WildlifeFINALstudyguide.pdf FW 104
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This 30 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mikaela Maldonado on Saturday December 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to FW 104 at Colorado State University taught by Nicole K M Vieira; Ann L Randall ; Tyler Ryde Swarr in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 227 views. For similar materials see Wildlife Ecology and Conservation (GT-SC2) in Animal Science and Zoology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 12/12/15
Concepts Vocabulary Important topics pointed out in class sub topic Gene Decker’s Lecture Ownership of wildlife is by the people. It is the responsibility of the people to take care of and preserve the biodiversity of the world around them. BIODIVERSITY - diversity of life; includes genetic, species, community, and ecosystem diversity as well as ecological processes. CONSERVATION BIOLOGY - an integrative approach to the protection and management of biodiversity. BIOLOGY - study of living organisms and their vital processes (Webster) NATURAL RESOURCE - product and/or experience provided by the earth and having value to humans. Wildlife Values AESTHETIC (esthetics) - possessing qualities that are appreciated for their beauty or emotional values. Economic – the effect that the wildlife is known to have on the economic stability that they are a part of Recreational – how can wildlife be important to the general “fun” that society associates them with Scientific/educational – what can we learn from wildlife; how can preserving wildlife improve education; study environmental conditions and relationships Ecological – ECOLOGY - study of interrelationships among living systems, e.g., organisms or populations, and their environments Cultural – some wildlife species are critical to cultures and religious beliefs; history, folklore, symbols, religions, personal “totem” or what is important to individuals Societal – how can having or not having the wildlife affect social structure and our day to day social structure; vacations, festivals, sales taxes, fishing, hunting, relax Ethical – morals; how can having wildlife be important to moral values; “save all the parts” Negative – how can wildlife negatively affect people; crops and livestock loss, landscaping, disease vectors vehicle accidents, human injury Economics of Wildlife Licensing can provide some of the largest income source for conservation Wildlife watching is the most common and largest source of revenue in association for wildlife Biology ALLELE - any of two or more alternative forms of a gene that occupy the same locus on a chromosome. In a diploid organism one allele is taken from each parent EVOLUTION - a change in allele frequency over time MUTATIONS- random changes in DNA molecules (ACTG sequence) that make up genes. ADAPTATION - genetically controlled structural, physiological, or behavioral characteristics that enhance the chances for members of a population to survive and reproduce in their environment. Genes – “sentences that spell out how to construct proteins which produce traits DNA found on structures in every cell called chromosomes Codons – 3 base pairs; form a “word” Locus – position of the gene sequence on a chromosome Heterozygous – different alleles from each parent Homozygous – identical alleles from each parent Genotype – individuals genetic blueprint Phenotype – what an individual looks like Genotypic variation – difference in genetic makeup of individuals Phenotypic variation – difference in morphological, physiological or behavior characteristics GENETIC VARIABILITY - amount by which individuals in a population differ from one another due to their genetic makeup. Mutation – change in DNA sequence Evolution – change in genetic composition of a population over time NATURAL SELECTION - the process of genetically different individuals with a higher survival potential in a given environment leaving more progeny; differential survival and reproduction of organisms based on genetic differences. The Red Queen Hypothesis Run as fast as you can in order to try to stay in place; proposes that organisms must constantly adapt, evolve, and proliferate not merely to gain reproductive advantage, but also simply to survive while pitted against ever- evolving competition and habitats – you must run as fast as you can just to not fall behind that sounds exhausting Co-evolutionary arms race – each species is trying to get the upper hand on others in its environment Genetic drift – random change in allele frequency in small/reduced populations Inbreeding – mating between relative increases the frequency of homozygous individuals SPECIATION - formation of a new species 1. long linear change due to environmental changes 2. splitting into 2 populations through distribution in different areas (geographic isolation) 3. reproductive isolation - if geographic isolation is long enough then 2 groups may no longer interbreed and begin to diverge because of different selective pressures until they can't interbreed and produce fertile offspring Community Interactions AMENSALISM - interaction between 2 animals or species where one is harmed and one is unaffected. COEVOLUTION - Two species interacting over a long period, changes in one species can lead to changes in another. COMMENSALISM - interaction between 2 animals or species where one benefits and one is unaffected. MUTUALISM - An interaction between 2 animals or species where both benefit. COMPETITION - simultaneous need for a limited resource by individuals of the same species (intraspecific) or >1 species (interspecific). PREDATION - interaction where prey is killed and the predator benefits. PARASITISM - interaction where host is hurt and the parasite benefits. RECRUITMENT - # of new individuals reaching breeding age DISEASE - any condition that impairs vital function of an animal, e.g., malnutrition, infection, parasites, and deformities. Ecology – science of relationships of organisms to their environment Levels of Organization o Individual o POPULATION - group of animals of one species that inhabit a particular area and that can interact with each other. o COMMUNITY - an assemblage of