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CSU / Biology / FW 104 / What is biodiversity?

What is biodiversity?

What is biodiversity?


School: Colorado State University
Department: Biology
Course: Wildlife Ecology and Conservation (GT-SC2)
Professor: Nicole swarr
Term: Summer 2015
Cost: 50
Name: WildlifeFINALstudyguide.pdf
Description: I have sorted all the most important topics in class in mostly sequential order in which they were covered. I have color coded the materials into headings such as vocabulary, concepts, things pointed out in class, etc. This is the grand accumulation of everything that I think is important for the Final Exam. Best of luck! Please let me know if you would like a study buddy.
Uploaded: 12/12/2015
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Concepts Vocabulary Important topics pointed out in class sub topic

What is biodiversity?

Gene Decker’s Lecture 

Ownership of wildlife is by the people. It is the responsibility of the people to  take care of and preserve the biodiversity of the world around them.

BIODIVERSITY - diversity of life; includes genetic, species, community, and  ecosystem diversity as well as ecological processes.

CONSERVATION BIOLOGY - an integrative approach to the protection and  management of biodiversity. If you want to learn more check out What has been tried in the past to solve or reduce this problem?
If you want to learn more check out psych 203
Don't forget about the age old question of data structures rutgers

BIOLOGY - study of living organisms and their vital processes (Webster) NATURAL RESOURCE - product and/or experience provided by the earth and  having value to humans.

Wildlife Values 

∙ AESTHETIC (esthetics) - possessing qualities that are appreciated for their  beauty or emotional values.

What is conservation biology?

Don't forget about the age old question of interkinesis and cytokinesis

∙ Economic – the effect that the wildlife is known to have on the economic  stability that they are a part of

∙ Recreational – how can wildlife be important to the general “fun” that  society associates them with

∙ Scientific/educational – what can we learn from wildlife; how can  preserving wildlife improve education; study environmental conditions  and relationships

∙ Ecological – ECOLOGY - study of interrelationships among living systems,  e.g., organisms or populations, and their environments

∙ Cultural – some wildlife species are critical to cultures and religious  beliefs; history, folklore, symbols, religions, personal “totem” or what is  important to individuals We also discuss several other topics like biol 189 unlv

∙ Societal – how can having or not having the wildlife affect social structure  and our day to day social structure; vacations, festivals, sales taxes,  fishing, hunting, relax

What is natural resource?

∙ Ethical – morals; how can having wildlife be important to moral values;  “save all the parts”

∙ Negative – how can wildlife negatively affect people; crops and livestock  loss, landscaping, disease vectors vehicle accidents, human injury Economics of Wildlife 

∙ Licensing can provide some of the largest income source for  conservation

∙ Wildlife watching is the most common and largest source of revenue in  association for wildlife


∙ ALLELE - any of two or more alternative forms of a gene that occupy  the same locus on a chromosome. In a diploid organism one allele is  taken from each parent

∙ EVOLUTION - a change in allele frequency over time

∙ MUTATIONS- random changes in DNA molecules (ACTG sequence) that  make up genes.

∙ ADAPTATION - genetically controlled structural, physiological, or  behavioral characteristics that enhance the chances for members of a  population to survive and reproduce in their environment. We also discuss several other topics like frank and lillian gilbreth studied the psychology of groups

∙ Genes – “sentences that spell out how to construct proteins which  produce traits

∙ DNA found on structures in every cell called chromosomes ∙ Codons – 3 base pairs; form a “word”

∙ Locus – position of the gene sequence on a chromosome ∙ Heterozygous – different alleles from each parent

∙ Homozygous – identical alleles from each parent

∙ Genotype – individuals genetic blueprint

∙ Phenotype – what an individual looks like

∙ Genotypic variation – difference in genetic makeup of individuals ∙ Phenotypic variation – difference in morphological, physiological or  behavior characteristics

∙ GENETIC VARIABILITY - amount by which individuals in a population  differ from one another due to their genetic makeup.

∙ Mutation – change in DNA sequence

∙ Evolution – change in genetic composition of a population over time  ∙ NATURAL SELECTION - the process of genetically different individuals  with a higher survival potential in a given environment leaving more  progeny; differential survival and reproduction of organisms based on  genetic differences.

The Red Queen Hypothesis 

Run as fast as you can in order to try to stay in place; proposes that  organisms must constantly adapt, evolve, and proliferate not merely to gain  reproductive advantage, but also simply to survive while pitted against ever evolving competition and habitats – you must run as fast as you can just to  not fall behind  that sounds exhausting

Co-evolutionary arms race – each species is trying to get the upper hand on  others in its environment

∙ Genetic drift – random change in allele frequency in small/reduced  populations

∙ Inbreeding – mating between relative increases the frequency of  homozygous individuals

∙ SPECIATION - formation of a new species

1. long linear change due to environmental changes

2. splitting into 2 populations through distribution in different areas  (geographic isolation)

3. reproductive isolation - if geographic isolation is long enough then 2  groups may no longer interbreed and begin to diverge because of  different selective pressures until they can't interbreed and produce  fertile offspring

Community Interactions 

∙ AMENSALISM - interaction between 2 animals or species where one is  harmed and one is unaffected.

∙ COEVOLUTION - Two species interacting over a long period, changes in  one species can lead to changes in another.

∙ COMMENSALISM - interaction between 2 animals or species where one  benefits and one is unaffected.

∙ MUTUALISM - An interaction between 2 animals or species where both  benefit.

∙ COMPETITION - simultaneous need for a limited resource by individuals of the same species (intraspecific) or >1 species (interspecific). ∙ PREDATION - interaction where prey is killed and the predator benefits. ∙ PARASITISM - interaction where host is hurt and the parasite benefits. ∙ RECRUITMENT - # of new individuals reaching breeding age ∙ DISEASE - any condition that impairs vital function of an animal, e.g.,  malnutrition, infection, parasites, and deformities.

Ecology – science of relationships of organisms to their environment Levels of Organization

o Individual

o POPULATION - group of animals of one species that inhabit a  particular area and that can interact with each other.

o COMMUNITY - an assemblage of populations that live in an  environment and interact with one another.

o ECOSYSTEM - community of different species interacting with  one another and with their nonliving environment of matter and  energy.

