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PSYC final exam study guide

by: Briana Marcy

PSYC final exam study guide PSYC 100-001

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Briana Marcy
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I tried to narrow everything we have learned this semester down to about 3 pages a chapter. Hope this helps!
Basic Concepts in Psycology
Michael Anderson
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This 60 page Study Guide was uploaded by Briana Marcy on Saturday December 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 100-001 at George Mason University taught by Michael Anderson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 272 views. For similar materials see Basic Concepts in Psycology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.

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Date Created: 12/12/15
PSYC 100-001 FINAL Exam Study Guide Briana Marcy Chapters 1&2 Hippocrates   Theory of the four humors  Hippocratic oath Plato   Myth of the cave Mary Calkins and Margaret Floy Washburn Watson, classical conditioning Martin Seligman, positive psychology Chapter 3  Inattentional blindness Dual processing and the two track mind Parallel processing Major Sleep Disorders:  Sleep Deprivation  Insomnia  Narcolepsy   Sleep Apnea  Chapter 4 Chromosomes and Inheritance The human genome is the shared genetic profile that distinguishes humans from other species, consisting at an individual level of all the genetic material in an organism’s chromosomes  A biological parent donates half of their set of chromosomes to their offspring Identical vs Fraternal twins  Identical twins develop from a single fertilized egg, fraternal from two  Identical twins DO NOT always have the same # of copies of genes  Also, not all identical twins share the same placenta Behavior Genetics: Biological vs. Adoptive Relatives Studies conducted w/ adopted children for whom the biological relatives are known  Adopted children are more similar to their biological relatives than their environmental/ nurture relatives  Given the evidence of genetic impact human outcomes, does parenting/ nurture make any difference? Behavior Genetics- Predicting Individual Differences Temperament  Person’s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity; apparent from first weeks of life and generally persist into adulthood -Genetic effect appears in physiological differences such as heart rate and nervous system reactivity According to some researchers, three general types of temperament appear in infancy: “easy”, “difficult”, “slow to warm up” “The New Frontier: Molecular Behavior Genetics” Molecular genetics is the study of the molecular structure and function of genes -Finding some of many genes that together contribute complex traits -Revealing at-risk populations for diseases Epigenetics studies molecular mechanism by which environments can trigger or block genetic expression -Epigenetic marks from experience -Environmental factors Evolutionary Psychology: Natural Selection and Adaptation Evolutionary psychology is the study of the evolution of behavior and mind, using principles of natural selection Some variations arise from mutations; others from new gene combinations at conception Nature and Nurture interaction shapes synapses -Makes well-used brain pathways work better, unused connections are “pruned” away -This means that if certain abilities are not used, they will fade away BRAIN DEVELOPMENT does not end with childhood -Plasticity allows neural tissue change and reorganize in response to new experience Parent Involvement Promotes Development  Parents in every culture help their children discover the world, but cultures differ in what they deem as important Nature of Gender: our Biological Sex ---Biology does not dictate gender, but it can influence it in two ways Genetically- differing sex chromosomes Physiologically- males and females have differing concentrations of sex hormones Primary sex characteristics- Body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that makes sexual reproduction possible Secondary sex characteristics- Non-reproductive sexual traits, such as females’ breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair Spermarche- first ejaculation Menarche- first menstrual period The Nurture of Gender: our Culture and Experiences Gender role- is a set of expected behaviors for males or for females, and they shift over place and time Gender Identity- a personal sense of being male or female Learning to be male or female -Social learning theory: proposes social behavior is learned by observing and imitating others’ gender-linked behavior and by being rewarded or punished -Gender typing: suggests more than imitation is involved; children gravitate toward what feels right Learning to be male or female involves thinking and feeling  Formation of schemas help children make sense of the world  Gender schemas form early in life and organize experiences of male- female characteristics  Gender expression can be seen as children drop hints in their language, clothing, interests and possessions Androgyny Displaying both traditional masculine and feminine psychological characteristics Transgender Umbrella term to describe people whose gender identity or expression differs from that associated with their birth sex Reflections on Nature, Nurture, and their Interaction Nature and nurture interact within an open system  Biopsychosocial approach considers all the factors that influence our individual development Chapter 5 Developing the Life Span Developmental Psychology’s Major Issues Nature vs. nurture- how is our development influenced by the interaction between our genetic inheritance and experiences? Continuity & stages- what parts of development are gradual and continuous, and what parts change abruptly? Stability & change- which of our traits persist and which change through life? Prenatal Development Zygote- life cycle begins at conception, when one sperm cell pairs up with an egg to form the zygote (fertilized egg). It then enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo Embryo- the zygote’s inner cells become the embryo, and the outer cells become the placenta- the human form begins development 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month Pre-natal Development is not risk-free Teratogen- an agent such as a chemical or virus that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)- physical and mental abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. In severe cases, signs include a small, out of proportion head and abnormal facial features and mental impairments The Competent Newborn A newborn baby:  Is born with automatic reflex responses that support survival: sucking, tonguing, swallowing, and breathing Newborns have a preference for looking at faces or face-like images Infancy and Childhood: Physical Development Brain cells are sculpted by heredity and experience  Birth: neuronal growth spurt and synaptic pruning  3-6 months: rapid frontal lobe growth and continued growth into adolescence and beyond  Early childhood: critical period for some skills (ex. Language and vision)  Throughout life: learning changes brain tissue Continuity vs Stage View Development is gradual and continuous Stage view- development proceeds in an uneven (discontinued) fashion Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development Piaget  Children are active thinkers  Their minds develop through a series of universal, irreversible stages from simple reflexes to adult abstract reasoning  Children’s maturing brains build schemas which are used to adjusted through assimilation and accomadation Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking Sensorimotor stage (birth to nearly 2 years)  Tools for thinking and reasoning change w/ development o