populations that live in an environment and interact with one another. o ECOSYSTEM - community of different species interacting with one another and with their nonliving environment of matter and energy. ABIOTIC - nonliving portion of the community. BIOTIC - living portion of the community. Nutrients cycle and energy flows through the ecosystem ENVIRONMENT - the complex of all physical and biological conditions of an organism's surroundings. o ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT- management of ecosystems for the sustainable use of biological resources and conservation of biodiversity. o AGE STRUCTURE - distribution of the number of individuals of various ages. Species – group of populations that actually or potentially interbreed w/ each other and produce viable offspring; reproductively isolated from other groups Classification Kinky people come over for good … soup Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Habitat - an animal's "address" or specific surroundings in which it is normally found; suitable habitat must exist within an animal's Habitat provides welfare factors for a species WELFARE FACTORS - life requirements for healthy, productive wild animals; provided by the animal's habitat (food, water, cover, space, oxygen in aquatice systems). DECIMATING FACTORS - various immediate causes of death; often a result of limiting conditions of welfare factors. o Food CARNIVORES - feed on other consumers (meat eaters); secondary and tertiary consumers. OMNIVORE - an animal that eats a varied diet of plants (herbivorous) and animal foods (carnivorous). HERBIVORES - primary consumers (plant-eaters) that feed directly on other producers. HETEROTROPHS – organism that food sources rather than through photosynthesis. CONSUMERS - organisms, which get organic nutrients by feeding on the tissues of producers or other consumers. AUTOTROPHS – producers; organism that uses carbon dioxide obtained through photosynthesis as its main or sole source of carbon. DETRITIVORES - live off detritus (parts of dead organisms and waste)(detritus feeders and decomposers). Specialist vs generalist FOOD CHAIN - pathways over which energy moves through an ecosystem. FOOD WEBS - network of complex feeding relationships. o Tropic levels –feeding levels within a food chain o Water 20% loss leads to death o cover/shelter topography, water, vegetation, varies with seasons o Space TERRITORY - part or all of a home range that is defended by an animal against others of the same species. HOME RANGE - the area traversed by an animal in its normal daily activities; home range may vary with seasons. DISPERSAL - permanent abandonment of a home range (synonymous with emigration, i.e., a one-way movement). IMMIGRATION - one-way movement into a new home range (vs. "emigration" out of an area). IMMIGRATION RATE - # of animals entering the population over a specified time period. EMIGRATION RATE - # of animals leaving the population over a specified time period. Ecosystem services – processes through which ecosystems and their biota benefit humans (flood control, food production, commerce, etc.) NICHE - the "profession" of an animal or species; its ecological functions or role in its habitat/ecosystem. o fundamental niche - full potential characterization of all physical, chemical, and biological factors that a species needs to live, grow, and reproduce in an ecosystem. o realized niche - portion of fundamental niche actually occupied by a species. May be restricted by competitive interactions PRINCIPLE OF COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION - no two species can occupy exactly the same fundamental niche.; the inevitable elimination from a habitat of one of two different species with identical needs for resources LIMITING FACTOR - a welfare factor that is in short supply and restricts population growth; often, one welfare factor will be in shortest supply and thus will be the minimum limiting factor. LAWS OF TOLERANCE (SHELFORD) 1. Organisms can have broad tolerance ranges for some factors and narrow tolerance ranges for other factors. 2. Organisms with broad tolerance ranges for many factors are likely to be widely distributed as a species. 3. When the level of one factor changes, the tolerance range for another factor may also change. 4. Limits of tolerance and optimum levels may vary in time, space and among individuals of a species. 5. In nature, organisms often live with factors not at optimum. 6. The reproductive period is most often critical, when tolerance is lowest for non-optimal levels of a factor. Energy LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS 1st Law of Thermodynamics (law of conservation of energy) – Energy can only be transformed, not created or destroyed. 2nd Law of Thermodynamics - As food is passed from one organism to another, the Potential Energy contained in the food supply is reduced step by step until all the E in the system becomes dissipated as heat. The original source of energy is the sun. Pyramid of Energy As you go up food chains, only 10% of the energy is given to the next level through consumption. 90% of the energy is used up through metabolic activities. Pyramid of Numbers (biomass) – number of individuals available decreases as you go up a food chain Scientific Method SCIENCE – knowledge covering general truths or the operation of general laws especially as obtained and tested through the scientific method. Observation – develops a question on something that is seen Hypothesis – answer the questions; uses “because” Prediction – if/then statement; can directly be tested Theory – formed off of evidence from testing; commonly assumed Law – tested to be valid beyond a doubt Effective management takes into account the target species, welfare factors and limiting factors, human and societal values or impacts Management plans in particular for grizzly bears and Florida panthers is to try and provide corridors for movement and gene flow between population groups FRAGMENTATION - separation and isolation of habitat areas. DISPERSION - distribution pattern or spatial arrangement of animals, e.g., random, clumped or uniformly spaced. INTERSPERSION - arrangement of habitats, i.e., the intermixing of habitats, affecting