 ABIOTIC - nonliving portion of the community.

 BIOTIC - living portion of the community.

 Nutrients cycle and energy flows through the ecosystem  ENVIRONMENT - the complex of all physical and biological  conditions of an organism's surroundings.

o ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT- management of ecosystems for the  sustainable use of biological resources and conservation of  biodiversity.

o AGE STRUCTURE - distribution of the number of individuals of  various ages.

Species – group of populations that actually or potentially interbreed w/ each  other and produce viable offspring; reproductively isolated from other groups Classification

Kinky people come over for good … soup








Habitat - an animal's "address" or specific surroundings in which it is  normally found; suitable habitat must exist within an animal's ∙ Habitat provides welfare factors for a species

∙ WELFARE FACTORS - life requirements for healthy, productive wild  animals; provided by the animal's habitat (food, water, cover, space,  oxygen in aquatice systems).

∙ DECIMATING FACTORS - various immediate causes of death; often a  result of limiting conditions of welfare factors.

o Food

 CARNIVORES - feed on other consumers (meat eaters);  secondary and tertiary consumers.

 OMNIVORE - an animal that eats a varied diet of plants  (herbivorous) and animal foods (carnivorous).

 HERBIVORES - primary consumers (plant-eaters) that feed  directly on other producers.

 HETEROTROPHS – organism that food sources rather than  through photosynthesis.

 CONSUMERS - organisms, which get organic nutrients by  feeding on the tissues of producers or other consumers.

 AUTOTROPHS – producers; organism that uses carbon  

dioxide obtained through photosynthesis as its main or sole source of carbon.

 DETRITIVORES - live off detritus (parts of dead organisms  and waste)(detritus feeders and decomposers).

 Specialist vs generalist

∙ FOOD CHAIN - pathways over which energy moves  

through an ecosystem.

∙ FOOD WEBS - network of complex feeding  


o Tropic levels –feeding levels within a food chain

o Water

 20% loss leads to death

o cover/shelter

 topography, water, vegetation, varies with seasons

o Space

 TERRITORY - part or all of a home range that is defended  by an animal against others of the same species.

 HOME RANGE - the area traversed by an animal in its  

normal daily activities; home range may vary with seasons.  DISPERSAL - permanent abandonment of a home range  (synonymous with emigration, i.e., a one-way movement).  IMMIGRATION - one-way movement into a new home range (vs. "emigration" out of an area).

∙ IMMIGRATION RATE - # of animals entering the  

population over a specified time period.

∙ EMIGRATION RATE - # of animals leaving the  

population over a specified time period.

∙ Ecosystem services – processes through which ecosystems and their  biota benefit humans (flood control, food production, commerce, etc.) ∙ NICHE - the "profession" of an animal or species; its ecological  functions or role in its habitat/ecosystem.

o fundamental niche - full potential characterization of all physical,  chemical, and biological factors that a species needs to live,  grow, and reproduce in an ecosystem.

o realized niche - portion of fundamental niche actually occupied  by a species.

 May be restricted by competitive interactions

PRINCIPLE OF COMPETITIVE EXCLUSION - no two species can occupy exactly  the same fundamental niche.; the inevitable elimination from a habitat of  one of two different species with identical needs for resources

∙ LIMITING FACTOR - a welfare factor that is in short supply and restricts  population growth; often, one welfare factor will be in shortest supply  and thus will be the minimum limiting factor.


1. Organisms can have broad tolerance ranges for some factors and  narrow tolerance ranges for other factors.

2. Organisms with broad tolerance ranges for many factors are likely to be widely distributed as a species.

3. When the level of one factor changes, the tolerance range for  another factor may also change.

4. Limits of tolerance and optimum levels may vary in time, space and  among individuals of a species.

5. In nature, organisms often live with factors not at optimum. 6. The reproductive period is most often critical, when tolerance is  lowest for non-optimal levels of a factor.



1st Law of Thermodynamics (law of conservation of energy) – Energy  can only be transformed, not created or destroyed.

2nd Law of Thermodynamics - As food is passed from one organism to  another, the Potential Energy contained in the food supply is reduced step by step until all the E in the system becomes dissipated as heat. The original source of energy is the sun.

Pyramid of Energy As you go up food chains, only 10% of the energy is  given to the next level through consumption. 90% of the energy is used up  through metabolic activities.

Pyramid of Numbers (biomass) – number of individuals available  decreases as you go up a food chain

Scientific Method 

SCIENCE – knowledge covering general truths or the operation of  general laws especially as obtained and tested through the scientific method.

Observation – develops a question on something that is seen Hypothesis – answer the questions; uses “because”

Prediction – if/then statement; can directly be tested

Theory – formed off of evidence from testing; commonly assumed Law – tested to be valid beyond a doubt

Effective management takes into account the target species, welfare factors  and limiting factors, human and societal values or impacts

∙ Management plans in particular for grizzly bears and Florida panthers is to try and provide corridors for movement and gene flow between population  groups

∙ FRAGMENTATION - separation and isolation of habitat areas. ∙ DISPERSION - distribution pattern or spatial arrangement of animals,  e.g., random, clumped or uniformly spaced.

∙ INTERSPERSION - arrangement of habitats, i.e., the intermixing of  habitats, affecting amount and types of edges

∙ MANAGEMENT - control by humans (does not necessarily specify any  particular action by humans).

∙ MULTIPLE USE - a philosophy of conservation that advocates  simultaneous management for >1 resource on an area.

