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WSU / Biology / BIOL 140 / What is phospholipids used for?

What is phospholipids used for?

What is phospholipids used for?

Description

School: Washington State University
Department: Biology
Course: Nutrition
Professor: Bethany marshall
Term: Spring 2015
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Study Guide for final
Description: This is the compact study guide for BIO 140. Includes vocab and all ideas from class lectures!
Uploaded: 12/12/2015
5 Pages 140 Views 7 Unlocks
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Ricky Zieme (Rating: )

If Madison isn't already a tutor, they should be. Haven't had any of this stuff explained to me as clearly as this was. I appreciate the help!



Chapter 6: Lipids


What is phospholipids used for?



∙ Lipids- organic substances that are relatively insoluble in water  (hydrophobic) and soluble in organic solvents

o Fats- solid at room temperature

o Oils- solid at room temperature

∙ The major lipid classes are fatty acids, triglycerides,  phospholipids, sterols, and fat-soluble vitamins

∙ Saturated fatty acid- single carbon-carbon bond

∙ Unsaturated fatty acid- double bonds

∙ Monounsaturated fatty acid- one double bond

∙ Polyunsaturated fatty acid- more than one double bond ∙ Cis double bond- when hydrogen atoms are positioned on the  same side of double bond


What is the role of intestine in digestion?



∙ Trans double bond- when hydrogen atoms are on opposite sides  of the double bond

∙ Trans fatty acids are produced by partial hydrogenation, the  process by which some carbon-carbon double bonds found in  PUFA’s are converted to single bonds

o High consumption of synthetic trans fatty acids increases  risk of heart disease in some people

∙ Conditionally essential fatty acids during infancy:

o Arachidonic acid- omega-6 fatty acid

o Docosahexaenoic (DHA)- omega-3 fatty acid

∙ Monoglycerides- lipid made of a glycerol bonded to 1 fatty acid ∙ Diglycerides- lipid made of a glycerol bonded to 2 fatty acids ∙ Triglycerides- lipid made of a glycerol bonded to 3 fatty acids o Stored in adipocytes


How do you get gallbladder disease?



If you want to learn more check out How is biodiversity taken care of?
If you want to learn more check out What is an example of quantity demanded?

o Large amount of triglycerides can be stored in small space o Energy yield from lipids relatively high (kcal/g)

o Body has infinite ability to store excess energy in adipose  tissue

 ∙     Phospholipids 

o Structure is similar to triglyceride but instead of 1 fatty  acids ther’s a “polar head group”

 Polar compounds dissolve in water

 Nonpolar compounds don’t dissolve in water

 Amphipathic contains both polar and nonpolar  

portions

o Major components of cell membranes

o Play roles in digestion, absorption, transport of lipids,  cellular metabolism

o Act as biologically active compounds

 ∙     Sterol 

o Lipid with distinctive multi-ring structure

∙    Sources of Cholesterol in the body

o Made in the body from glucose and fatty acids

  Statin drugs- decrease blood cholesterol by inhibiting one of the enzymes needed for synthesis

 Genetics influences cholesterol synthesis

o Obtained only from animal foods

∙    Digestion of triglycerides

o Begins in the mouth

  Lingual lipase splits some fatty acids from glycerol  molecules If you want to learn more check out What are the properties of good theories?

o Continues in the stomach

 Food in stomach stimulates release of gastrin Don't forget about the age old question of What does a behavioral geneticist do?

 Circulates in blood, stimulating release of gastric  lipase which continues to split fatty acids from  

glycerol

∙    Phases of intestinal digestion

o Phase 1: Emulsification of lipids by bile- micelle formation  (breaking larger lipid globules into smaller droplets) o Phase 2: Digestion of triglycerides by pancreatic lipase  (smaller stable lipid particles) If you want to learn more check out What study did middlemist, knowles, and matter conduct?

