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Human Sexuality Exam 4 Study Guide

by: AnnaCiara

Human Sexuality Exam 4 Study Guide 2110

Marketplace > University of Connecticut > Psychlogy > 2110 > Human Sexuality Exam 4 Study Guide
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Major terms, definitions, concepts, and important people mentioned in lecture and in the book. Covering important parts of all 3 lecture sections and 3 chapters material.
Psychology of Human Sexuality
Seth Kalichman
Study Guide
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by AnnaCiara on Saturday April 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2110 at University of Connecticut taught by Seth Kalichman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at University of Connecticut.


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Date Created: 04/02/16
PSYC 2110 Exam 4 Study Guide Key: Term: definition Important note Table of contents: I. Solitary and Shared Sex (Chapter 12) II. Sexual Orientation, Identity and Behavior (Chapter 13) III. Spectrum of Human Sexual Behavior (Chapter 14) I. Solitary and Shared Sex (Chapter 12) National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS) • Gave stats in US on types/frequencies of sexual behaviors o Data similar in Europe • Data can generalize to larger populations • Majority does not mean normal • Data said men think about sex more than females do • Men also more likely to buy items for self-pleasure • Data suggests main purpose of masturbation isn’t to replace sex o People who masturbate likely have a more active shared sex life o Frequency of masturbation has no correlation with amount of shared sex (with partner) Autoeroticism: sexual self-pleasure Masturbation: rhythmically stimulating one’s own genitals to sexually pleasure oneself • Male o During adolescence: not likely to report masturbating o During young adulthood: more likely to report on masturbation done during adolescence o Methods § Masters and Johnson saw unique methods for individuals § Most common is stroking of corona, shaft and frenulum (spot where glans and shaft connect) § Difference from females: stroking usually stops or slows during orgasm whereas females usually continue stroking during orgasms § Masters and Johnson also reported men have tried autofellatio: oral sexual stimulation using one’s own mouth on one’s own genitals 1 § Some men find sexual pleasure in pain and may insert objects in urethra (danger of physical damage and infection) § Cleanliness and safety are extremely important • College students o Survey report: § Men: 98% masturbated on average 12 times/month § Women 64% masturbated on average 5 times/month § Stats reflect comfort of person with own body/genitals and likelihood to use a condom § Men more likely to be okay with solitary sex and acceptance of pornographic material § >60% of males reported using pornographic magazines for masturbation • only 12% of females reported this § Males more likely to use nonpornographic material during masturbation § Men have more fantasies than women • Female methods o Masters and Johnson found that within hundreds of women, no two women masturbated the exact same way o Women who stimulate clitoris often stimulate shaft, not direct clitoral glans stimulation (too sensitive) o May stimulate by touching of mons area o Right handed women more likely to stimulate right side of shaft (opposite for left handed women) o Directly after orgasm many women stop touching clitoral glans due to high sensitivity o Usually use hands but can use other objects to aid in stimulation o Some women stimulate other body parts during masturbation as well (example: breasts, nipples) o Cleanliness and safety are extremely important Misconceptions and facts • “Excessive masturbation” is a myth o no medical definition exists o no physical harm associated with frequent masturbation o “excessive” is very subjective 2 • Masturbation is a way to learn about one’s own sexual feelings/wants o Especially for women • Semen does not “run out” from frequent masturbation Guilt from masturbation • Very common in all sexualities • More frequent in females than males Shared sex • Vaginal intercourse is the most common shared sex • Men usually remember first kiss as more pleasurable than women do Erogenous zone: part of body that, upon stimulation, results in arousal “genital blowing” is extremely dangerous • Air should never be blown into the penis or vagina as many infections may result or air embolisms which can be fatal Anal intercourse • Insertion of penis into rectum of sexual partner • May be more appealing to males • Risk of tissue damage in rectum • Condoms more likely to break • Likely to cause bacteria spread Aphrodisiacs • Foods/chemicals used to increase sexual arousal • Alcohol/marijuana may increase sexual arousal due to effect of lowered inhibition • Amyl nitrate – type of volatile nitrate that may increase stimulation/orgasm o Room deodorizer o Upon inhalation will dilate blood vessels • Likely just placebo effect Coitus: vaginal intercourse Women’s coitus • Relationship-centered experience • Pleasure-centered • Worry-centered Vaginismus: Sexual dysfunction when the vaginal muscles