∙ WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT - the application of scientific knowledge and  technical skills to protect, conserve, limit, or enhance wildlife populations

∙ WILDLIFE - nondomesticated animals in their natural environments 

∙ CARRYING CAPACITY (K) - number of animals that a habitat can support (a  characteristic of habitat).

o Social carrying capacity-human ideals a little bit below the natural  threshold

 Might not want wildlife destroying gardens and land used by  people

∙ Thus limits carrying capacity due to human intervention

Direct management – the deliberate intervention on the animals within a species  Concern on what to do with wildlife

 Increase/decrease/maintain

 Local Colorado examples

∙ Moose and chukar (introductions via translocation to new  


∙ Bighorn sheep and mule deer (culling- for disease) *  

culling is the deliberate human intention to go directly  

manage a population by killing some of the species

∙ Plains sharp-tail grouse (reintroductions to native habitat)

Indirect management- manipulation of a habitat or indirect affects on animals (not  directly managing

 Habitat alteration

 Prey manipulation

 Education to promote conservation ethic

∙ CONSERVATION – sustained use of a resource

 Local Colorado examples

∙ Creating wetlands for waterfowl

∙ Stabilizing islands for breeding pelicans

∙ Controlled burn for bighorn sheep forage

∙ Nest platforms for osprey

∙ CRP for plains sharp-tailed grouse


o Overall is managed through licensing

o Small game

 Small mammals, bird, reptiles

 Larger bag limits-- maximum daily kill allowed by law for a  

hunter; called "creel limit" for anglers, e.g., "6 trout per day".

 R selected=fast recovery

 Sage grouse

 Aldo leopold “small game is the phenomenon of edges”  

 Pheasants

∙ Directly managed through stocking- putting a lot of birds  

in each area

 Sandhill cranes

∙ Can hunt in CO with state and federal permit

∙ Like sand bars (COVER - any structural resource of the  

environment that enhances survival of an animal, e.g.,  

hiding or nesting cover.)

o Nesting

o Easy food source

 Waterfowl migration routes are called flyways 

∙ MIGRATION - round-trip journey, usually between  

separate ranges used in different seasons.

 Migratory birds affect multiple regions

 Mourning dove – hunting regulations vary

 Prairie dogs

∙ Can control on private land as a nuisance, but need small  

game license on public land

∙ 98% decline led to proposal to list as federally threatened

o THREATENED - likely to become "endangered";  

legal term when threatened status is declared by  

U.S. Dept. of Interior.

o ENDANGERED - in imminent jeopardy of  

extinction; legally endangered when status is  

declared by U.S. Dept. Interior.

o EXTINCTION - disappearance of a species from  

the Earth

∙ USFWS denied protection

∙ Ecosystem engineer and keystone species-disproportional

affect on structure on food webs due to presence

o Big game: mountain lions, bears, ungulates -a hoofed mammal, e.g.,  deer, elk, moose, bighorn sheep, pronghorn (antelope), horses, cattle.  Biggest concerns: over population where not hunted, social k  exceeded??, over-browse human lands causing public damage,  disease within a large population, human/wildlife conflict

 Predator hunts are allowed to prevent such livestock loss, keep  humans safe, maintain other big game species, and profits from  trophy money

 Turkey are classified as big game according to hunting  

regulations in CO.

o Furbearers-controversial

 Ex: beavers= ecosystem engineers-organisms that change  

structure of the landscape/environment

∙ LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY - the study of how landscape structure affects  the abundance and distribution of organisms.

∙ Dams kill trees, reroute water, provide fish habitat

∙ Engineers came up with design still allow water flow  

below dams

∙ Non game – not hunted

o Endangered

o Contributes to watchable wildlife

o POACH - to illegally take fish or wildlife

∙ FUN FACT: The largest herd of elk in North America is in Colorado. ∙ FUN FACT (2): Deer is the most harvest big game species nationwide. o White tailed deer usually run with tail up and have a rack with a stick  with prongs off it.

o More people are killed from car collisions with deer than wolf attacks o Mule deer usually run with tail down and have a white booty patch.  Their rack is made of a fork

Common Management Errors

 Small scale – implementation and understanding

 Open systems

 Missing life history and ecology

 Over-simplification

 No evaluation of management impacts

 DENSITY - number of animals in a given area.

 DENISTY-DEPENDENT FACTORS – factors that cause higher mortality or  reduced birth rates as a popn becomes denser.

 DENSITY-INDEPENDENT FACTORS – factors that operate independent of  popn density.

Density-dependent factors 

 Intraspecific competition for resources

 predation, disease, etc

 logistic growth model based on operation of Density Dependent factors  SIGMOID (LOGISTIC) GROWTH MODEL - "S"-shaped curve of  population growth; assumes a suitable environment and limiting  resources (density dependence).

 EXPONENTIAL GROWTH MODEL - "J"-shaped curve of population  growth; assumes unlimited resources.

Density-independent of population density

 Nothing to do with how big the population is

 Weather, accidents, etc

 LIFE HISTORY STRATEGY - r & K species use suites of reproductive  adaptations to fit their environment. (For example r-selected species have many, smaller young with no parental care, while K-selected species  produce fewer, larger young that received extended parental care.) “r-selected” life history strategies 

 adaptations for rapid population growth

 reproduce rapidly, highly mortality, rapid turnover of generations, good  dispersal, little effort in young, many offspring, poor competitors  better adapted for unstable/transient habitat conditions (Early-mid succession pioneers)

 a lot of fluctuations in populations

“K-selected” life histories 

 competition for resources is intense, good competitors

 stable but limiting

 low reproductive rates, few offspring, more effort into young (feeding,  defense from predators)

 adapted for stable habitat (climax communities)

 CLIMAX - "final" stage of ecological succession that remains in  dynamic equilibrium for relatively long time.

 SUCCESSION - process of community development over time until a  relatively stable stage in community development is reached which  is called a climax (community).

 SERAL STAGES – overlapping phases within succession.

 ECOTONE - transition zone which has its own unique species plus  species of the adjacent intergrading communities.

 EDGE (edge effect) - boundary zone between different habitats  (abundance & variety of wildlife is often great in edge).

Wildlife Tracking  

 Learn:

 Harvest rate

 Population size

 Birthrates and mortality

∙ BIRTH OR NATALITY RATE - number of births per number of individuals  over a specified time period.

