaknesses effectively o Draws on analytic, creative, and practical intelligence Analytic intelligence cognitive mechanisms people use to plan and execute tasks Metacomponents (planning) Performance components (word recognition) Knowledgeacquisition components (learning new vocabulary) Creative intelligence ability to deal effectively with novel tasks and solve problems automatically that have been encountered previously Novel tasks Automated tasks Practical intelligence reflects behaviors that were subject to natural selection Adaptation (fitting into a given environment) Selection (finding a niche in that environment) Shaping (changing the environment) Intelligence tests o BinetSimon Scale measured a variety of psychological abilities that appeared to distinguish people of high and low intelligence Measure of mental age not IQ o Intelligence quotient (IQ): a child’s mental age compared to actual age IQ = (MA/CA) x 100 o Weschler IQ: consists of two principle categories of intelligence defined by Weschler: verbal and performance intelligence scores Reliability and Validity o Reliability: researchers assess reliability in terms of the correlation between the scores people receive on the same test on two different occasions Perfect reliability is 1.0 o Validity: one way to establish the validity of an intelligence test is by the strength of the correlation between the test scores and the criterion – an independent measure of the variable that is being assessed, such as grades in school Correlation between IQ and school grades = 0.5 Flynn Effect: across the world IQ test scores are increasing over time o Economic standing? o Getting more intelligent and need to adapt the test? Problems for IQ tests: o Cultural bias The effects of a person’s and culture on what they have learned – not their inherent abilities Ex. What is a catacomb? Who wrote Romeo and Juliet? Groups of people are disadvantaged because test material is foreign to their own cultural contexts Heritability of IQ o Your IQ correlates with your parent’s IQ 0.40.7 o Heritability: amount of variation in the trait of intelligence when inherited Concepts: a category of objects or events that share certain attributes o Basiclevel concept: a concept that makes essential distinctions at an everyday level Ex. chair and apple o Superordinate concept: a general or overarching concept that includes basiclevel concepts Ex. chair and apple furniture and fruit o Subordinate: a morespecific concept that falls within a basiclevel concept Ex. lawn chair and granny smith apple Reasoning o Deductive reasoning: specific conclusions from general rules John is taller than Phil. Sue is shorter than Phil. John is taller than Sue. o Inductive reasoning: general principles from specific information or examples Errors in Reasoning o Availability heuristic: estimating the likelihood of events based on their presence in our memory; if instances come readily to mind (vividness), we presume such events are common Car/Consumer reports example o Representativeness heuristic: judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to match particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information Ex. classify something by what it seems most similar to dog as an animal o Confirmation bias: a tendency to seek evidence that may confirm a hypothesis rather than evidence that might disconfirm it o Cognitive conceit: putting too much faith in our own reasoning ability and cleverness o Planning fallacy: assume optimal outcomes at each step of a plan or process o Halo effect: take pronounced quality or trait and assume it extends to other characteristics of that person Ex. an attractive person seen as more intelligent/kinder/etc. than they really are o Anchoring: tendency to let the first number overly influence others “How many nations are in Africa today?” Guesses will revolve around first guess o Entrapment: sunk costs; tendency to stay in a losing situation too long because of what you have already invested Kahneman’s system 1 and system 2 thinking o Thinking fast and slow o System 1 uses intuitive judgments (fast) based on the recognition or use of heuristics (generalized strategies) Detect that one object is more distant than another Orient to a sudden sound Complete the phrase “bread and…” Make a disgust face when shown a horrible picture o System 2 uses slow and effortful thinking; requires attention and is disrupted when attention is drawn away Brace for the starter gun in a race Focus attention on the clowns in a circus Focus on the voice of a particular person in a noisy room Bat/ball question Damassio’s Somatic Marker Hypothesis o Gut feelings guide our thinking lack of gut feelings can be paralyzing o Worked with people who lost their gut feeling in accidents but have perfectly functioning cognitive processing, memory, reasoning, intelligence, etc… Were not effectively able to make choices/decisions Baye’s theorem o Better, more informed, more accurate predictions o Tells us the probability of a hypothesis being true if some event happened o Prior probability: the likelihood of an event to happen in general o Posterior probability: revised estimate of prior probability