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18 Need to Know Questions/Answers for Computer Networks

by: Jakeya Flood

18 Need to Know Questions/Answers for Computer Networks ITCS 3166

Marketplace > University of North Carolina - Charlotte > ComputerScienence > ITCS 3166 > 18 Need to Know Questions Answers for Computer Networks
Jakeya Flood
GPA 3.0

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18 Need to Know Questions/Answers on the Introduction of Computer Networks. Very Important!!
Intro to Computer Networks
Dr. Angelina Tzacheva
Study Guide
important, questions, answers, Need to Know Questions/Answers for Computer Networks, Computer Networks itcs 3166, uncc, charlotte, Computer Science
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jakeya Flood on Saturday December 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ITCS 3166 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Dr. Angelina Tzacheva in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 665 views. For similar materials see Intro to Computer Networks in ComputerScienence at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.


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Date Created: 12/12/15
ITCS 3166 Final Exam - Preparing 1. Why do we need TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)? a. for client-server interactions b. for multimedia c. for reliable sequenced delivery d. for networks with no end-to-end path 2. Which of the statements below are true w ith respect to TCP? i. TCP was designed to dynamically adapt to properties of the internetwork, and to be robust in the face of many kinds of failures ii. TCP service is obtained by both sender and receiver by creating end points called sockets; each socket consists of urgent data field and maximum transfer unit iii. a key feature of TCP, and one that dominates the protocol design, is that every byte on a TCP connection has its own 32-bit sequence number iv. in the TCP header, the ACK (acknowledgment bit) is used to reset a connection that has become confused due to a host crash or some other reason a. i and ii b. i and iii c. i , ii , and iii d. all of the above 3. Which of the following statements is incorrect in relation to TCP connections? a. A connections are established in TCP by means of the thr ee-way handshake b. the server waits for an incoming connection (by executing the LISTEN and ACCEPT primitives) c. the client executes a CONNECT primitive, specifying the IP address and port to which it wants to connect d. to release the connection, either party sends a TCP segment with the FIN bit set, and the connection is shut down for both directions 4. DNS (the domain name system) is: a. a centralized system maintained by the global DNS server b. a large data-warehouse hosting millions of names for personal web sites, and maintained by the government c. a hierarchical, domain-based naming scheme and a distributed database system, used for mapping host names to IP addresses d. is domain name hierarchy invented by the ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) 5. In the underlying model of Fig. 6-4, it is assumed that packets may be lost by the network layer and thus must be individually acknowledged. Suppose that the network layer is 100 percent reliable and never loses packets. What changes, if any, are needed to Fig. 6-4? Figure 6-4. A state diagram for a simple connection management scheme. Transitions labeled in italics are caused by packet arrivals. The solid lines show the client’s state sequence. The dashed lines show the server’s state sequence 6. In Figure 6-20, suppose a new flow E is added that takes a path from R1 to R2 to R6. How does the max-min bandwidth allocation change for the five flows? Figure 6-20. Max-min bandwidth allocation for four flows. 7. Is it possible that when a user clicks on a link with Firefox, a particular helper is started, but clicking on the same link in Internet Explorer causes a completely different helper to be started, even though the MIME type returned in both cases is identical? Explain your answer. 8. Does voice over IP have the same problems with firewalls that streaming audio does? Discuss your answer. 9. What is World Wide Web? 10. Who are web hosts? 11. How is the information stored in the websites? 12. Why TCP is called as connection – oriented protocol? 13. How is connection established between client and server in TCP? 14. Why the connection establishment is called as 3-way handshake? 15. What is the purpose of DNS? 16. How does the DNS work? 17. In Fig. 6-36 we saw that in addition to the 32-bit acknowledgement field, there is an ACK bit in the fourth word. Does this really add anything? Why or why not? The ACK bit determines whether the 32-bit field is used. In the case that it wasn’t there the 32-bit field would always have to be used, if necessary acknowledging a byte that had already acknowledged. It is important to note that the ACK bit isn’t really necessary for normal data traffic. 18. Consider a situation in which a cyberterrorist makes all the DNS servers in the world crash simultaneously. How does this change one’s ability to use the Internet? 