Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide ANTH2800
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ciara Peace on Saturday December 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH2800 at University of Toledo taught by Seamus Metress in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 153 views. For similar materials see Cultural Anthropology in Language at University of Toledo.
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Date Created: 12/12/15
ANTH2800 Final Exam Review Chapter 5 1 Differentiate ecosystem people from biosphere people a Ecosystem people live within a single ecosystem or at the most two or three adjacent closely related ones They include most members of traditional cultures and are more responsive of environmental changes since their survival depends on living within their resource base b Biosphere people draw their support from the entire biosphere rather than any one ecosystem They are part of the global technological culture Since they are less responsive to environmental factors their impact is generally more destructive 2 How did humans affect the ecosystem during the hunting and gathering or foraging phase a When humans discovered fire they had the power to alter the environment on a massive scale The use of fire in hunting and in the clearing of vegetation may have changed the local ecology in some areas resulting in the expansion of grasslands i Fire also helped people move into colder areas extending the ecological impact of humans b The increased amount of hunting in this time has been suggested to affect climate and habitat change as well as leading to the extinction of some mammalian species like the mammoth or mastodon i Hunting also helped with certain game populations though because most times the weaker older animals were hunted leading to stronger and healthier populations c Redistributed plant species Gained knowledge of the animalstheir habits as well as different plant species and how they were useful e Wasteful at times destroyed wild plants and beehives i Created a pressure when they concentrated on one species 3 How did the evolution of farming affect the environment a Farming disturbed animal balances in several ways i Some wild species like buffalo and antelope were replaced by domestic animals like cows ii A number of wild species such as wolves and wolverines were destroyed by major habitat changed that reduced their ability to survive iii Many wild species actually increased because of habitat enhancement 1 Fox skunk deer raccoon opossum rabbits mice b Poor farm management lead to overgrazing deforestation desertification salinization soil collapse and declining water tables 4 How were ancient civilizations affected adversely by poor farming practices a Agriculture expanded deserts and destroyed early civilizations more effectively than military conquests i The removal of forests broke the natural system of water reuse which led to an immediate lowering of ground water levels and at the same time it reduced rainfall amounts b farming populations expanded and this increased the demands put on the environment and its resources which villages were putting stress on 5 In what ways did the age of exploration and colonization affect the environment a Vast stands of timber were being used or destroyed and the mining of gold and silver did a lot of environmental damage The development of plantation agriculture led to cash cropping abuse of local ecosystems changes in land tenure enslavement and impoverishment of the conquered people There was a worldwide exchange of crops pests and diseases Europeans brought cows pigs sheep and horses as well as wheat and rice They took back things like corn beans potatoes squash and tomatoes back to Europe i This is mainly where the pests were being exchanged ii Animals like rabbits and rats began to breed with no natural enemies in the new environments causing damage to the natural flora and fauna iii Weeds also accompanied this expansion and slowed down food production iv We also got a lot of diseases this way 6 How did the discovery of the New World aid the growth and development of Europe a It allowed Europe to increase its access to food products as more land became available for cultivation The increased agricultural production led to surpluses that were then used to finance the emerging industrial enterprises in Europe Eric Williams in Capitalism and Slavery claims that the industrial fortunes of England Holland and France were built on the backs of plantation workers in the New World Colonization links the world biologically and socioculturally while exchanging people raw materials goods and information 7 Identify the major areas of environmental impact related to the Industrial Revolution a Forests were turned into deserts fields of native flowers and grasses were destroyed and wetlands were drained and filled There was an increase in pollutants and their contact with dense populations of people There was a greater use of fossil fuels and mining The growth of railroads canals and highways began to connect widespread geographic regions allowing more new land and resources to be opened up to exploitation i Transportation was impacting the dynamics of industrial ecology 1 Factories to produce cars trains planes etc used a lot of different raw materials During the 1870s European expansion extended into Asia Africa and Oceania This led to the destruction of local ecosystems for materials f The huge rise in production of goods led to the exploitation of raw materials and a huge increase in pollution It also promoted a way of life that we could just use the earth however we want without consequences and people were blind to what they were doing 8 Why was World War II such an important watershed in the history of the United States a It initiated changes that radically altered human relationships with the environment b New ideas and processes which developed as part of the war cause were now applied to the civil economy and