taking into account background information in a specific instance Likelihood of getting breast cancer based on general statistics based on general statistics and family history Tools in reasoning o Algorithms: a procedure that consists of a series of steps that, if followed, will solve a specific type of problem o Heuristic: general rule, or “rule of thumb,” that is useful in guiding our search for a solution to a problem o Meansends analysis: a general heuristical method of problem solving that involves looking for difference between the current state and the goal state and seeking ways to reduce those differences Prospect theory: people, despite seemingly acting in a rational and logical way, make constant mistakes in evaluating their chances to win or lose o Framing effects: the way decisions are presented affects our choice Losses hurt more than gains Would you rather have a 90% chance of getting $1000 or a 100% chance of getting $900; Would you rather have a 90% chance of losing $1000 or a 100% chance of losing $900 (people choose b&c) Mental set: a framework for thinking about solving a problem; can be limiting Chapter 12: Development Research designs o Crosssectional study: individuals of different ages are simultaneously compared with respect to some test or observation Ex. a developmental psychologist might present mathematical problems to groups of 5, 7, and 9yearolds to measure the children’s grasp of the concept of negative numbers More convenient than longitudinal studies Important problem in interpretation* o Longitudinal study: compares observations for the same individuals at different times of their lives Ex. a longitudinal study of children’s grasp of negative numbers might test a group of children when they are 5, 7, and 9 years old o Crosssequential study: combines elements of longitudinal studies and crosssectional studies Temperament in infancy o Easy babies: readily adapt to new experiences, generally display more positive moods and emotions, have regular sleeping and eating patterns o Difficult babies: tend to be intensely emotional, are irritable and fussy, cry a lot, and tend to have irregular sleeping and eating patterns o Slowtowarmup babies: have a low activity level, withdraw from new situations and people, and adapt to new experiences very gradually Prenatal development Zygote 02 weeks Zygote divides many times and internal organs begin to form Embryo 28 weeks Heart begins to beat, brain starts to function, most major body structures begin to form Fetus 8 weeks to birth Appearance of bone tissue o o o o o o Teratogens: substances, agents, and events that can cause birth defects Perceptual development o Critical period: a specific time in development during which certain experiences must occur for normal development to take place Ex. infants interaction with caregivers must occur otherwise cognitive development will be impaired o Sensitive period: a period during which certain experiences have greater effect on development than they would have if they had occurred at another time Ex. acquisition of a second language Cognitive development o Piaget’s theory Children all follow a sequence of development Operation: a logical mathematical rule that transforms an object into something else; can be reversed (inverting multiplication to division) Assimilation: the process by which new information is incorporated into existing schemas A young boy has schemas for what adults are like and for what children are like – adults are tall and drive cars, children are short and ride bikes change/add to Accommodation: the process by which existing schemas are changed by new experiences some short people are adults rather than children 4 Periods of Cognitive Development: Period Approximate Age Major Features Sensorimeter Birth to 2 years Grasp of object permanence; deferred imitation; rudimentary symbolic thinking Preoperational 2 to 6 or 7 years Increased ability to think symbolically and logically, egocentrism, cannot yet master conservation problems Concrete operational 6 or 7 to 11 years Mastery of conservation problems; understanding of categorization; cannot think abstractly Formal operational 11 years on Ability to think abstractly and hypothetically Object permanence: sensorimeter period; realization that that objects do not cease existing when they are out of sight Egocentricism: selfcenteredness; preoperational children’s belief that others see the world in precisely the way he or she does Conservation: the ability to realize that an object retains volume, mass, length, or number when it undergoes various transformations in concrete operational period water in short stout glass is same as tall skinny glass Problems with Piaget’s theory Prevalence of decalage – people can develop horizontally and you don’t need to fully reach one stage to get to another o Vygotsky’s theory: interconnection between thought and language and the importance of society and culture Actual developmental level: the skills and problemsolving abilities that a child can show on his or her own indicate the level of development that the child has mastered represents the limit of the child’s cognitive skill Zone of proximal