cannot relax enough to allow painless penile entry The mammalian copulatory position is usually rear vaginal entry 3 II. Sexual Orientation, Identity and Behavior (Chapter 13) Sexual Orientation identity: one’s inner awareness of one’s sexual orientation in terms of relationships and social interactions Elements of sexual orientation – don’t always line up 1. Desire - who you want to be with in a sexual/romantic way 2. Behavior – actions in sexual/romantic way 3. Self-identification – can be heterosexual but have some interest in same sex Kinsey scale: scale from heterosexual to homosexual – 7 rating in between • Showed that sexualities exist between homosexuality and heterosexuality • Scale is now not considering an accurate depiction of the complexity of sexualities • Sexual orientation is dynamic over a lifetime o Only 1% of people found to have ONLY same sex relations Cultural Comparison • Difficult to compare sexualities between cultures because of varying cultural norms • Same-sex relations exist in all cultures o Rules/laws influence openness/acceptance • Some cultures base sexual orientation not only partner gender but on sexual positions assumed by partners Homophobia • Prejudice to homosexual people • Results in homo-negativity • Homosexuality was only removed as mental disorder by American Psychological Association in 1976 • Structural homophobia: Irrational fear that results in discrimination based on sexual orientation o Not the same across all cultures o 76 countries criminalize homosexuality § 38 of them are in Africa § 97% of Ethiopians said homosexuality should be outlawed Religion • Judaism o Ancient times: only religion categorically against same-gender sexual behavior § Most other religions at the time promoted celibacy § Interpretation of some legal passages suggests allowance of same-sex marriage 4 • Christianity o Focused on maintaining “purity” and refraining from sexual behaviors • Controversy on interpretations of Torah (Judaism), Bible (Christianity) and Qur’an (Islam) o But all 3 place some regulations on sexual behavior Psychodynamic sexual orientation • Freud’s psychodynamic theory o Suggested same-sex sexual orientation is caused by an abnormal stop in progression of the normal developmental stages àidea homosexuality is a neurosis/requires treatment • One psychological theory suggested certain family-interactions lead to homosexuality (not true) o 1) overprotective mother o 2) absent father • Development of sexual orientation does NOT depend on and is NOT determined by psychosocial factors 5 Normal variant model • Evelyn Hooker 1907-1996 o Studied gay men and gay communities o Believed variants of sexual orientation should NOT be pathologized Bell, Weinberg and Hammersmith study • Did a path analytical model to find trends among study of gay, lesbian and heterosexual people • Results o Sexual orientation is likely determined before adolescence o Same-sex desire (attractions) predates sexual behavior – just like heterosexuality; play big role in self-identification o Early-life heterosexual experiences are common among gay men and lesbians but often report as unsatisfying (unlike heterosexuals) o No importance in closeness with a parent of a certain gender (sexual orientation doesn’t matter if you identify more with your mom or dad) o No evidence supporting sexual orientations are associated with certain types of parents Biological role in sexual orientation • Hormones o Thought to influence gender-specific sexual behaviors o Certain hormones masculinize or feminize during fetal development o Genetically born females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are more likely to be bisexual or same-gender oriented • Anatomical differences o Symmetry of cerebral hemispheres § Cerebral symmetry: heterosexual women and gay men § Right hemisphere larger: lesbian women and heterosexual men o Amygdala connections/function § Amygdala connected to other emotional processing center of brain: heterosexual women and gay men § Amygdala has localized function: lesbian women and heterosexual men Fraternal birth order effect: the greater the number and age difference of older brothers increases the likelihood of a boy being gay. 6 • Supported by maternal immune hypothesis: idea that the mother’s body remembers male fetuses and makes different antibodies that may alter brain (thus potentially altering sexual differentiation) • Newer evidence shows this is likely only true for right handed males and opposite for left handed males Genetics • Studies have shown same-gender orientation to potentially run in families • Gay males have higher chance of having a male family member (brother, uncle, male cousin etc.) who is gay (more common on mother’s side of family) • Lesbian women have increase likelihood of bisexual or lesbian sister (but weaker relation than point above about males) Vivienne Cass • Psychologist • Emphasized the importance of self-identification in same-gender orientation • Theory: that sexuality/sexual orientation is fluid/changes and can potentially be changed o Formation of sexual identity starts with attraction to same sex • 6 stages of same-gender sexual identification formation (ages of stages vary with