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Final Exam Study Guide

by: Aimee Castillon

Final Exam Study Guide PSYC317

Marketplace > George Mason University > Psychlogy > PSYC317 > Final Exam Study Guide
Aimee Castillon
GPA 3.61

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About this Document

Contains the study questions from the slides with my notes pasted onto it
Cognitive Psychology
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aimee Castillon on Saturday December 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC317 at George Mason University taught by Wiese in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 12/12/15
***REVIEW THE PREVIOUS EXAMS***  CHAPTER 12  What is the difference between well­defined and ill­defined problems?  ­ Well­defined​­ They have a correct answer, and there are certain procedures that, when  applied correctly, will lead to a solution   ­ Ill­define­ Everyday life problems that do not necessarily have one correct answer and  where the path to solution is unclear   What does restructuring mean?   ­ Restructuring​: Perceiving and representing in a different way  What is an insight?   ­ insight­Sudden realization of a problem’s solution; “A­ha” moment  What is the difference between insight and analytical problem solving?   ­ insight problems can take a while to solve and is not a step­by­step process  ­ analytical problem solving involves step­by­step process to solve the problem (i.e.  algebra)  What is functional fixedness?   ­ Functional fixedness​­ Focus on familiar use of objects   What are problems were functional fixedness occurs? ​he candle problem and the two­string  problem  What is situational fixednessmental sets can hinder the solving of novel probl ms. What is a problem where situational fixedness occurs?​he water­jug problem  What does the information processing approach assume about problem solving?   ­ Problem solving as a process that requires search   ­ Search occurs between posing the problem and problem solution   ­ Problems have  ­ initial sta­ Conditions at the beginning of the problem  ­ goal state­ Solution of the problem  ­ operators​­ Rules specifying with strategies are allowed  ­ problem space​ ­  all possible states of a problem  What is a typical task used within the information processing approac​he Tower of Hanoi  What is a problem space? ​problem space­   all possible states of a problem  How does the way a problem is stated influence problem solution?  ­ the way a problem is stated influences its difficulty   What are examples where problem statement influences solution? ​the  mutilated­checkerboard problem and the Russian marriage problem  How can the problem solving process be investigated? think­aloud protocol  What is analogical problem solving?​Using a similar solution to a similar problem to guide  solution of a new problem  What are good examples for analogical problem solving? ​ussian marriage problem =  mutilated checkerboard problem  What are the steps of analogical problem solving?  ­ analogical problem solving involves three steps  ­ noticing the analogous relationship between the source story and the target  problem  ­ mapping​  the correspondence between source story and the target story  ­ applying​  the mapping to generate a parallel solution to the target problem  What factors influence success in analogical problem solving?  ­ similar surface features aid noticing similarities  ­ Specific elements that make up the problem  ­ highlight structural similarities  ­ Underlying principle that problems have in common   What are surface and structural similarities?   ­ surface features­ ​ specific elements of the problem  ­ structural features​ ­ underlying principle that governs the solution   ­ i.e. Duncker’s radiation problem and the fortress story  Are analogies used in everyday problem solving?   ­ in­vivo problem solving​ ­ problem solving in the real world differs from the lab  ­ In the lab, participants focus more on surface features   ­ In real life, people use structural features  ­ Biologists use analogies 3­15 times per hour  Differences between expert and novice problem solving   ­ differences between novices and experts  ­ problems are solved faster and more accurately  ­ Experts possess more knowledge about their fields   ­ Experts’ knowledge is organized differently   ­ Experts spend more time on analyzing problems   ­ Experts are not better on outside­their­field problems    What are the features of creative thinking?   ­ divergent thinking  ­ open ended  ­ no correct answer  ­ associated with ill­defined problems  ­ convergent thinking  ­ works towards finding a solution to a specific problem  ­ usually has a correct answer  ­ associated with well­defined problems  What is design fixation?   ­ “The term design fixation refers to the designer’s reluctance (or inability, in some cases)  to consider multiple strategies to formulate and solve a design need. The design fixation  phenomenon severely limits creativity and results in pedestrian design solutions. Design  fixation is the direct result of knowledge representation, with human knowledge argued  to be organized categorically. These categories are defined by prototypes that exemplify  the category. “  How are sleep and insight related? ​ sleep triggers insight  CHAPTER 13  Differences between deductive and inductive reasoning?   ­ deductive reasoning​ ­ Cognitive processes that are based on premises and lead to  definite conclusions  ­ inductive reasoning​ ­ Cognitive processes that are based on evidence and lead to  probable conclusions  What is the basic form of a syllogism?   ­ Premise 1: All A are B  ­ Premise 2: All B are C  ­ Conclusion: Therefore, all A are C  What is the difference between categorical and conditional syllogism?   ­ categorical syllogism​ ­ premises and conclusion describe the relation between two  categories by using all, no, or some statements  ­ conditional syllogism­   What is validity vs. truth of a syllogism?   ­ validity depends on form of syllogism, not on content  ­ syllogism is invalid if premises are correct, but form is not  ­ Premise 1: all of the men are tired  ­ Premise 2: some tired people are women  ­ Conclusion: some of the men are women  How can you examine performance in judging syllogisms?   ­ evaluation­​ Present two premises and a conclusion, and ask people to indicate whether  the conclusion logically follows from the premises  ­ production​ ­ Present two premises and ask people to indicate what conclusion logically  follows from the premises, or if no conclusion logically follows  Why do people make a lot of mistakes when judging syllogisms?   ­ People make mistakes for all shown syllogisms, except for syllogism 2   ­ Error rates can be as high as 70­80%   ­ Error rate depends on abstractness of statement → fewer errors for concrete statements  What is the atmosphere effect?   ­ The words A ​ll, Some, and ​ o in the premises creates an overall “mood” or “atmosphere”  that can influence the evaluation of the conclusion  ­ Two ​All’s generally suggests an Al​conclusion  ­ One or two ​No​’s suggest a No​ conclusion  ­ One or two S​ ome​’s suggest a Some​  conclusion.   What is a belief bias?  ­ If a syllogism’s conclusion is true or agrees with a person’s beliefs, the likelihood that the  syllogism will be judged as valid is increased  ­ If the conclusion is false, the likelihood that the syllogism will be judged as invalid is  increased  What are different forms of conditional syllogisms?  ­ first premise has the form “If…,then….”  ­ if­ term is called the antecedent  ­ then­ term is called consequent  What is the Wason­Four­Card problem used for?   ­ falsification principle­ to test a rule, it is necessary to look for situations that falsify the  rule  Are there differences between abstract and concrete versions of the WFCP?  ­   What is the evolutionary approach to the WFCP?  ­ Permission schemas work well because people’s performance is better when familiar  rules can be used   ­ Social exchange theory explains why people are good in detecting cheaters   ­ People perform well on the cholera task and the postal task because they can detect  cheaters  What are the basic principles of inductive reasoning?   ­ Premises are based on observation of one or more specific cases  ­ Generalization from these cases to a more general conclusion   ­ Conclusions do not definitely follow from premises   ­ Conclusions are suggested with varying degrees of certainty  How can you judge the strength of an inductive argument?  ­ determining what is probably true  ­ representativeness of observations­ How well do observations about a particular  category represent all of the members of that category?  ­ number of observations­ More observations of the same kind make the argument  stronger  ­ quality of evidence­ Stronger evidence results in stronger conclusions  What does the availability heuristic state? ​Events that are more easily remembered are  judged as being more probable than events that are less easily remembered.  What does the representativeness heuristic state? P ​eople make judgments based on how  much one event resembles another event. The probability that an event A comes from  class B can be determined by how well A resembles the properties of class B.  What are examples for examining both heuristics?   ­ availability  ­   ­ representativeness  ­ What does the law of large numbers state? ​ The larger the number of individuals that are  randomly drawn from a population, the more representative the resulting group for the  entire population  What is decision making?   ­ Basic ideas  ­ We make important and unimportant decisions every day   ­ Process of decision making involves deductive and inductive reasoning   ­ How do people make judgments that involve choices between different courses  of action   ­ Decisions involve costs and benefits  What does the economic utility theory state?   ­ economic utility theory­ ​ Assumption that people are basically rational  ­ If people have all of the relevant information, they will make a decision  which results in the maximum expected utility   ­ Utility refers to outcomes that are desirable because they are in the  person’s best interest   ­ Good decision making results in the maximum monetary payoff  How does presentation of choices influence decision making?   ­ decisions can depend on how choices are presented  ­ When choice is framed in terms of gains, people use risk­aversion strategy   ­ When choice is framed in terms of losses, people use a risk­taking strategy   ­ Framing effect​: Decisions are influenced by how a decision is stated or framed  Where does decision making take place in the brain?  ​Prefrontal and frontal cortices  What are common findings in lesion studies on decision making?  ­ Damage to PFC interferes with people’s ability to act with flexibility   ­ Patients have difficulties to switch from one pattern of behavior to another (=  perseveration)   ­ Patients have poor planning ability   ­ Problem solving activates PFC in healthy participants   ­ PFC helps making connections between different parts of a problem   ­ PFC is involved in reasoning  What does neuroeconomics investigate?   ­ neuroeconomics​ ­ investigating brain activation during economic decisions  Which brain areas are activated when unfair decisions are made? P ​ refrontal and frontal  cortices 


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