development: increased capacity for problem solving resulting from guided help A teacher shows you a method for solving a problem that makes perfect sense to you and helps you solve similar problems *Greater emphasis of social interaction and social contributions to cognitive development o Theory of mind: expectations concerning how experience affects mental states, especially those of another; knowledge about other’s beliefs or state of mind Ex. professor always keeps marker in desk drawer you arrive to classroom before professor and someone takes the marker out of the drawer and leaves with it you still expect the professor to look for the marker in the drawer Cognitive aging o What declines? Episodic memory including prospective declines Working memory span declines Fluid intelligence peaks at 25 o What doesn’t? Semantic memory is good Implicit memory is good Crystallized intelligence peaks at 6080 but continues to grow o Signs of cognitive aging Speed decline: processing speed slows over time Access, deletion, control of prepotent responses o Brain areas affected by cognitive aging Frontal lobes Basal ganglia Social development o Attachment Stranger anxiety: the wariness/fearful responses, such as crying and clinging to their caregivers, that infants exhibit in the presence of strangers Separation anxiety: a set of fearful responses, such as crying, arousal, and clinging to the caregiver, that an infant exhibits when its caregiver attempts to leave the infant Strange Situation 4 patterns of attachment A series of 8 episodes during which a baby is exposed to various events that might cause some distress related to attachment and security In episodes of increasing stress, the researcher introduces the infant and its parent to an unfamiliar playroom then leaves, the parent leaves and later is reunited with the infant, or a stranger enters the playroom with or without the parent present o Led Ainsworth to identify 4 patterns of attachment: secure attachment, resistant attachment, avoidant attachment, disoriented attachment Secure attachment: infants show a distinct preference for their caregiver over a stranger, cry when she leaves and seek contact when she returns; majority of babies form a secure attachment; securely attached infants will venture out from their mothers to explore but return periodically Resistant attachment: babies show tension in their relations with their caregiver; stay close with caregiver before they leave but show avoidance when they return and continue to cry or push her away Avoidant attachment: generally do not cry when they are left alone, react to strangers as they do with caregivers, avoid or ignore caregiver when they return, do not cuddle when held Disoriented attachment: babies have least quality of attachment and appear most troubled; react to caregiver in confusing and contradictory ways, “dazed” o Attachment behaviors of infants Sucking: nonnutritive sucking appears to be an innate behavioral tendency in infants that serves to inhibit a baby’s distress Cuddling: important role in reinforcing the behavior of the caregiver Harlow’s experiment o Baby monkeys preferred to cling to cuddly “surrogate” fake mother rather than the wire model with the milk to be comforted Looking: looking serves as a signal to parents; if parents do not respond when eye contact is made baby will show signs of distress Smiling and Imitation: a face is a reliable elicitor of a baby’s smile visual stimuli Crying: event that most effectively terminates crying is being picked up and cuddled o Gender Gender stereotypes: beliefs about differences between the behaviors, abilities, and personality traits of males and females influence behavior of members in society Gender stereotypes that actually seem to exist Earlier verbal development for girls Stronger spatial abilities and more aggression for boys o Kohlberg’s theory of moral development Most influential theory of moral reasoning 3 distinct levels of moral reasoning: Preconventional: avoiding punishment/maximizing gain Conventional: want to be seen as good, recognize need for social order Postconventional: universal ethical principles Each level is based on the degree to which a person conforms to conventional standards of society Each level has two stages that represent different degrees of sophistication in moral reasoning Chapter 8: Memory Processes in Memory: Encoding: putting something into memory Storage/Retention: keeping something in memory Retrieval: getting something back out of memory Retrieval is the most common failure of memory Multistore model of memory 1 possible, albeit flawed, version of human memory (modal model) 3 distinct memory stores: o Sensory memory Short term memory Long term memory Guided study of memory for decades Characteristics of Types of Memory: Multistore Model summary Sensory Memory Shortterm Longterm Memory Memory Encoding Requires Preattentive STM attention LTM rehearsal processing Type of Copy of input Mostly auditory Mostly semantic information (articulatory) Capacity Large Small Very large Duration 0.25s 25s Minutes to years Sperling’s Iconic Memory Experiment Studied the “span of apprehension” o How much can you see in a