everyday life c WWII accelerated the loss of good farmland surrounding cities It also overextended water and sewage systems d It promoted greater destruction of the land as rows and rows of houses went up all of them surrounded by artificial landscapes as the norm of suburban life 9 What has been the impact of the autoculture on American life and our environment a It let people live far away and commute to work which meant more pollution b Automobiles require land for highways parking lots service industries etc so that took up more space environmentally c There are over 4 million roads in the US and over 12 million acres of roadside It has destroyed urban neighborhoods and small towns as services and institutions relocated to areas near more populated areas 10 What has been the impact of the following a Agribusiness i Overly dependent on fossil fuels ii It is overchemicalized in both the production and processing of food through the use of fertilizers pesticides antibiotics hormones dyes flavorings and preservatives b Technology i People are more into their phones laptops TVs etc than nature and the outdoors People have stopped appreciated the environment and less people care c Increasing material consumption i The US used 40 of the world s resources If the entire world lived like we did we would need 3 planets to sustain it d Growth of multinationals i Loyal to profit rather than community ii Have destroyed America s heavy manufacturing base creating much employment iii They relocate to less developed areas that have lower standards for health safety and wages Think about sweatshops This is them 11 Identify the major barriers to solving environmental problems in the United States a We have an abiding faith in technological innovation and its ability to solve ecological problems that technology created in the first place which is a huge block i We think of technology as being superhuman Sociopolitical institutions favor special interests with their powerful lobbies corporate subsidies and tax breaks Environmental groups do not have the financial or organizational resources to combat special interests of businesses Media coverage and analysis lacks in depth with environmental issues and is more anti environmental Americans want quick solutions and we don t get angry about a public issue unless it personally affects us 12 How can we change the situation for the future a h We must educate people on the issues so we can support or oppose issues from an informed standpoint Must elect and pressure public officials so they represent us and not special interests Don t just look at the large scale especially when smaller scale solutions are cheaper and more ecologically sound There must be a drive to move more communalistic values instead of selfish individualism i What is good for the individual or business isn t always good for the community Train educators to inform the public There is a need for environmentalsustainability and consumer education We need to change our thought process to think about how we are affecting the environment long term We must change the way we approach garbage and see it as another resource to recover material i Substitute safer materials and longer lasting We need to understand ecology and our history to integrate ideas 13 Why is a biocentric philosophy essential for the quest for a sustainable biosphere a Chapter 6 1 It views humans not as the center of the universe but as part of it We must understand nature and learn to work within its limits We need to understand its changing patterns so we can adapt to it and flow with it so we can preserve it If we think we are the only thing that matters then our planet will surely fail What are the 2 major ecological factors that were epidemiologically important in forager disease patterns a b The size of the social group Intensity of group contact Identify the 2 categories of parasitic diseases that affect humans at the forager stage Give examples of each a Those which were already adapted to our prehominid ancestors i Head and body lice pinworms yaws trypanosomes leshmanias intestinal protozoa yellow fever and malaria b Those which were already adapted to other host species and were accidentally transmitted to humans by contact with wild animals zoonoses i Typhus fever relapsing fever sleeping sickness tetanus tularemia liver flukes and trichinosis 3 How did the ecological factors associated with disease change when humans settled down in farming villages a The concentration of population in relatively small areas created problems for the disposal of human waste and garbage which lead to an increase of boweltomouth diseases such as hepatitis and dysentery b The sedentary lifestyle also established populations in which parasites could infect hosts c The use of more substantial houses encouraged more indoor activity which led to more transmission of air borne diseases d The closer encounter of people and animals lead to the spread of diseases such as hookworms ascaris typhoid fever dysentery and shigellae 4 What place did the following have among foragers a Viral diseases i Zoonoses has the biggest impact on those 2040years old who spent their time in the bush hunting animals ii Other viral diseases such as those caused by varicellazoster and herpes simplex were able to survive small populations b Nutrition i In general foragers ate a varied diet of sufficient quantity and quality Most were well nourished and in good health c Chronic diseases i Unimportant although osteoarthritis and osteoporosis affected and disabled a number of people 5 What was the nature of medical practice among foragers a Holistic Health was perceived as the product of a balance between the individual and the environment Practitioners used therapy to treat people 6 How were nutritional status and infant mortality affected by the switch to farming a Infant mortality was very high due to the combination of poor diet unsanitary conditions and the presence of parasites and malaria 7 How did medical