∙ NATALITY - births; # of young within a specified period

∙ Age and growth

♦ Study lifetime of a marked animal is difficult

 R selected species are much easier

♦ Tooth wear

 Invasive or non invasive

 Document food/habitat type

∙ Non-invasive: scat and pellet analysis; behavior observation ∙ Invasive: stomach analysis – live or dead

 Movement-dispersal/home range

 Catching and handling wildlife

∙ Safety

∙ Process quickly, quietly, and carefully

∙ Reduces drugs needed, struggle, and injury

∙ Trapping, netting, darting

 Noninvasive “capture” 

∙ Remote cameras

∙ Track plates

∙ Hair snares

∙ Scat

 Marking animals - invasive 

 Permanent, semi-permanent – tags – collars, some radio telemetry collars, tattoos, bands, toe clipping, PIT tags

∙ Bird banding

∙ Small tag in ear

♦ Try to make the same color

∙ PIT tag

♦ Passive integrated transponder

 Think a microchip like in dogs

 Nonpermanent

∙ Dyes, hair clipping, toenail clipping, drop off collars

 Low tech tracking

∙ Mark and recapture of individuals

♦ Small mammal trapping on a grid

♦ Recapture or harvest of a banded bird

♦ Allow tracking of movement

 High tech: radio telemetry

∙ Collars, backpacks

♦ Hiking with reception

∙ GPS collars

♦ Allow location frequencies all the time

♦ Physiological information from the animal as well

∙ Doppler Radar (non invasive)

♦ look at population size as a whole

♦ not for individual based study

 Fisheries 

 An exploited population of aquatic animals

 Not just fish

 Broader view

 Aquatic biota interacting with the environment

 Three interacting components

 Biota 

∙ ABIOTIC - nonliving portion of the community.  

∙ Aquatic plants & animals

 Habitat

∙ On land & in water

 Humans

∙ Recreation & commercial

 Important

 2.9 billion people rely solely on fish for protein

∙ 200 billion pounds per year

 jobs

 recreation

 other industries?

∙ Aquaponics

∙ Aquarium

∙ Research

 The worlds largest fishery is the Peruvian Anchovies (Anchoveta)  Goal of Fishery Management 

 Gather information & apply knowledge to:

∙ Sustainable use

♦ Commercial harvest/use

♦ Recreational opportunity

 Fishing is one of the first activity children can do at a young age ♦ Aquarium trade

 SUSTAINABLE - Meeting the needs of the present without  compromising the ability to meet the needs of the future

∙ Conservation of biodiversity

♦ Big picture- so much unknown

∙ Human health

♦ Mercury loads in fish

♦ Over 1 part per million  

♦ Much of mercury poising comes from china and India air pollution  Data collection

 Passive capture 

∙ Gill nets

∙ Fish come to the trap

∙ Trap (fyke nets)

♦ Calm water

♦ Like a maze

∙ Long lines, pot, or catfish traps

♦ Like tuna or mackerel

♦ Careful about by catch-something you don’t want is caught ∙ Mist nets can be used to capture bats and birds

 Active capture 

∙ Seining

♦ Beach seine

 Like corralling fish

♦ Purse seine

 Lake

 Commercial

 Weighted bottoms that are closed off

 Dolphins used as indicators as location for tuna-causing much of dolphin by catches

 INDICATOR SPECIES - serves as an early warning that a  community or an ecosystem is being damaged.

♦ Stream seines

 Go through a pool

♦ Trawl

 Big and small

 Net behind a boat

 $$$

 lots of damage to ecosystems

♦ electrofishing

 boat

 barge

 backpack

 Non capture

∙ Hydroacoustics


∙ Creel survey

♦ Ask anglers what they got

∙ Snorkel/scuba

∙ Counting towers

♦ Literal tower placed to count fish that cross a line

 What kind of measurements and data do we need to collect?  Sicklids eat weird things like scales…eyeballs…etc

 Species

 Age and sex

 Length, weight

 Reproductive condition

 Health and disease

 Movement

 Habitat use

 Diet  

 Mortality, recruitment

 Scales can lead to information about scale ridges and length of fish ∙ If there are no scales then the bones in fins such as in catfish can be  cut out and used in a similar way to diagnose age.

 Marking

 Fin clipping

 Tattoos

 Floy tags

 PIT tags

 Otoliths

 Fish movement

 PIT tags and reader station

 Telemetry/GPS

 The fishery Manager’s Toolbox 

 Habitat

∙ Eggs need clean aerated substances

∙ Juvenile need habitat to hide in/ adults need places for ambush  Hatcheries

∙ Fish not as fit as wild fish because natural selective forces are not in  play

∙ Can be released as a bigger size than natives improving success ♦ NATIVE SPECIES - normally live and thrive in a particular  ecosystem.

♦ INDIGENOUS - found where it/they evolved and generally  limited to that area; pronghorn are indigenous to N. Am. ♦

∙ Get treated with antibiotics

∙ Mercury loading through feed: hatchery feed uses Hg-contaminated  fish

 Harvest

∙ Manage fish size and age structure

∙ Fish between 6 and 36 inches are protected

♦ Below harvest-rapid reproduction and high population density ♦ Harvest- trophy fish- low density or chance of catch

∙ Maximum Sustained Yield: # of fish can be maintained at ½ K will  produce the max number of fish to be harvested each year

∙ Intentional removals: removing non native fish which are killing or  outcompeting natives

♦ 67 nonnatives introduced in CO River since 1900

♦ 40+ sport & nongame species in Upper Basin

♦ remove non natives by catch and transplant or “take all you can”  fishing derbys

 Human education

∙ Pollution abatement-restrictment on bottom trawls

∙ Bait bucketing –dumping fish where they don’t belong

∙ $100000 fine & a year in jail

 Rainbow trout

 Bread and butter of Colorado  

 Green back cutthroat

 State fish of CO

 Hybrid Vigor-fish do not put energy into reproductive qualities so are able  to devote all energy to fast and huge growth

 History of Wildlife Management

 Tool to figure out what to do next

 Prehistoric people and wildlife

 Food collected by hunting/gathering

 Mammoth, mastodon, ground sloth, camelops

∙ Clicker Question- Do you think that prehistoric people contributed  significantly to Pleistocene extinctions (woolly mammoths, for  


∙ Lindenmeier Site-Near fort Collins-11000 years old has prehistoric tools  Pleistocene extinctions options