single glance flashes of letters o People typically report 45 items but claim to have seen more o Tested by Sperling using a partial report procedure: Trained subjects to report a particular row based on a tone that occurred after the display (high – top, middle – middle, low – bottom) o Demonstrated the existence of a very brief visual sensory memory store called iconic memory Characteristics of iconic memory: Duration ~0.25s Type of information: visual image Capacity: very large Echoic memory: a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, people can generally still recall 34 words Primacy and Recency Effects A researcher slowly reads words off of a long list when she is finished reading she asks you to write what you remember down people tend to remember words at the beginning of the list and at the end of the list Primacy effect: the tendency to remember the words at the beginning of the list Recency effect: the tendency to remember words at the end of the list The Limits of Working Memory Chunking: using knowledge that you have to build chunks out of the information o Example: Letter tests: build chunks out of the words to remember the letters C A T D O G R A T H O P R U N o Capacity debate: 7 plus or minus 2 units of information: classical answer 4 units for STM: real answer Belief that if people don’t use rehersal techniques it will only be 4 units Baddeley’s Model of Working Memory Central executive: o Flexible workspace that can be used to control and coordinate mental operations o Can also be used to store additional information – if the memory load is large, it will be used partly for storage Less capacity is left for other operations, so reasoning time takes longer Phonological loop: o Speechbased part of working memory that allows for the verbal rehearsal of sounds or words o Memory span is less than 7 for longer words o Used for: counting, forming longterm memories, acquiring new vocabulary, reading, mathematical calculations, problemsolving, etc. Visuospatial sketchpad: o Holds and processes visual and spatial information o Allows you to store visual appearance and relative information o 2 verbal tasks interfere with each other, 2 visual tasks interfere with each other, & a verbal and visual task interfere with each other less so Baddeley’s model explains this by having a separate store for visual information but shared central executive resources Measuring Working Memory Measures of working memory should assess both capacity and manipulation Backward digit span: giving people a set of digits and asking them to recall them backward Reading span: read sentences and store the last word of each, recall words in order at prompt Operation span: solve simple math problem and read word, recall words at prompt Articulatory Suppression: ex. repeating cola out loud during numbers tests Consolidation Consolidation: the change of information from a state of shortterm activation into structural changes in the brain. These changes are considered permanent and are hence part of longterm memory o When an item isn’t active in the memory, it is stored through structural changes and can be retrieved later on Amnesia Retrograde amnesia: you can’t remember anything from the past at all Anterograde amnesia: impairment from the time of an event forward; inability to make memory ex. HM The LevelsofProcessing Approach Developed by Craik and Lockhart o They pointed out that the act of rehearsal may effectively keep information in shortterm memory but does not necessarily result in the establishment of longterm memories They suggested that people engage in two different types of rehearsal o Maintenance rehearsal: cramming information Simply repeating verbal information over and over Maintains information in the short term but not necessarily in the long term o Elaborative rehearsal: trying to understand information and link it with things that you already know Involves more than new information: forming associations, attending to the meaning of the information, thinking about that information, and so on Encoding specificity Encoding specificity: degree over overlap between learning and retrieval environment o The more overlap there is in the learning environment and retrieval environment, the better memory will be Encoding specificity is illustrated in: o Context effects: environmental factors surrounding an event effects how it is perceived and remembered Baddeley’s scuba diver word test o State dependent memory: the ability to recall information easily when you’re in the same environment in which you learned the information o Mood and memory: Natural and clinical studies are hard because you need to ethically manipulate someone’s mood in extreme ways Ex. recalling qualities of a significant other when you’re mad at them (bad qualities) vs. not mad at them (good qualities) Mnemonics Mnemonic system: a special technique or strategy consciously used in an attempt to improve memory o Method of loci: mnemonic system in which items to be remembered are mentally associated with specific physical locations Ex. Using a familiar location like our kitchen to do a “mental walkthrough” of items you need while at the grocery