amount and types of edges MANAGEMENT - control by humans (does not necessarily specify any particular action by humans). MULTIPLE USE - a philosophy of conservation that advocates simultaneous management for >1 resource on an area. WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT - the application of scientific knowledge and technical skills to protect, conserve, limit, or enhance wildlife populations WILDLIFE - nondomesticated animals in their natural environments CARRYING CAPACITY (K) - number of animals that a habitat can support (a characteristic of habitat). o Social carrying capacity-human ideals a little bit below the natural threshold Might not want wildlife destroying gardens and land used by people Thus limits carrying capacity due to human intervention Direct management – the deliberate intervention on the animals within a species Concern on what to do with wildlife Increase/decrease/maintain Local Colorado examples Moose and chukar (introductions via translocation to new areas) Bighorn sheep and mule deer (culling- for disease) * culling is the deliberate human intention to go directly manage a population by killing some of the species Plains sharp-tail grouse (reintroductions to native habitat) Indirect management- manipulation of a habitat or indirect affects on animals (not directly managing Habitat alteration Prey manipulation Education to promote conservation ethic CONSERVATION – sustained use of a resource Local Colorado examples Creating wetlands for waterfowl Stabilizing islands for breeding pelicans Controlled burn for bighorn sheep forage Nest platforms for osprey CRP for plains sharp-tailed grouse Game o Overall is managed through licensing o Small game Small mammals, bird, reptiles Larger bag limits-- maximum daily kill allowed by law for a hunter; called "creel limit" for anglers, e.g., "6 trout per day". R selected=fast recovery Sage grouse Aldo leopold “small game is the phenomenon of edges” Pheasants Directly managed through stocking- putting a lot of birds in each area Sandhill cranes Can hunt in CO with state and federal permit Like sand bars (COVER - any structural resource of the environment that enhances survival of an animal, e.g., hiding or nesting cover.) o Nesting o Easy food source Waterfowl migration routes are called flyways MIGRATION - round-trip journey, usually between separate ranges used in different seasons. Migratory birds affect multiple regions Mourning dove – hunting regulations vary Prairie dogs Can control on private land as a nuisance, but need small game license on public land 98% decline led to proposal to list as federally threatened o THREATENED - likely to become "endangered"; legal term when threatened status is declared by U.S. Dept. of Interior. o ENDANGERED - in imminent jeopardy of extinction; legally endangered when status is declared by U.S. Dept. Interior. o EXTINCTION - disappearance of a species from the Earth USFWS denied protection Ecosystem engineer and keystone species-disproportional affect on structure on food webs due to presence o Big game: mountain lions, bears, ungulates -a hoofed mammal, e.g., deer, elk, moose, bighorn sheep, pronghorn (antelope), horses, cattle. Biggest concerns: over population where not hunted, social k exceeded??, over-browse human lands causing public damage, disease within a large population, human/wildlife conflict Predator hunts are allowed to prevent such livestock loss, keep humans safe, maintain other big game species, and profits from trophy money Turkey are classified as big game according to hunting regulations in CO. o Furbearers-controversial Ex: beavers= ecosystem engineers-organisms that change structure of the landscape/environment LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY - the study of how landscape structure affects the abundance and distribution of organisms. Dams kill trees, reroute water, provide fish habitat Engineers came up with design still allow water flow below dams Non game – not hunted o Endangered o Contributes to watchable wildlife o POACH - to illegally take fish or wildlife FUN FACT: The largest herd of elk in North America is in Colorado. FUN FACT (2): Deer is the most harvest big game species nationwide. o White tailed deer usually run with tail up and have a rack with a stick with prongs off it. o More people are killed from car collisions with deer than wolf attacks o Mule deer usually run with tail down and have a white booty patch. Their rack is made of a fork Common Management Errors Small scale – implementation and understanding Open systems Missing life history and ecology Over-simplification No evaluation of management impacts DENSITY - number of animals in a given area. DENISTY-DEPENDENT FACTORS – factors that cause higher mortality or reduced birth rates as a popn becomes denser. DENSITY-INDEPENDENT FACTORS – factors that operate independent of popn density. Density-dependent factors Intraspecific competition for resources predation, disease, etc logistic growth model based on operation of Density Dependent factors SIGMOID (LOGISTIC) GROWTH MODEL - "S"-shaped curve of population growth; assumes a suitable environment and limiting resources (density dependence). EXPONENTIAL GROWTH MODEL - "J"-shaped curve of population growth; assumes unlimited resources. Density-independent of population density Nothing to do with how big the population is Weather, accidents, etc LIFE HISTORY STRATEGY - r & K species use suites of reproductive adaptations to fit their environment. (For example r-selected species have many, smaller young with no parental care, while K-selected species produce fewer, larger young that received extended parental care.) “r-selected” life history strategies adaptations for rapid population growth reproduce rapidly, highly mortality, rapid turnover of generations, good dispersal, little effort in young, many offspring, poor competitors better adapted for unstable/transient habitat conditions (Early-mid succession pioneers) a lot of fluctuations in populations “K-selected” life histories competition for resources is intense, good competitors stable but limiting low reproductive rates, few offspring, more effort into young (feeding, defense from predators) adapted for