∙ Climate change

∙ Disease

∙ Humans – “overkill” hypothesis

 Historic People &Wildlife

 As we moved to an agrarian (farming) lifestyle, land conversion had the  largest effects on wildlife

 Animal domestication

∙ Wild stock was now undesirable

∙ Overgrazing

∙ Predators persecuted

∙ Growing human population

♦ Dynamic growth-exponential after industrial revolution and the  plague

 Antibiotics

♦ 1500 AD humans occupied all major ecosystems in North America  different cultures

∙ Native Americans

♦ Wildlife were the basis of life for tribes

 Respected nature; spiritual view of nature and were more closely tied together

∙ Europeans

♦ Dominion, fear, use/exploitation

♦ Tragedy of the Commons

 Idea that everybody shares a resource, that the resource will be  over used and trampled because there is no one to take  

responsibility for the protection and accountability. Depleting the common resource is contrary to the group’s long-term best  


 Wildlife were essentially abundant-downfall

 Market Hunting Era or Era of Exploitation (1850-1899)

∙ duty to tame the land

∙ “myth of superabundance”

∙ Clicker Question: Which animal went extinct between 1850 and 1900 in North America? Passenger pigeon

 Passenger Pigeon

∙ Described as clouds that darkened the sky

∙ Gregarious, large flocks, one egg per clutch, mast

∙ Tied to food source tied to development of a city

∙ Demand, railroads, telegraph-hunting and radioing information to kill  more birds, forest habitat-mast

 Robins

∙ 1 market hunter sold 120000 to hotels and restaurants

 Waterfowl

∙ Punt guns-1 load = 10 modern shotgun shells

 Trumpeter swans

∙ Fashion

 Bison – 30 million in 1860 to 150 in the wild in 1889

∙ Industrial revolution- machine belts

∙ Military conflicts

∙ Repeating rifles

∙ Railroads

 Carolina parakeet

∙ Native to US SE

∙ Habitat, hunting

∙ Gone by 1870

 Preservation Era (1900-1929)

 PRESERVATION - “Hands off” - no manipulation of a species or its  habitat

 Legal protections

 Yellowstone National Park…(US Grant 1872)

 National Park Service (Woodrow Wilson 1916)

 John Muir (preservation view)

∙ Sierra club

 Theodore Roosevelt – Conservation President

∙ 1st Forest Preserves

∙ Gifford Pinchot

♦ 1st chief of US Forest in 1905

♦ proposed concept of sustainable use of forest (Wise Use-became  more political to progressive development and use of wildlife)  Era of Game Management “Conservation Era” (1930-1965)  Game management by Aldo Leopold in 1933

 “founder of American wildlife management

 Sand county almanac

 Great Depression, Dust bowl in the 1930s

∙ Civilian Conservation Corps- work for people in depression (plant trees, improve parks, develop natural parks, predator elimination)

 Franklin Roosevelt  

∙ Ding Darling

♦ Cartoonist about the environment

♦ Appointed to the biological survey (USFWS)

♦ Duck stamp – funds for wetlands

♦ National Wildlife Federation

♦ Sanibel NWR-Mangroves

♦ Pultizers

 Soil Conservation Service (NRCS)

 Bureau of Land Management (BLM)

 The Wildlife Society (Game spp emphasis-much more broad now)  Who ushered in the environmental era?  

∙ Rachel Carson

♦ Silent Spring-Organic Chemistry why

♦ Scientist who knew how to turn that into effective community ♦ Marine biologist

♦ Bioaccumulation vs bio magnification 

 Polar Bear article that we read – pesticides live in top predators  a lot

 Eagles flushing nests problems

 Bioaccumulation

∙ The increase in the concentration of a substance in a organism or a  part of that organism

 Bio magnification

∙ The increase in the concentration of a substance in a food chain, no an  organism

 Environmental Era (1966-1984)

 Silent Spring (1959) – effects of DDT

 Environmentalists

 Endangered Species Act of 1973

 National Environmental Policy Act (1970)


 Present Era 1990s to… 

 Conservation biology

 Biodiversity

 Animal rights

 Ecosystem Management

 Human dimensions

 Clicker Question: How will wildlife historians in the next century write  about this era and our actions towards wildlife?

Burmese Pythons 

∙ Semi aquatic

∙ Released by owners

∙ Eastern diamond back and eastern indigo snake are susceptible to  being over run

∙ Over 17 tagged pythons have been rereleased into the park to try and  gain more knowledge

o Judas method – reveals information about whereabouts for other  snakes

∙ Chemical pheromones, dog tracking, and traps are being developed to  try and manage the snakes

∙ The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission now requires  eligible buyers of exotic pets that are deemed "reptiles of concern" to  purchase an annual state permit, to submit documentation of  experience in the care of such animals, and to have a computer chip  containing information about the owner implanted in each snake. Endangered Species Act 

∙ Rich natural heritage is of “esthetic, ecological, educational,  recreational, and scientific value to our Nation and its people.” ∙ To protect and recover imperiled species or subspecies and the  ecosystems upon which they depend

∙ FWS (fish and wildlife service) and NMFS (national marine fisheries  service) administer the ESA

o FWS – terrestrial and freshwater organisms

o MFS – marine wildlife

∙ Evaluation

o 1. Damage to habitat

o 2. Overutilization of species for commercial, recreational,  scientific, or education purposes

o 3. Disease or predation

o 4. Inadequacy of existing protection

o 5. Natural or manmade factors that affect the continued  existence of the species

∙ take - to harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture,  or collect or attempt to engage in any such conduct

∙ harm – act in which wildlife is killed or injured. May include habitat  modification or degradation where it kills or injures wildlife by

significantly impairing essential behavioral patterns, including  breeding, feeding, or sheltering

∙ plants are not protected from take

∙ states may have their own laws

∙ goal is to recover species

∙ organizations can gain approval as long as it is proven to not likely  jeopardize the continued existence

∙ requires critical habitat-space necessary biologically or physically to  the survival of a species- be established when “prudent and  determinable”

o may be space not currently occupied by the species, but could  serve the necessary requirements for the species survival