store o PegWord Method: a mnemonic system in which items to be remembered are associated with a set of mental pegs already in the memory, such as key words of a rhyme Ex. one is a bun, two is a shoe, three is a tree, etc. = mental pegs view your grocery list as a package of cheese in a hamburger bun, a shoe full of milk, eggs hanging from a tree, etc. Types of Long Term Memory Episodic memory: o Provides us with a record of our life experiences o Events stored are autobiographical o Consists of memory about specific things we have done, seen, heard, felt, tasted, etc. o Tied to particular contexts Ex. this morning’s breakfast, 15 birthday party, etc. Semantic memory: o Consists of conceptual information o Longterm store of data, facts, and information, including words and their meanings o Information of the “academic” type Explicit and Implicit Memory Explicit Memory: memory that can be described verbally and of which a person is therefore aware (Declarative) o We know that we have learned something and we can talk about what we learned with others o Includes episodic and semantic memory Implicit Memory: memory that cannot be described verbally and of which a person is therefore not aware (Nondeclarative) o It is unconscious and we cannot talk directly about its contents o Can affect our behavior o Includes perceptual (recognizing objects, sounds, smells, etc.) and procedural (classical and instrumental conditioning, motor skill learning) memory Perceptual recognition: how long an exposure do you need on a word? Shorter exposure if you’ve seen the word recently HM shows effect of recognizing the words Word fragment completion: tell word carpet and ask them to complete the word car_ _ _ o Normal people and amnesiacs tend to complete it with recently studied terms *** explicit memory is gone, implicit memory is not Hippocampus as source of LTM consolidation for declarative memory Storage in LTM Savings: you learn something to a criteria and allow some time for forgetting and then relearn it to the same criteria how long does it take the second time compared to the first? Less time = savings Recognition: easier than recall; multiple choice questions – given the answer and you just have to recognize the right one Recall: not given the answer just fill in the correct answer Causes of Forgetting Decay: the information is no longer in your brain Interference: the information is still in your brain but something is interfering with your ability to retrieve it o Proactive interference: something that happened before the event interferes with your ability to subsequently retrieve it Ex. going to this class before biology will get in the way of remembering things from biology class compared to not doing anything before that class o Retroactive interference: something after the event is interfering with your ability to retrieve it Ex. going to biology class after this class gets in the way of your ability to remember what happened in this class Schemas Schema: a mental framework or body of knowledge that organizes and synthesizes information about a person, place, or thing Help us encode information in more meaningful ways, but they can also induce systematic errors o Ex. thinking of living things as either animals, plants, or fungi might help you classify organisms; however, your schema of “living things” might lead you to overlook the possibility that viruses could be a form of life False memories and recovered memories Are memories of past events necessarily real? o Anecdotal evidence that they’re not: Piaget: nanny fighting off kidnapper false memory vomSaal (?) o Recovered memory: ex. something traumatic happened a really long time ago and its blocked out and comes back later Evidence that this is real, but false memories occur more often Some recovered memories turn out to be false memories Can we create false memories? o Ceci’s work with kids “think hard” …it’s easier to create false memories with children o Loftus – shopping mall Brain areas supporting WM – PFC , esp dorsolateral PFC Flashbulb memories Some episodic memories are acquired under such powerful personal experiences of emotion and surprise that they become especially vivid and longlasting o Ex. personal memory about where you were, what you were doing, etc. when you first heard about the attack on the World Trade th Center on September 11 , 2001 Flashbulb memories: memories activated by events of extreme surprise and great personal consequence o Some believe that flashbulb memories are immune to the effects of distortion, but evidence says that they could be Korsakoff’s syndrome A disorder that usually occurs in chronic alcoholics The subject is unable to form new episodic memories but can retain some implicit memories similar to HM LANGUAGE Components of Language Phonology: rules about sounds of a language o Which word doesn’t have a normal English sound: plitos, glitos, tpitos? o Phonemes: basic unit of phonology (kind of like a letter); smallest unit of change in sound in which the change in it changes the perceived meaning Vary in matter of articulation Place of articulation Voicing Ex. de, do, da – the phoneme is the “d” and multiple sound waves map onto