stable habitat (climax communities) CLIMAX - "final" stage of ecological succession that remains in dynamic equilibrium for relatively long time. SUCCESSION - process of community development over time until a relatively stable stage in community development is reached which is called a climax (community). SERAL STAGES – overlapping phases within succession. ECOTONE - transition zone which has its own unique species plus species of the adjacent intergrading communities. EDGE (edge effect) - boundary zone between different habitats (abundance & variety of wildlife is often great in edge). Wildlife Tracking Learn: Harvest rate Population size Birthrates and mortality BIRTH OR NATALITY RATE - number of births per number of individuals over a specified time period. NATALITY - births; # of young within a specified period Age and growth Study lifetime of a marked animal is difficult R selected species are much easier Tooth wear Invasive or non invasive Document food/habitat type Non-invasive: scat and pellet analysis; behavior observation Invasive: stomach analysis – live or dead Movement-dispersal/home range Catching and handling wildlife Safety Process quickly, quietly, and carefully Reduces drugs needed, struggle, and injury Trapping, netting, darting Noninvasive “capture” Remote cameras Track plates Hair snares Scat Marking animals - invasive Permanent, semi-permanent – tags – collars, some radio telemetry collars, tattoos, bands, toe clipping, PIT tags Bird banding Small tag in ear Try to make the same color PIT tag Passive integrated transponder Think a microchip like in dogs Nonpermanent Dyes, hair clipping, toenail clipping, drop off collars Low tech tracking Mark and recapture of individuals Small mammal trapping on a grid Recapture or harvest of a banded bird Allow tracking of movement High tech: radio telemetry Collars, backpacks Hiking with reception GPS collars Allow location frequencies all the time Physiological information from the animal as well Doppler Radar (non invasive) look at population size as a whole not for individual based study Fisheries An exploited population of aquatic animals Not just fish Broader view Aquatic biota interacting with the environment Three interacting components Biota ABIOTIC - nonliving portion of the community. Aquatic plants & animals Habitat On land & in water Humans Recreation & commercial Important 2.9 billion people rely solely on fish for protein 200 billion pounds per year jobs recreation other industries? Aquaponics Aquarium Research The worlds largest fishery is the Peruvian Anchovies (Anchoveta) Goal of Fishery Management Gather information & apply knowledge to: Sustainable use Commercial harvest/use Recreational opportunity Fishing is one of the first activity children can do at a young age Aquarium trade SUSTAINABLE - Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability to meet the needs of the future Conservation of biodiversity Big picture- so much unknown Human health Mercury loads in fish Over 1 part per million Much of mercury poising comes from china and India air pollution Data collection Passive capture Gill nets Fish come to the trap Trap (fyke nets) Calm water Like a maze Long lines, pot, or catfish traps Like tuna or mackerel Careful about by catch-something you don’t want is caught Mist nets can be used to capture bats and birds Active capture Seining Beach seine Like corralling fish Purse seine Lake Commercial Weighted bottoms that are closed off Dolphins used as indicators as location for tuna-causing much of dolphin by catches INDICATOR SPECIES - serves as an early warning that a community or an ecosystem is being damaged. Stream seines Go through a pool Trawl Big and small Net behind a boat $$$ lots of damage to ecosystems electrofishing boat barge backpack Non capture Hydroacoustics SONAR Creel survey Ask anglers what they got Snorkel/scuba Counting towers Literal tower placed to count fish that cross a line What kind of measurements and data do we need to collect? Sicklids eat weird things like scales…eyeballs…etc Species Age and sex Length, weight Reproductive condition Health and disease Movement Habitat use Diet Mortality, recruitment Scales can lead to information about scale ridges and length of fish If there are no scales then the bones in fins such as in catfish can be cut out and used in a similar way to diagnose age. Marking Fin clipping Tattoos Floy tags PIT tags Otoliths Fish movement PIT tags and reader station Telemetry/GPS The fishery Manager’s Toolbox Habitat Eggs need clean aerated substances Juvenile need habitat to hide in/ adults need places for ambush Hatcheries Fish not as fit as wild fish because natural selective forces are not in play Can be released as a bigger size than natives improving success NATIVE SPECIES - normally live and thrive in a particular ecosystem. INDIGENOUS - found where it/they evolved and generally limited to that area; pronghorn are indigenous to N. Am. Get treated with antibiotics Mercury loading through feed: hatchery feed uses Hg-contaminated fish Harvest Manage fish size and age structure Fish between 6 and 36 inches are protected Below harvest-rapid reproduction and high population density Harvest- trophy fish- low density or chance of catch Maximum Sustained Yield: # of fish can be maintained at ½ K will produce the max number of fish to be harvested each year Intentional removals: removing non native fish which are killing or outcompeting natives 67 nonnatives introduced in CO River since 1900 40+ sport & nongame species in Upper Basin remove non natives by catch and transplant or “take all you can” fishing derbys Human education Pollution abatement-restrictment on bottom trawls Bait bucketing –dumping fish where they don’t belong $100000 fine & a year in jail Rainbow trout Bread and butter of Colorado Green back cutthroat State fish of CO Hybrid Vigor-fish do not put energy into reproductive qualities so are able to devote all energy to fast and huge growth History of Wildlife Management Tool to figure out what to do next Prehistoric people and wildlife Food collected by hunting/gathering Mammoth, mastodon, ground sloth, camelops Clicker Question- Do you think that prehistoric people contributed significantly to