practice change among villagers a Health care was still holistic but became more secular Explanations that identified the causes of illness as originating inside the human body became popular b Practitioners because specialized and started charging a fee for services 8 Why was the appearance of cities related to the rise of direct contact diseases a Diseases such as measles thrive when populations get bigger and so when more people were coming into the same areas they were spreading these contagious diseases and the disease couldn t die out 9 How did the age of exploration affect disease patterns a People were trading and traveling around the world and bringing new diseases with them that people had never encountered making them more dangerous Smallpox the black death and syphilis were a few spread around 10 Identify the two types of disease that became prevalent in the preindustrial city era a Sanitary i Cholera dysentery b Direct contact i Measles mumps small pox gonorrhea 11 Characterize nutritional health in the preindustrial era a It was common for people to be deficient in vitamin A and C due to the lack of fresh fruits and vegetables available b People depended on grains and grain products which attracted rats and their fleas which caused ratbite fever hemorrhagic fever typhus fever and bubonic plague c The health was relative to the class structure the people were in 12 Why was life so bad in the earliest stages of the industrial revolution a High mortality b Poorhou ng c mpure water d Inadequate waste disposal e Marginal nutrition f overcrowding 13 Why did health improve in the later stages of the industrial city phase a Better food improved sanitation increased affluence and improved medical delivery 14 Characterize the medical system that emerged in the 19th century a Owed its growth and development to the quotgerm theory of disease b Medicine began to develop into a distinct social institution c Guarded and approved the common body of knowledge d Established schools of medicine e Gained great influence on the formation of public policy 15 Identify the major characteristics of the modern disease patterns a Break throughs in disease control and treatment b Increasing affluence and technology in some areas c Widening the socioeconomic gap between the have and havenot nations 16 Why is antibiotic resistance becoming more common today Unnecessary use and overmedication Pharmaceutical companies promote the drugs aggressively leading to patient demand Some infections are treated with antimicrobials when it might be unnecessary Antibiotics are used in agriculture for growth when 4080 of them are unnecessary 09935 90 of all staph infections are resistant to all antibiotics except vancomycin If the body becomes resistant to this then it would compromise all invasive medical procedures like heart surgery and IVs 17 How has international travel affected infectious disease patterns 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 a People and products travel far and individuals carry pathogens vectors cultural behaviors and susceptibility into new regions putting visited populations and the ecosystem in danger b The first virus to take advantage of travel was HIV What are some of the nutritional associations with chronic degenerative diseases a There are associations with diet and health i Heart disease and fats ii Refined diets and degenerative diseases iii Sugar and diabetes and heart disease v Obesity and mortality How are environmental changes related to health The incidence of environmentally induced cancer is suggested to be as high as 80 Respiratory infections and damage from pollution 4000000 children die a year from acute respiratory disease related to air pollution 25000000 kids die a year from diarrheal diseases from water pollution 5000000 kids die a year from acute pesticide poisoning in developing countries 09939 Why is evaluating the impact of pollution difficult a We are rarely exposed to one pollutant at a time b Pollutants may act together in concert to produce detrimental effects on people c We have little knowledge about the toxic levels of a lot of pollutants d We need to study the effects of repeated low level exposures Why are children more susceptible to environmental insults a For their size children eat more food drink more water and breathe more air than aduhs b Their ability to metabolize detoxify and excrete many toxicants is different than adults c It is possible that cerebral palsy deafness memory disorders ADD seizures blindness and other disorders are related to pollutant exposure at critical stages in the life cycle What does the geography of cancer tell us about modern life a It is often related to the location of industry agriculture and dumpsites b Across all age groups cancer increases following the industrialization and chemicalization of agriculture c The cancer rates of immigrants often changes towards the rates of the new location What are some of the problems associated with greater longevity a Increase in geriatric problems b Paying for chronic medical care on a fixed income c Custodial care is needed sometimes and that can sometimes lead to abuse financially mentally medically or physically How do poverty and race influence health a Being poor is associated with more exposure to pollutants lower quality diet and unhealthy occupations b There is also less access to health care c Higher stress which leads to disease 25 What are some of the problems associated with the biomedical approach to medical care a b rhme It is based on a physical model that views nature in mechanistic terms s dominated the organization of medical care the education of physicians and the nature of the patientdoctor relationship Needs a greater resource of money space and professional commitment It has emphasis on cure not care Stresses the technical challenges not moral ones It has deflected attention from the emotional and existential significance of disease
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