the same phoneme “de” “do” “da” Ex. ladder, latter – same sound wave Phoneme perception mysteries: not a unique 1:1 Mapping between each signal and perceived sound Semantics: knowledge about meaning of words o Morpheme: basic unit Words and things like “ed” and “ing” that change the meaning of the word Syntax: rules for combining words o You can recognize a sentence in a set of words Pragmatics: rules for describing functions of language and its use in various situations o Needed to understand sarcasm, irony, indirect utterances you need context in the situation to understand “It sure is noisy in here.” = “Quiet down.” o Functions of language: assertions, asking questions, etc. Generativity Generativity: our ability to produce and comprehend utterances that we have never heard before o Ex. recombining words in difference sentences that we’ve never heard before and still be able to comprehend them Language Acquisition Phonology o Perception = innate? o Categorical perception of speech sounds in very young infants “b” vs. “p” o Evidence for innateness = infants dishabituate to p but not to b they don’t react to the change in b so they habituate to it Semantics o The first systematic meaningful communication involves gestures that serve pragmatic functions Ex. a baby lifting its arms to be picked up o Protolanguage: gestural precursors of first real words – serve pragmatic functions pointing, open arm wave, grasping These are then idiosyncratically coordinated with sounds First real words are mapped onto this foundation o Meaning of first words Overextension: calling all animals dogs because they learned the word dog Underextension: mastering what words apply to what Overregularization: grammatical errors that usually start in the early stages of a child’s language development where language rules are applied too generally o ex. a child refers to more than one mouse as mouses rather than mice We didn’t cover acquisition of syntax or pragmatics in class (?) Nature vs. Nurture debate Nativist vs. Learned Accounts o Are you born with it? Nativist o Hearing parents speak, positive reinforcement…etc. Leanred o The “forbidden experiment” – what would language be like if kids were never exposed to it? Things to consider that may point to nativist aspects: o Children hear utterances but learn rules – “I runned.” (Mom and Dad didn’t say “I runned.”) o Each child is exposed to a different corpus, but learns the same rules o All children acquire language smart kids, less smart kids, kids with mental handicaps o Regularities found in learning very different languages Tests of nature vs. nurture question pointing to language being biology: o Feral children: raised by wild animals and come back to civilization what kind of language skills do they have? o Children without language model Deaf children of hearing parents who’s parents do not want them to learn sign language Kids tend to begin inventing their own signs at times of one word speech, two word speech, etc. Critical period evidence o Acquiring first language o Jeannie – raised by mentally ill parents and was never spoken to for 12 years Learned simple language but wasn’t able to master complex forms of grammar because she was outside of the critical period…language is not necessarily all learned o Sue Romba and Kanzi Brain and Language Broca’s aphasia: left frontal lobe, can’t produce speech but can understand it Agrammatism: can speak but not grammatically correct Wernicke’s aphasia: damage to left temporal lobe and causes deficit in understanding and producing speech o Is language unique to humans? o Can we teach other animals to use human language? Chimpanzee’s can’t learn to speak because they don’t have the vocal apparatus to do it…but are there other ways to teach/communicate through human language? o Washoe: female chimpanzee was the first nonhuman to learn to communicate with human sign language Vocabulary of a few hundred signs Showed generativity when she went to a pond, saw a swan, and combined the signs for “water” and “bird” Question of whether or not she was individually naming the water and the bird separately Taught her baby sign language o Koko: female gorilla that learned a number of hand signs from a modified version of human sign language Francine Patterson worked with Koko Gorilla language department in brain more similar to human’s than chimpanzee’s are Claims for Koko: similar to generativity that Washoe showed, but came up with combinations for a cigarette lighter More really extreme claims for Koko consensus was that Koko was a sham o Current work with bonobos: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5503685 Suggestion that they have achieved level of preschooler Was teaching to communicate by using a keyboard system by Sue Romba Greater advances from being taught at a young age – initially by accident Teaching Kanzi’s mother, he was just hanging around, but when mother was taken away, Kanzi used keyboard to communicate – food, affection, find lost mother The baby was communicating much more successfully than the mother did CRITICAL PERIOD FOR LANGUAGE ACQUISITION = earlier in life?
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