Pleistocene extinctions (woolly mammoths, for example)? Lindenmeier Site-Near fort Collins-11000 years old has prehistoric tools Pleistocene extinctions options Climate change Disease Humans – “overkill” hypothesis Historic People &Wildlife As we moved to an agrarian (farming) lifestyle, land conversion had the largest effects on wildlife Animal domestication Wild stock was now undesirable Overgrazing Predators persecuted Growing human population Dynamic growth-exponential after industrial revolution and the plague Antibiotics 1500 AD humans occupied all major ecosystems in North America different cultures Native Americans Wildlife were the basis of life for tribes Respected nature; spiritual view of nature and were more closely tied together Europeans Dominion, fear, use/exploitation Tragedy of the Commons Idea that everybody shares a resource, that the resource will be over used and trampled because there is no one to take responsibility for the protection and accountability. Depleting the common resource is contrary to the group’s long-term best interest Wildlife were essentially abundant-downfall Market Hunting Era or Era of Exploitation (1850-1899) duty to tame the land “myth of superabundance” Clicker Question: Which animal went extinct between 1850 and 1900 in North America? Passenger pigeon Passenger Pigeon Described as clouds that darkened the sky Gregarious, large flocks, one egg per clutch, mast Tied to food source tied to development of a city Demand, railroads, telegraph-hunting and radioing information to kill more birds, forest habitat-mast Robins 1 market hunter sold 120000 to hotels and restaurants Waterfowl Punt guns-1 load = 10 modern shotgun shells Trumpeter swans Fashion Bison – 30 million in 1860 to 150 in the wild in 1889 Industrial revolution- machine belts Military conflicts Repeating rifles Railroads Carolina parakeet Native to US SE Habitat, hunting Gone by 1870 Preservation Era (1900-1929) PRESERVATION - “Hands off” - no manipulation of a species or its habitat Legal protections Yellowstone National Park…(US Grant 1872) National Park Service (Woodrow Wilson 1916) John Muir (preservation view) Sierra club Theodore Roosevelt – Conservation President st 1 Forest Preserves Gifford Pinchot 1 chief of US Forest in 1905 proposed concept of sustainable use of forest (Wise Use-became more political to progressive development and use of wildlife) Era of Game Management “Conservation Era” (1930-1965) Game management by Aldo Leopold in 1933 “founder of American wildlife management Sand county almanac Great Depression, Dust bowl in the 1930s Civilian Conservation Corps- work for people in depression (plant trees, improve parks, develop natural parks, predator elimination) Franklin Roosevelt Ding Darling Cartoonist about the environment Appointed to the biological survey (USFWS) Duck stamp – funds for wetlands National Wildlife Federation Sanibel NWR-Mangroves Pultizers Soil Conservation Service (NRCS) Bureau of Land Management (BLM) The Wildlife Society (Game spp emphasis-much more broad now) Who ushered in the environmental era? Rachel Carson Silent Spring-Organic Chemistry why Scientist who knew how to turn that into effective community Marine biologist Bioaccumulation vs bio magnification Polar Bear article that we read – pesticides live in top predators a lot Eagles flushing nests problems Bioaccumulation The increase in the concentration of a substance in a organism or a part of that organism Bio magnification The increase in the concentration of a substance in a food chain, no an organism Environmental Era (1966-1984) Silent Spring (1959) – effects of DDT Environmentalists Endangered Species Act of 1973 National Environmental Policy Act (1970) EPA Present Era 1990s to… Conservation biology Biodiversity Animal rights Ecosystem Management Human dimensions Clicker Question: How will wildlife historians in the next century write about this era and our actions towards wildlife? Burmese Pythons Semi aquatic Released by owners Eastern diamond back and eastern indigo snake are susceptible to being over run Over 17 tagged pythons have been rereleased into the park to try and gain more knowledge o Judas method – reveals information about whereabouts for other snakes Chemical pheromones, dog tracking, and traps are being developed to try and manage the snakes The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission now requires eligible buyers of exotic pets that are deemed "reptiles of concern" to purchase an annual state permit, to submit documentation of experience in the care of such animals, and to have a computer chip containing information about the owner implanted in each snake. Endangered Species Act Rich natural heritage is of “esthetic, ecological, educational, recreational, and scientific value to our Nation and its people.” To protect and recover imperiled species or subspecies and the ecosystems upon which they depend FWS (fish and wildlife service) and NMFS (national marine fisheries service) administer the ESA o FWS – terrestrial and freshwater organisms o MFS – marine wildlife Evaluation o 1. Damage to habitat o 2. Overutilization of species for commercial, recreational, scientific, or education purposes o 3. Disease or predation o 4. Inadequacy of existing protection o 5. Natural or manmade factors that affect the continued existence of the species take - to harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect or attempt to engage in any such conduct harm – act in which wildlife is killed or injured. May include habitat modification or degradation where it kills or injures wildlife by significantly impairing essential behavioral patterns, including breeding, feeding, or sheltering plants are not protected from take states may have their own laws goal is to recover species organizations can gain approval as long as it is proven to not likely jeopardize the continued existence requires critical habitat-space necessary biologically or physically to the survival of a species- be established when “prudent and determinable” o may be space not currently occupied by the species, but could serve the necessary requirements for the species survival 2/3rds of federally listed species have habitat on private land landowners