∙ 2/3rds of federally listed species have habitat on private land ∙ landowners can develop land inhabited by endangered species through the development of an approved conservation plan (HCP)

o assessment of likely impacts on species from action

o steps that will be taken to avoid, minimize, mitigate the impacts o proof of funding to take such steps

∙ Safe Harbor Agreements – non-federal landowners who volunteer to aid in recovery of a listed species by improving or maintaining wildlife  habitat

o Landowners manage enrolled property to agreed baseline  conditions

o Documentation that is required as part of an application for an  incidental take permit

∙ Candidate Conservation Agreements – voluntary agreements between  landowners and other parties to reduce or remove threats to at-risk  species

o Design conservation measures and monitor effectiveness of plan  implementation

∙ Candidate Conservation Agreements with Assurances – non federal  landowners volunteer to conserve at risk species so ESA isn’t needed. o Landowners receive assurances that if species is covered by  CCAA, they just need to do what is in agreement and will receive  an enhancement of survival permit

o Agreement with participating property owners that if they  engage in certain conservation practices, they will not have to  implement additional conservation measures should the at-risk  species eventually be liste

Conservation Banks – permanently protected and managed lands as  mitigation for loss elsewhere of at risk species and their habitat - lands that  are permanently managed for threatened, endangered, or candidate species  to offset adverse impacts to these species that occurred elsewhere ∙

o Free market enterprise

o Benefits species so small isolated groups that are trying to  recover can have a grouped effect to improve efficiency and  success

∙ Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild  Fauna and Flora 

o 175 nation agreement to monitor trade and effects on species  endangerment

tradegy of the commons – everyone’s problem so anything that I do won’t  have nearly any effect on the population

Gill net – form of passive capture that involves the fish swimming into a  stationary net that catches onto their gills

Gyre – the wind currents that create the unflushable toilet of trash in the  ocean – in these places plastic outnumbers plankton and is creating islands  of trash in the ocean

Hypoxic zone – area where there is little to no oxygen

Point pollution – pollution where the source can be directly pointed to ex. A  single pipe feeding into oceans

Non point source pollution –loss of wetlands, hypoxic zones, and  eutrophication can all result from pollution that comes from a variety of  sources that can not be pointed at ex. Surface run off

WATERSHED – drainage basin; land area that delivers water via  streams to rivers and ultimately to the ocean.

EUTROPHICATION – process of nutrient enrichment in aquatic  ecosystems.

LOTIC - flowing waters, e.g., streams and rivers.

LENTIC - standing waters, e.g., ponds, lakes, and reservoirs (vs. "lotic"  waters).

NET PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY - difference between photosynthesis  (production) and respiration (use) of biomass.


Anthropogenic – human caused disturbance in the habitat or well being of a  species

Natural – typhoons, hurricanes, avalanches

Discreet – one point in time

Continuous- occurs over long intervals

Deforestation – largest cause is cattle farming in Brazil

albeto – reflection of the suns rays on the ice caps back into space Grumbine’s Theories 


1. Viable populations

2. Native ecosystem types

3. Ecological processes maintained

4. Long time periods – enough to maintain and evolve

5. Accommodate human use and occupancy

10 Dominant Themes:

1. Hierarchical Context (systems/scale) – systems perspective, all levels must be able to work together

2. Ecological Boundaries – grizzlies management boundaries in Yellowstone  park

3. Ecological Integrity – protecting native diversity, conservation of viable  populations of native species, maintaining natural disturbance regimes,  reintroduction of native, extirpated species, representation of ecosystems  across natural ranges of variation

4. Data Collection

5. Monitoring – evaluation of the data collection

6. Adaptive Management – flexibility, scientific knowledge is provisional and  focuses on management

7. Interagency Cooperation – federal, state, local management 8. Organizational Change

9. Humans embedded in nature

10. Values

 Marine Wildlife 

 Primary productivity- the rate at which primary producers capture and  store energy in given interval

 Gross primary productivity – the total rate of photosynthesis for an  ecosystem during specified interval

 Net primary productivity – the rate of energy storage in plant tissues  minus metabolic activities that use energy  

 Photosynthesis & respiration

 Open oceans have one of the lowest production rates and estuaries  have one of the highest per square meter

 Open oceans cover 71% of Earth’s surface

 Pelagic and benthic zones

 One simple ocean zone classification is between the water and the  ocean floor

 Benthic is tied to the ocean floor- benthos species

 BENTHIC – on or near the bottom of an aquatic system.  LITTORAL - zone of a lake that is near the shore where rooted  vegetation can grow; usually <2 m deep.

 LIMNETIC - zone of a lake that is far from shore, beyond where  rooted vegetation can grow; usually >2 m deep.

 Nekton – pelagic species – water pelagic species

 PELAGIC - characteristic of deep, open water in the ocean or in large lakes; e.g., pelagic zone or pelagic fishes.

 Plankton  

 MACROPHYTES – aquatic plants.

 Float

∙ Zooplankton (small animals)

∙ Photoplankton (algae)

 Nekton

 Actively more the current

∙ Fish (vertebrates) invertebrase- squid

 Benthos –

 Sea floor

 Coral (stuck) or crab (moving)

 gyres  

 wind currents create eddies that hold the debris

 6x more plastic than plankton

 plankton produce more o2 than all life on earth


∙ Lay eggs, hard shell

∙ INCUBATION - period (or process) of development of embryo within  eggs; requires heat from "sitting" parent in birds.

∙ Scales, plates, shells

∙ Nails

∙ Ectothermic

∙ Lungs

∙ Miniture adults


∙ Have a larval stage

∙ Breathe through their skin

∙ Moist smooth skin

∙ Ectothermic

∙ Lungs/gills

∙ Lay soft gel-like eggs

∙ metamorphisis

∙ 1/3 are threatened

∙ half in decline

Boreal toad  

∙ high elevations in CO

∙ listed species in CO

∙ Chytrid fungus that interferes with respiration

Cane Toad  

∙ High reproduction

∙ High toxicity

∙ Eat frogs and other animals

∙ Equivalent to the bull frog in the US

∙ Invasive species introduced as biological control

Ornate Box Turtle

∙ Over collection for food, pet, biological supply houses

∙ Nebraska

Harlequin Frog species in Costa Rica

∙ 2/3s extinct

∙ disease and indirect effects from rising temperatures

∙ most species are moving up in altitude and north due to climate  change

Feral Swine

FERAL - a previously domestic animal that has become established in the  wild, e.g., feral cats, feral horses.