1. C 2. B 3. D 4. C 5. The dashed line that goes from PASSIVE ESTABLISHMENT PENDING to ESTABLISHED can be removed. The transition can happen immediately. The PASSIVE ESTABLISHMENT PENDING line isn’t visible at any level. Also, the line or step can be removed because the connect primitive will always be performed. 6. The allocation for flow A will be 1/2 of the links R1R2 and R2R3. And the allocation for flow E will be 1/2 on the links R1R2 and R2R6. The rest of the allocation s will remain the same. 7. Yes, the helper being started depends on the browser’s configuration tables and Firefox and Internet Explorer may not be configured the same. Also, the file extensions type is taken more seriously than the MIME type in Internet Explorer. The file extens ion also could specify for something other than the MIME type. 8. Sometimes. It all depends, really. If the person calling is behind a firewall and the firewall isn’t strict about what comes and goes, then it could work. Another example in which it would work is if the person calling isn’t behind a firewall and the person called is at a typical phone. There are instances in which it wouldn’t work. One example is if the person called is behind a firewall that restricts UDP packets from being left out. 9. First off, it is not the Internet. The World Wide Web is an information space (system) or a network of computers that host and serve webpages. It allows documents to be connected to other documents. File transfer, email , and communication enabled through Internet are all done by accessing the World Wide Web. 10. Web hosts are the people who own and rent webservers, which are computers that area always connected to the Internet, and is specifically designed to store and share information and linking it. Web hosts are also people who rent the spaces inside the server. “The people who own these skyscrapers and rent space in them are called web hosts.” 11. Information is stored in the websites in web languages, like JavaScript and HTML. Web browsers take the code on the sites and turns it into graphics, words, pictures, and videos. 12. It is called a connection-oriented protocol because it has to establish a connection before it can send data. 13. The hosts’ exchanges information on each other that will help them to provide a reliable connection. The first segment, the scene segment, is sent from the client. “It stands for synchronization specified to which port number of the server the client wants to connect to the client's initial sequence number. In return the server response with its own seen segment specifying the initial sequence number that he will use the server also acknowledge the client seen. The last step requires the client to acknowledge back the server seen. At the end of the connection establishment both sides can exchange data the more common name for connection establishment.” 14. It is called the 3-way handshake because 3 steps are required for TCP to open a new connection. “At the beginning of the connection establishment, the client sends a segment with seen flag, it specifies the initial sequence number. The server acknowledges the client seen by sending a segment with the ACK flag. The acknowledgement ID is equal to the client scene plus one. The SYN segment in the same flag is also raised. The server specifies its own initial sequence ID. The client sends an ACK back with the acknowledgement ID that is equal to the server SYN plus one.” 1. The initiator sends a Synchronize Sequence Number( SYN) to the desired TCP device. 2. The desired TCP device to connect with sends its own SYN and an Acknowledgment 3. Then lastly the third part, the initiator accepts and acknowledges the connection/SYN of the desired device and sends data. 15. The purpose of the DNS database is to translate computer names into IP addresses. It keeps a table of the URL’s visited and stores them as IP address. 16. DNS works in a series of steps. Those steps are what the computer follows in order to turn the human-readable web address into a IP address that can be read by the computer. “The clients are called resolvers and the servers are called name servers. A host computer contacts a computer name, whereupon a DNS server connects the name to an IP address.” It requests the domain name; if the domain name isn’t stored locally then it asks the recursive DNS server. If they don’t have the answer, the computer then asks the root nameserver. The root nameserver asks TLD nameservers which directs the computer to the authoritative DNS server which retrieves the answer, and that answer is sent to the computer. 17. The ACK bit determines whether the 32-bit field is used. In the case that it wasn’t there the 32- bit field would always have to be used, if necessary acknowledging a byte that had already acknowledged. It is important to note that the ACK bit isn’t really necessary for normal data traffic. 18. No one would be able to map between IP address and domain names. Because of this, the only way that we would be able to access Web pages would be by using the IP address of the host server instead of the domain name. That sounds simple, but the problem is that most people don’t know the IP addresses of the servers that they access, making the use of Internet almost impossible to use.


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