can develop land inhabited by endangered species through the development of an approved conservation plan (HCP) o assessment of likely impacts on species from action o steps that will be taken to avoid, minimize, mitigate the impacts o proof of funding to take such steps Safe Harbor Agreements – non-federal landowners who volunteer to aid in recovery of a listed species by improving or maintaining wildlife habitat o Landowners manage enrolled property to agreed baseline conditions o Documentation that is required as part of an application for an incidental take permit Candidate Conservation Agreements – voluntary agreements between landowners and other parties to reduce or remove threats to at-risk species o Design conservation measures and monitor effectiveness of plan implementation Candidate Conservation Agreements with Assurances – non federal landowners volunteer to conserve at risk species so ESA isn’t needed. o Landowners receive assurances that if species is covered by CCAA, they just need to do what is in agreement and will receive an enhancement of survival permit o Agreement with participating property owners that if they engage in certain conservation practices, they will not have to implement additional conservation measures should the at-risk species eventually be liste Conservation Banks – permanently protected and managed lands as mitigation for loss elsewhere of at risk species and their habitat - lands that are permanently managed for threatened, endangered, or candidate species to offset adverse impacts to these species that occurred elsewhere o Free market enterprise o Benefits species so small isolated groups that are trying to recover can have a grouped effect to improve efficiency and success Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora o 175 nation agreement to monitor trade and effects on species endangerment tradegy of the commons – everyone’s problem so anything that I do won’t have nearly any effect on the population Gill net – form of passive capture that involves the fish swimming into a stationary net that catches onto their gills Gyre – the wind currents that create the unflushable toilet of trash in the ocean – in these places plastic outnumbers plankton and is creating islands of trash in the ocean Hypoxic zone – area where there is little to no oxygen Point pollution – pollution where the source can be directly pointed to ex. A single pipe feeding into oceans Non point source pollution –loss of wetlands, hypoxic zones, and eutrophication can all result from pollution that comes from a variety of sources that can not be pointed at ex. Surface run off WATERSHED – drainage basin; land area that delivers water via streams to rivers and ultimately to the ocean. EUTROPHICATION – process of nutrient enrichment in aquatic ecosystems. LOTIC - flowing waters, e.g., streams and rivers. LENTIC - standing waters, e.g., ponds, lakes, and reservoirs (vs. "lotic" waters). NET PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY - difference between photosynthesis (production) and respiration (use) of biomass. Disturbances Anthropogenic – human caused disturbance in the habitat or well being of a species Natural – typhoons, hurricanes, avalanches Discreet – one point in time Continuous- occurs over long intervals Deforestation – largest cause is cattle farming in Brazil albeto – reflection of the suns rays on the ice caps back into space Grumbine’s Theories Goals: 1. Viable populations 2. Native ecosystem types 3. Ecological processes maintained 4. Long time periods – enough to maintain and evolve 5. Accommodate human use and occupancy 10 Dominant Themes: 1. Hierarchical Context (systems/scale) – systems perspective, all levels must be able to work together 2. Ecological Boundaries – grizzlies management boundaries in Yellowstone park 3. Ecological Integrity – protecting native diversity, conservation of viable populations of native species, maintaining natural disturbance regimes, reintroduction of native, extirpated species, representation of ecosystems across natural ranges of variation 4. Data Collection 5. Monitoring – evaluation of the data collection 6. Adaptive Management – flexibility, scientific knowledge is provisional and focuses on management 7. Interagency Cooperation – federal, state, local management 8. Organizational Change 9. Humans embedded in nature 10. Values Marine Wildlife Primary productivity- the rate at which primary producers capture and store energy in given interval Gross primary productivity – the total rate of photosynthesis for an ecosystem during specified interval Net primary productivity – the rate of energy storage in plant tissues minus metabolic activities that use energy Photosynthesis & respiration Open oceans have one of the lowest production rates and estuaries have one of the highest per square meter Open oceans cover 71% of Earth’s surface Pelagic and benthic zones One simple ocean zone classification is between the water and the ocean floor Benthic is tied to the ocean floor- benthos species BENTHIC – on or near the bottom of an aquatic system. LITTORAL - zone of a lake that is near the shore where rooted vegetation can grow; usually <2 m deep. LIMNETIC - zone of a lake that is far from shore, beyond where rooted vegetation can grow; usually >2 m deep. Nekton – pelagic species – water pelagic species PELAGIC - characteristic of deep, open water in the ocean or in large lakes; e.g., pelagic zone or pelagic fishes. Plankton MACROPHYTES – aquatic plants. Float Zooplankton (small animals) Photoplankton (algae) Nekton Actively more the current Fish (vertebrates) invertebrase- squid Benthos – Sea floor Coral (stuck) or crab (moving) gyres wind currents create eddies that hold the debris 6x more plastic than plankton plankton produce more o2 than all life on earth Reptile Lay eggs, hard shell INCUBATION - period (or process) of development of embryo within eggs; requires heat from "sitting" parent in birds. Scales, plates, shells Nails Ectothermic Lungs Miniture adults Amphibian Have a larval stage Breathe through their skin Moist smooth skin Ectothermic Lungs/gills Lay soft gel-like eggs metamorphisis 1/3 are threatened half in decline Boreal toad high elevations in CO