∙ destructive to soil and crops through rooting

∙ carry disease

∙ aggressive

∙ spreading rapidly

∙ possible source of food??

Introduced species – the intentional or unintentional escape, release,  discrimination, or placement of a species into an ecosystem as a result of  human activity  

Invasive species – an alien (non-native to the area, exotic) species whose  introduction does or is likely to cause economic or environmental harm to  human health

EXOTIC - species of wildlife or fish that are not native to an area but  introduced.

Feral species – previously domesticated animal – now roaming wild Indicator species – population can be examined as a means to monitor the  health of the ecosystem that they are in

Umbrella species – species whose well being affect other species and whose  downfall affect a large number of species as well

 Grizzly Populations in GYA 

 Listed as threatened in 1975  

 Only 125 bears left

 Recovery goals

 48 reproducing females, <9% mortality

 Goals met, delisted in 2007

 First eat elk calves/carcasses, trout, army cutworm moths, and  whitebark pine seeds

 Relisted in 2009, upheld in 2011

 Pine seeds food source becomes rare

 Need more than 500 bears

 <6.7% mortality rates

 food source threats must be addressed

 bears soon to be delisted regardless of the nuts that are falling  now have >700 bears

 super k selected species as a whole

 what are the issues concerning other bears?

 Species genetic exchange potential

 Need corridors

 Endangered status “warranted but precluded” in 3 populations:  Cabibet – Yaak, Selkirks, Selway-Bitterroot

 In Selway if reintroduced will be non-essential

 Blister rust and whitebark pin nuts recovery?

 Climate change issues

 Was the reason for the bears being relisted

 Gray Wolf 

 Historic distribution

 World: much of n. hemisphere

 Most of U.S.

 Extirpated from lower 48

 Listed under ESA in 1970s

 Hunting and trapping wiped out the wolves-not cryptic

 Drama involved with the status of the gray wolf

 More people die from deer collisions in cars than wolf attacks  Natural colonization from Canada and Minnesota into Michigan and  wolves moving down from Canada into MT and WA

 Wyoming left the wolf listed as a predator through its reintroduction very controversial

 Rocky Mnt. Gray Wolf Reintroduction

 Yellowstone, Idaho

 1995

 experimental/non-essential 

∙ more flexibility for adjustment but treated like threatened ∙ could remove/kill problem wolves

∙ listed but can be moved or killed

 Recovery: Breeding pair and acceptable management plans in each  state

 Reintroduction was greatly successful

∙ Cons of Reintroduction

♦ Hunters: wolves take game

♦ Ranchers: wolves take livestock

♦ Public: wolves kill people

 Only 1 fatal attack in NA since 1900

♦ Environmental groups wanted the wolves to trickle in naturally

∙ Pros of Reintroduction

♦ Natural colonization may never happen

♦ Laws don’t protect, people do

♦ Vital part of ecosystem

♦ Make Yellowstone more attractive

 In Montana and Idaho, wolves are now classified as big game/trophy species

 Mexican wolf 

 Status: endangered sub-population (2015)

 Illegal hunting and inbreeding

 Captive animals reintroduced

 ~58 in wild in 2011

 now 109 & breeding (2014)

 recovery goals

 moving benchmarks?

 1989, CO Park and Wildlife Commission went on record as opposing  reintroduction to CO

 naturally colonize from south (endangered Mexican wolf or from north  (gray wolf)

 2004, one found dead in 170

 2007 video near Walden, CO

 2012 wolf killed by poison Meeker, CO

 2015 wolf shot in Kremmling, CO

 Florida Panther 

 1970s: reduced to 5% of historical range and only 12-20 left in wild  endangered

 inbreeding depression

 surviving population too inbred for captive breeding program  sterile, heart defects, kinked tail, etc

 lack of habitat/prey

 road kill

 worst year ever (2015)  

 Recovery plan

 1994: 6 females from texas released  

∙ fixed genetics

 now at 160 adults (2014)

 goal: 3 viable population of 240 individuals, natural gene flow  between them

 metapopulation- different levels of exchange between sub  populations that allow genetic exchange

 36000 sq miles of habitat

 need corridors between lands of conservation

 monitoring

 radio collar mark and resight, movement

 intra specific aggression documented

 trail cameras

 Jaguars 

 Hunted/poached to extermination in US

 NM,AZ,CA, and TX

 Endangered in US in 1997

 Critical habitat just designated

 Threats- poaching

 Habitat loss

 Distrupted corridors

 Summary of ESA top predators 

 Anti predator sentiments up to 1970s had devastating effects on  predator populations

 National Parks not enough

 Captive breeding, reintroduction, translocations

 Controversy/fights with every step

 Land and human participation critical  

 Colorado Plains Fishes Conservation 

 The Great Plains

 Largest eco-region in North America

 Fertile soil

 Hub of US Agriculture

 CO Plains Fishes

 Northern plains killifish

 Redbelly dace

 Plains minnow

 Orangethroat darter

 Organespotted sunfish

 Scary because they are very tough fish but they are dying off  Conservation Issues

 Groundwater pumping

 Ogallala aquifer

 Water is pumped for agriculture

 Water table is lowering – CO will be more important

 Reservoir construction

 RESERVOIR – large, usually deep, human-made bodies of water, often  associated with dams.

 Sources of predatory and competitive non-natives

 Alters river habitat upstream and downstream

∙ Physical (sediment movement) and temperature

 Barriers to movement

 Endemism – and organism that is native to or only exists in a certain  area or region

 Special adaptations

 Specific habitat to thrive

 Long nose gar – breathe air adapted to low oxygen environment  Orangethroat Darter – really pretty, colorful tiny fish

 Bighorn sheep, bison, panther

 Pelagic Spawning

 Eggs become byounant and float downstream to where they  become adults and swim back upstream to spawn again

 FRY - larval fish; fry of most species become "fingerling" (2-6 in = 5- 15 cm) during first year of life.