 Chyme enters duodenum which then releases the  hormone secretin 

 Secretin stimulates pancrease to release pancreatic  lipase that then completes the digestion of  

triglyceride into a monoglyceride and two fatty acids ∙    Gallbladder disease

o Results when bile contains an excess amount of cholesterol o Gallstones are an accumulation of calcium and cellular  debris around cholesterol crystals

o Symptoms are tenderness to extreme pain

o Treatment is the surgical of gallbladder

o Risk factors: gender, age, obesity, rapid weight loss,  pregnancy

 ∙     Lipid absorption- products of lipid digestion are absorbed into  enterocytes in small intestine

∙    Circulation of lipids Don't forget about the age old question of What is the study of geology?

o Short and medium chain fatty acids transported to liver in  the blood

o Long chain fatty acids and other large lipids are circulated  away from the small intestine in small particles in the  lymph called chylomicrons

 ∙     Lipoproteins- spherical particle made of varying amounts of  triglycerides, cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids, and  protiens. Their function is to transport lipids

 ∙     Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL’s)- lipoprotein made by the  liver. Contains dietary fatty acids as well as fatty acids made in  the liver

o Delivers fatty acids to cells

o More dense than chylomicrons, because it has  

proportionately lowers the amount of trigylcerides

 ∙     Intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL)- lipoprotein that results  from loss of fatty acids from VLDL

o Converted to low-density lipoproteins (LDL’s)

 ∙     Low density lipoproteins (LDL’s)- delivers cholesterol to cells o Can increase build up of plaque

∙ High density lipoproteins (HDL’s)- lipoprotein made by liver that  circulates in the blood to collect excess cholesterol from cells o Has the lowest lipid-to-protein ratio

Chapters 7&8: Energy Balance and Weight Management ∙ Metabolism- chemical reactions that take place in the body ∙ Energy metabolism- chemical reactions involved in breakdown,  

synthesis, and transformation of energy yielding nutrients:  glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids

 o Catabolic reactions  

 Breakdown of storage molecules into their subunits  and these produce ATP

 o Anabolic reactions  

 Synthesis of larger molecules from their subunits and these use ATP

∙ Adipocytes- are the cells that make up adipose tissue ∙ Hypertrophic growth- when the size of the adipocyte increases ∙ Hyperplastic growth- when adipocytes increase in number ∙ Positive energy balance- when energy in is larger than energy  out

∙ Negative energy balance- when energy out is larger than energy  in

∙ Neutral energy balance- when energy in is equal to energy out ∙ Hunger- the physiological need for food

∙ Appetite- wanting food

∙ Thermic effect of food- the energy associated with digesting,  absorbing, and using nutrients

∙ Basal metabolism- energy associated with basic physiologic  functions and maintenance

∙ Set point theory- factors circulating in blood communicate to the  brain the amount of adipose tissue to be in the body

∙ Leptin- the hormone made by adipose tissue

∙ Insulin- hormone made in pancreas

∙ Overweight vs obesity

o Overweight is having more weight for your height o Obesity is an abundance of body fat

o BMI (body mass index): weight (kg)/height(m)^2 ∙ Recommended body fat levels

o Males: 12-20%

o Females: 20-30%

o Android adiposity- extra abdominal fat, apple shaped o Gynoid adiposity- extra fat in thighs and hips, pear shaped ∙ Children with obese parents are at a higher risk and an active  lifestyle remains critical

∙ Hormones such as insulin, glucagon, cortisol, and epinephrine  regulate metabolism

∙ Nutrient catabolism is complex and inter-related. It involves  many chemical pathways

∙ The absorptive state

o 0 to 4 hours after a meal, at all times of the day

o Glucose is the primary source of energy for this state, while excess is stored as glycogen

o Amino acids are mainly used for protein synthesis, while  excess amino acids are converted into fatty acids

o Insulin stimulates uptake of fatty acids into adipose tissue  through triglyceride synthesis

o Promotion of energy storage via anabolic pathways ∙ The post absorptive state

o 4 to 24 hours after intake

o When insulin levels and blood glucose decrease

o Glucagon increases and fatty acids and glycogen begin to  be mobilized

∙ Acute Starvation and prolonged starvation

o Glucose is produced via gluconeogenesis

o Body begins to rely more on mobilization of adipose  reserves for ATP production

∙ The energy balance equation: energy in = energy out + energy  stored in body

∙ High carb, low fat diets for weight loss

o 10-15% kcals from fat

o 65-75% kcal from carbs

o Avoid meat, dairy, and oils

o Low-fat meat and dairy products are okay

o Emphasis on fruits, veggies, and whole grains

∙ Low carb, high fat weight loss diets for weight loss

o The theory is that low carb diets increase insulin levels,  resulting in less fat storage

o There is less of a need for counting kcals and/or limiting  portion sizes

∙ The best treatment for obesity is to prevent it rather than fight it  later in life

∙ For weight lost to be long term, both exercise and calorie  restriction are needed

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