listed species in CO Chytrid fungus that interferes with respiration Cane Toad High reproduction High toxicity Eat frogs and other animals Equivalent to the bull frog in the US Invasive species introduced as biological control Ornate Box Turtle Over collection for food, pet, biological supply houses Nebraska Harlequin Frog species in Costa Rica 2/3s extinct disease and indirect effects from rising temperatures most species are moving up in altitude and north due to climate change Feral Swine FERAL - a previously domestic animal that has become established in the wild, e.g., feral cats, feral horses. destructive to soil and crops through rooting carry disease aggressive spreading rapidly possible source of food?? Introduced species – the intentional or unintentional escape, release, discrimination, or placement of a species into an ecosystem as a result of human activity Invasive species – an alien (non-native to the area, exotic) species whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm to human health EXOTIC - species of wildlife or fish that are not native to an area but introduced. Feral species – previously domesticated animal – now roaming wild Indicator species – population can be examined as a means to monitor the health of the ecosystem that they are in Umbrella species – species whose well being affect other species and whose downfall affect a large number of species as well Grizzly Populations in GYA Listed as threatened in 1975 Only 125 bears left Recovery goals 48 reproducing females, <9% mortality Goals met, delisted in 2007 First eat elk calves/carcasses, trout, army cutworm moths, and whitebark pine seeds Relisted in 2009, upheld in 2011 Pine seeds food source becomes rare Need more than 500 bears <6.7% mortality rates food source threats must be addressed bears soon to be delisted regardless of the nuts that are falling now have >700 bears super k selected species as a whole what are the issues concerning other bears? Species genetic exchange potential Need corridors Endangered status “warranted but precluded” in 3 populations: Cabibet – Yaak, Selkirks, Selway-Bitterroot In Selway if reintroduced will be non-essential Blister rust and whitebark pin nuts recovery? Climate change issues Was the reason for the bears being relisted Gray Wolf Historic distribution World: much of n. hemisphere Most of U.S. Extirpated from lower 48 Listed under ESA in 1970s Hunting and trapping wiped out the wolves-not cryptic Drama involved with the status of the gray wolf More people die from deer collisions in cars than wolf attacks Natural colonization from Canada and Minnesota into Michigan and wolves moving down from Canada into MT and WA Wyoming left the wolf listed as a predator through its reintroduction- very controversial Rocky Mnt. Gray Wolf Reintroduction Yellowstone, Idaho 1995 experimental/non-essential more flexibility for adjustment but treated like threatened could remove/kill problem wolves listed but can be moved or killed Recovery: Breeding pair and acceptable management plans in each state Reintroduction was greatly successful Cons of Reintroduction Hunters: wolves take game Ranchers: wolves take livestock Public: wolves kill people Only 1 fatal attack in NA since 1900 Environmental groups wanted the wolves to trickle in naturally Pros of Reintroduction Natural colonization may never happen Laws don’t protect, people do Vital part of ecosystem Make Yellowstone more attractive In Montana and Idaho, wolves are now classified as big game/trophy species Mexican wolf Status: endangered sub-population (2015) Illegal hunting and inbreeding Captive animals reintroduced ~58 in wild in 2011 now 109 & breeding (2014) recovery goals moving benchmarks? 1989, CO Park and Wildlife Commission went on record as opposing reintroduction to CO naturally colonize from south (endangered Mexican wolf or from north (gray wolf) 2004, one found dead in 170 2007 video near Walden, CO 2012 wolf killed by poison Meeker, CO 2015 wolf shot in Kremmling, CO Florida Panther 1970s: reduced to 5% of historical range and only 12-20 left in wild endangered inbreeding depression surviving population too inbred for captive breeding program sterile, heart defects, kinked tail, etc lack of habitat/prey road kill worst year ever (2015) Recovery plan 1994: 6 females from texas released fixed genetics now at 160 adults (2014) goal: 3 viable population of 240 individuals, natural gene flow between them metapopulation- different levels of exchange between sub populations that allow genetic exchange 36000 sq miles of habitat need corridors between lands of conservation monitoring radio collar mark and resight, movement intra specific aggression documented trail cameras Jaguars Hunted/poached to extermination in US NM,AZ,CA, and TX Endangered in US in 1997 Critical habitat just designated Threats- poaching Habitat loss Distrupted corridors Summary of ESA top predators Anti predator sentiments up to 1970s had devastating effects on predator populations National Parks not enough Captive breeding, reintroduction, translocations Controversy/fights with every step Land and human participation critical Colorado Plains Fishes Conservation The Great Plains Largest eco-region in North America Fertile soil Hub of US Agriculture CO Plains Fishes Northern plains killifish Redbelly dace Plains minnow Orangethroat darter Organespotted sunfish Scary because they are very tough fish but they are dying off Conservation Issues Groundwater pumping Ogallala aquifer Water is pumped for agriculture Water table is lowering – CO will be more important Reservoir construction RESERVOIR – large, usually deep, human-made bodies of water, often associated with dams. Sources of predatory and competitive non-natives Alters river habitat upstream and downstream Physical (sediment movement) and temperature Barriers to movement Endemism – and organism that is native to or only exists in a certain area or region Special adaptations Specific habitat to thrive Long nose gar – breathe air adapted to low oxygen environment Orangethroat Darter – really pretty, colorful tiny fish Bighorn sheep, bison, panther Pelagic Spawning Eggs become byounant and float downstream to where they become adults and swim back upstream