 Fish need to move

 Spawning, safe heaven environment, feeding habitats

∙ ANADROMOUS - returning from saltwater to freshwater to  reproduce, e.g., salmon.

 Reservoirs, grade control structure, irrigation diversions (ditches),  culverts (big tube through a stream) speed water velocity up  through the tube

 Most fishes are small <6 inches as adults-limits jumping and swimming  ability

 Even small barriers (2-4 inches) can block migrations and upstream  colonization

 To help…

 Recharge aquifers

 Thousands of years

 Remove barriers to movement

 Some areas but not applicable everywhere and can be expensive  Get fish around the barriers

 Build fish passage structures

 Fish passage structures

 Pool and weir

 Vertical slot

 Fish elevators

 Rock ramp fishway

∙ Improving rock ramp fishways

♦ Sloped channel, can be built without vertical drops and high  velocity areas

∙ Higher gradient=higher velocity

 PIT tags

 Passive integrated transponder tag

 Each has a unique code

 Radio frequency identification

 Widely used in many animals

 Species

 Arkansas darter

 Threatened

 Poor swimmer

 No gas bladder

 No darter species has ever been PIT tagged  

 Stonecat

 Special concern

 Moderate swimmer

 Clean streams

 Flathead chub

 Species of special concern

 Excellent swimmer

 Ethics 

 The what and why

 A belief that something is very important

 Can shift with society, cultures, and time

 “Nothing so important as an ethic is ever written, It evolves in the  minds of the thinking community.”

 Philosophy

 More principles and values-code

 What you believe is right and wrong

 A voluntary or culturally-mandated restriction on behavior  Native American Spiritual Ethic 

 Spirituality in nature

 Sitting Bull

 Transcendental Preservation Ethic 

 Original relation to the universe

 Emerson, Thoreau

 “wilderness is the salvation of the world”

 Resource Conservation Ethic 

 Utilitarian ethic – greatest good for the greatest number for the longest time

 Pinchot

 Land ethic- set of moral principles and values humans can develop in  relation to the land

 Leopold- view that the biosphere as an interconnected whole has moral standing

 Ecological view

 Ethical sequence 

 1st : (the golden rule) relation between individuals

 2nd : (relation between self and society

 3rd : relation between humans and land

 based on economics- focus on right to rather than responsibility for  community

 humans are a member of a community of interdependent parts  land ethic includes soil, water, plants, and animals

 humans become a plain member and citizen rather than a  conqueror

 ecological conscience 

 content of conservation education lacking

∙ no obligation – no one held accountable

∙ defines no right or wrong

∙ calls for no sacrifice

∙ net results is the enlightened self interest

 most members of land community have no economic value but the  stability and integrity of the biotic community depends on them  outlook

 ecologist’s golden rule – a thing is right when it tends to preserve  the integrity, beauty of the wildlife

NATURAL HISTORY - biology, ecology, habits, and other characteristics of a species

FEATURED SPECIES - species selected for management emphasis because of  their high value to humans.

American Crocodile 

∙ 4th tooth on the bottom jaw is still visible

∙ 500 fold increase in body size from birth to adulthood

∙ Southern Florida and Central America location

∙ In the world it is endangered, but the US it is threatened ∙ Generalist habitat requirements

o Saline, human canals, carnivore, digestion reliant on a certain  temperature

o ESTUARY - highly productive zone where rivers and ocean mix ∙ Polygynous reproduction with precocial young; sex is determined  through incubation temperature

o ALTRICIAL - born or hatched relatively undeveloped and  remaining in the nest for a substantial period (vs."precocial"). o PRECOCIAL - born or hatched relatively well-developed and soon  able to leave the nest, e.g., ducklings and fawns.

o POLYANDRY - mating of 1 female with >1 male within a single  reproductive cycle.

o POLYGAMY - any mating system that includes more than 1 mate  of either sex (see polygyny, polyandry, promiscuity).

o POLYGYNY - mating of 1 male with >1 female within a single  reproductive cycle.

o BIOTIC POTENTIAL: maximum reproductive potential of an  organism (rm).

o BIRTH OR NATALITY RATE - number of births per number of  individuals over a specified time period. * be able to do a  


o GESTATION - the period (or process) of embryo development  within the uterus of a mammal.

o MORTALITY OR DEATH RATE - number of deaths per number of  individuals over a specified time period.

o COMPENSATORY MORTALITY - total mortality remains unchanged  as one mortality factor makes up for another.

o NATALITY - births; # of young within a specified period

o PROMISCUITY - mating between any number of males and  females with no pair bonds formed.

o MONOGAMY - mating of 1 male and 1 female for 1 reproductive  cycle (serial), 1 season (annual), or life.

o PRODUCTION - actual # of offspring produced

o FECUNDITY - # of eggs produced per female.

o FERTILITY - % of eggs that are fertile.

∙ Solitary and crepuscular

o NOCTURNAL - active in the dark, i.e., during the night

o CREPUSCULAR - active during twilight, i.e., at dusk or at dawn. o DIURNAL - active during daylight.

∙ Ectothermic


∙ Benchmarks

o High survival rates

o Reproduction greater than or equal to mortality

∙ Lynx vs bobcat

o Bigger feet

o Bigger in general

o No spots

o Black tails

∙ Decline

o Unregulated trapping

o Poisoning

o Habitat loss

Blue-footed Booby 

∙ Tourists and scientists noticed that the numbers did not appear to be  as great as previously

∙ Hypothesized that huge concentration of sardines in diet are needed  for reproduction and not being met

o Overharvest and climate change are guessed to be linked to a  cause

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES – movement of chemical elements from organism  to physical environment to organism in a more or less circular pathway. Nitrogen is available and necessary for plants in soil

Phosphorous does NOT have an atmospheric component to its cycle BIOMES - large, relatively distinct ecosystems characterized by particular  climate, soil, plants, and animals.

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