maturational and social factors) o 1) Identity confusion: realize same-sex information relates to them, question their various potential sexualities o 2) Identity comparison: consider broader implications of same-gender sexual orientation. May try to “pass” as heterosexual and reject idea of being attracted to same sex à can lead to homophobia o 3) Identity tolerance: self-acceptance of same-gender sexual orientation; may “come out” or acknowledge to self/others of one’s non-heterosexual sexuality; may begin to become part of similar sexual-orientation community o 4) Identity acceptance: acceptance of self rather than just tolerance o 5) Identity pride: heterosexuality is no longer the individual’s standard for themselves o 6) Identity synthesis: not all heterosexuals should be viewed with negative light 7 Marriage and same sex relations • Increasingly allowed (now legal in all states) and accepted • Some gay, lesbian and bisexual people marry heterosexuals and have children Gay and Lesbian families o Some states don’t let same sex couples adopt – law allowing same sex marriage has helped this o Some same-sex couples have children from previous heterosexual marriages or have adopted children o Studies show no adverse effects of having parents of the same sex § Evidence of benefits • Tend to be more open and accepting of other people’s families – a psychological benefit 8 III. Spectrum of Human Sexual Behavior (Chapter 14) Total sexual outlet • Aka “hydraulic theory” of sex o Similar to how fluids will find another outlet if one path is blocked o Kinsey described orgasm as outlet but a range of sexual outlets exist • Concept that Kinsey based his understanding of sexual expression Sexual variant • Used to be termed “abnormal” or “perverse” • Sexual preferences that are different than what is typical Sexual motivation theories: • Erotophobia: fearful/negative reactions to sexual situations/stimuli o Opposite is erotophilia (concept from Bill Fisher) • Hyposexuality: unusually low levels of sexual interest • Hypersexuality à high desire levels o VS. compulsive sexual behavior aka erotomania which is a mental illness with excessive sex drive/appetite § Nymphomania – erotomania in women • ***not to be confused with NECROPHILIA*** § Satyriasis - erotomania in men o “Sex addiction” possible o VS. Promiscuity: High amounts of casual sexual acts with many partners o Negative connotation for females, less so for males (example of gender bias) o When it causes problems, person might not feel like they’re in control of their sexual behavior and may do more than they want Normal: two consenting adults in privacy Erotic Target Location Errors (ETLEs): focused sexual interests/attraction on strange objects or sexual activities Fetishism: arousal resulting from nonsexual inanimate objects • More often in men than women – commonly garment collecting • Inanimate object integrated into love map: o “a developmental representation of a template in the mind and in the brain depicting the idealized OBJECT of sexual and erotic activity projected in imagery or actually engaged in with that lover”-John Money 1980 • One of the most common paraphilias • Transvestic fetishism = fetish for clothing stereotypically worn by opposite sex 9 Autogynephilia: tendency for male to be aroused by obsessive thoughts about being a woman and/or having a woman’s body/sexual organs Partialism – another type of paraphilia • Involve parts of the body that are not typically considered erogenous zones • Ex: feet, or even breast Tranvestism – cross dressing • Cross dressing is NOT ALWAYS a paraphilia • Not to be confused with transvestitism – discrimination of transvestites • If it is the ONLY way you get turned on and you are dependent on it – that’s a paraphilia (actual pathology) • Men more vulnerable to having a paraphilia Frotteurism AKA "mashing": Urge to rub one’s genitals against someone who is non- consenting/unknowing • à ABNORMAL à IT IS NOT 2 CONSENTING ADULTS IN PRIVACY • Person who has this is termed a frotteur • More common with men in crowded places • 1 paraphilia so far that is ALWAYS abnormal • Toucherism: subcategory of frotteurism involving arousal from touching unknown person Exhibitionism: Inappropriate/illegal exposure of one’s self • As a paraphilia it must be a consistent urge and part of love map Voyeurism: Watching people doing sexual acts without them knowing and aroused by invasion of privacy • Paraphilic voyeurism is different than “peeping” with intention of sexual assault Sadomasochism (S&M): sexual acts involving bondage, pain, domination • Sadist: arousal from INFLICTING PAIN • Masochist: arousal from having PAIN INFLICTED • Paraphilia with a relationship compliment Zoophilia AKA bestiality: sex with animal • à NEVER NORMAL because it’s not 2 consenting adults Pedophilia: dependence of sexual arousal and focus of sexual arousal on children (13 and under) • à NEVER NORMAL because it’s not 2 consenting adults Sexual fantasy • Highly individualized 10 • May not reflect real life sexual desires but can reflect someone’s frustrations in their life and desire in general for sex • Tend to start around ages 11-13 11


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