to spawn again FRY - larval fish; fry of most species become "fingerling" (2-6 in = 5- 15 cm) during first year of life. Fish need to move Spawning, safe heaven environment, feeding habitats ANADROMOUS - returning from saltwater to freshwater to reproduce, e.g., salmon. Reservoirs, grade control structure, irrigation diversions (ditches), culverts (big tube through a stream) speed water velocity up through the tube Most fishes are small <6 inches as adults-limits jumping and swimming ability Even small barriers (2-4 inches) can block migrations and upstream colonization To help… Recharge aquifers Thousands of years Remove barriers to movement Some areas but not applicable everywhere and can be expensive Get fish around the barriers Build fish passage structures Fish passage structures Pool and weir Vertical slot Fish elevators Rock ramp fishway Improving rock ramp fishways Sloped channel, can be built without vertical drops and high velocity areas Higher gradient=higher velocity PIT tags Passive integrated transponder tag Each has a unique code Radio frequency identification Widely used in many animals Species Arkansas darter Threatened Poor swimmer No gas bladder No darter species has ever been PIT tagged Stonecat Special concern Moderate swimmer Clean streams Flathead chub Species of special concern Excellent swimmer Ethics The what and why A belief that something is very important Can shift with society, cultures, and time “Nothing so important as an ethic is ever written, It evolves in the minds of the thinking community.” Philosophy More principles and values-code What you believe is right and wrong A voluntary or culturally-mandated restriction on behavior Native American Spiritual Ethic Spirituality in nature Sitting Bull Transcendental Preservation Ethic Original relation to the universe Emerson, Thoreau “wilderness is the salvation of the world” Resource Conservation Ethic Utilitarian ethic – greatest good for the greatest number for the longest time Pinchot Land ethic- set of moral principles and values humans can develop in relation to the land Leopold- view that the biosphere as an interconnected whole has moral standing Ecological view Ethical sequence st 1nd (the golden rule) relation between individuals 2 : (relation between self and society 3 : relation between humans and land based on economics- focus on right to rather than responsibility for community humans are a member of a community of interdependent parts land ethic includes soil, water, plants, and animals humans become a plain member and citizen rather than a conqueror ecological conscience content of conservation education lacking no obligation – no one held accountable defines no right or wrong calls for no sacrifice net results is the enlightened self interest most members of land community have no economic value but the stability and integrity of the biotic community depends on them outlook ecologist’s golden rule – a thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, beauty of the wildlife NATURAL HISTORY - biology, ecology, habits, and other characteristics of a species FEATURED SPECIES - species selected for management emphasis because of their high value to humans. American Crocodile 4 tooth on the bottom jaw is still visible 500 fold increase in body size from birth to adulthood Southern Florida and Central America location In the world it is endangered, but the US it is threatened Generalist habitat requirements o Saline, human canals, carnivore, digestion reliant on a certain temperature o ESTUARY - highly productive zone where rivers and ocean mix Polygynous reproduction with precocial young; sex is determined through incubation temperature o ALTRICIAL - born or hatched relatively undeveloped and remaining in the nest for a substantial period (vs."precocial"). o PRECOCIAL - born or hatched relatively well-developed and soon able to leave the nest, e.g., ducklings and fawns. o POLYANDRY - mating of 1 female with >1 male within a single reproductive cycle. o POLYGAMY - any mating system that includes more than 1 mate of either sex (see polygyny, polyandry, promiscuity). o POLYGYNY - mating of 1 male with >1 female within a single reproductive cycle. o BIOTIC POTENTIAL: maximum reproductive potential of an organism (rm). o BIRTH OR NATALITY RATE - number of births per number of individuals over a specified time period. * be able to do a calculation o GESTATION - the period (or process) of embryo development within the uterus of a mammal. o MORTALITY OR DEATH RATE - number of deaths per number of individuals over a specified time period. o COMPENSATORY MORTALITY - total mortality remains unchanged as one mortality factor makes up for another. o NATALITY - births; # of young within a specified period o PROMISCUITY - mating between any number of males and females with no pair bonds formed. o MONOGAMY - mating of 1 male and 1 female for 1 reproductive cycle (serial), 1 season (annual), or life. o PRODUCTION - actual # of offspring produced o FECUNDITY - # of eggs produced per female. o FERTILITY - % of eggs that are fertile. Solitary and crepuscular o NOCTURNAL - active in the dark, i.e., during the night o CREPUSCULAR - active during twilight, i.e., at dusk or at dawn. o DIURNAL - active during daylight. Ectothermic Lynx Benchmarks o High survival rates o Reproduction greater than or equal to mortality Lynx vs bobcat o Bigger feet o Bigger in general o No spots o Black tails Decline o Unregulated trapping o Poisoning o Habitat loss Blue-footed Booby Tourists and scientists noticed that the numbers did not appear to be as great as previously Hypothesized that huge concentration of sardines in diet are needed for reproduction and not being met o Overharvest and climate change are guessed to be linked to a cause BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES – movement of chemical elements from organism to physical environment to organism in a more or less circular pathway. Nitrogen is available and necessary for plants in soil Phosphorous does NOT have an atmospheric component to its cycle BIOMES - large, relatively distinct ecosystems characterized by particular climate, soil, plants, and animals.
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