Adaptation, assimilation, accommodation  Object permanence o Awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived Preoperational stage (about 2-7 years)  Child learns to use language but cannot yet perform the mental operations on concrete logic  Conservation  Egocentrism/ curse of knowledge Concrete operational (7-11 years)  Children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events  They begin to understand change in form before change in quantity and become able to understand simple math and conservation Formal operational (12- adulthood)  Children are no longer limited to concrete reasoning based on actual experience  They are able to think abstractly An Alternative Viewpoint: Vygotsky and the Social Child  Children’s mind grows through interaction with the physical environment Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)  Children with ASD have impaired theory of mind, social deficiencies, and repetitive behaviors o Reading faces and social signals is challenging those w/ ASD o Underlying cause of ASD are attributed to poor communication among brain regions that facilitate theory of mind skills and genetic influences Social Development  Critical period: Optimal period early in the life of an organism when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces normal development  Imprinting: Process by which certain animals form strong attachments during early life Parenting Styles Parenting styles reflect varying degrees of control (Baumrind)  Authoritative parents tend to have children with the highest self- esteem, self-reliance, and social competence  Permissive parents tend to have children who are more aggressive and immature  Authoritarian parents tend to have children with less social skill and self-esteem ***Authoritative is “best”, the other two not so good Culture  Cultural values vary from place to place and from one time to another within the same place  Children have survived and flourished throughout history under various child-rearing systems  Diversity in child rearing should be a reminder that no single culture has the only way to raise children successfully Adolescence: Social Development  Adolescence struggle involves identity vs. role confusion-continuing into adulthood  Social identity involves the “we” aspect of self-concept that comes from group memberships  Healthy identity formation is followed by capacity to build close relationships What Happens Next? Emerging adulthood  Includes the time from 18-mid twenties in a not-yet-settled phase of life  Characterized by not yet assuming adult responsibilities and independences and feelings of being “in between”  May involve living with and still being emotionally dependent on parents  Found mostly in today’s Western cultures Adulthood: Aging and Memory Early adulthood is peak time for some learning and memory Middle adulthood show greater decline in ability to recall rather than recognize memory Late adulthood is characterized by better retention of meaningful than meaningless information, longer word production time End of life is characterized by terminal decline typically occurs during last four years of life Neurocognitive disorders (NCD) and Alzheimer’s disease Neurocognitive disorders (NCDs)  Acquired (not lifelong) disorders marked by cognitive deficits  Often related to Alzheimer’s disease, brain injury or disease, or substance abuse  Results in the erosion of mental abilities that is not typical of normal aging Alzheimer’s disease  Marked by neural plaques, often w/ an onset after age 80  Entails a progressive decline in memory and other cognitive abilities Chapter 6- Sensation and Perception Basic Concepts of Sensation and Perception Sensation and perception are actually parts of one continuous process  Sensation o Bottom-up process by which the physical sensory system receives and represents stimuli at the very basic level of sensory receptors and works up  Perception o Top-down mental process of organizing and interpreting sensory input from experience and expectations Bottom-up processing is sensory analysis that begins at the entry level, with information flowing from the sensory receptors to the brain Top-down processing is information processing guided by high-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions by filtering information through our experience and expectations How much stimuli does it take to have a sensation? Absolute threshold  Minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time  Can see a far away light in the dark, feel the slightest touch Subliminal  Input, below the absolute threshold for conscious awareness Priming  Activating, often unconsciously, associations in our mind, thus setting us up to perceive, remember, or respond to objects or events in certain ways Difference threshold (just noticeable difference)  Minimum difference a person can detect between any two stimuli half the time; increases w/ stimulus size Weber’s law  For an average person to perceive a difference, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (not a constant amount); exact proportion varies, depending on the stimulus Perceptual Set: Motivation and Emotion Context effects A given stimulus may trigger different perceptions b/c of the immediate context Terms to Learn  Wavelength o Distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next. Electromagnetic wavelengths vary from the short blips of cosmic rays to the long pulses of radio transmission.  Hue o Dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names blue, green, etc.  Intensity o Amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which influences what we perceive as brightness or loudness. Intensity is determined by the wave’s amplitude (height) Sensory and Perceptual Processing in Vision  What is seen as light is only a thin slice of the broad spectrum of electromagnetic energy o The portion visible to humans extends from the blue-violet to the red light wavelengths o After entering the eye and being focused by a lens, light energy particles strike the eye’s inner surface, the retina o The perceived hue in a light depends on its wavelength, and its brightness depends on its intensity Light energy: from the environment into the brain Rods and cones  Cones and rods each provide a special sensitivity o Cones are sensitive to detail and color o Rods are sensitive to faint light Information Processing in the Eye and Brain  Color processing occurs in two stages o Retina’s red, green, and blue cones respond in varying degrees to different color stimuli, as the Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory suggested o Cones’ responses are then processed by opponent- process cells, as Hering’s theory proposed  Feature detection o Involves nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific feature of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement Visual Organization: Gestalt Principles  Gestalt psychologists propose principles used to organize sensations into perception o Form perception o Depth perception o Perceptual constancy Vision: Visual Organization  How do we organize and interpret shapes and colors into meaningful perceptions? People tend to organize pieces of information into an organized whole or Gestalt (an organized whole that is seen as more than just the sum of its parts) Gestalt Principles: Form Perception  How do we know where one object begins and another ends? o Figure­ground Gestalt Principles: Depth Perception  Depth perception o Represents the ability to see objects in three dimensions, although the images that strike the retina are two dimensional o Allows us to judge distance o Is present, at least in part, at birth in humans and other animals The Visual Cliff -Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk (1960)  Test of early 3-D perception  Most infants refuse to crawl across the visual cliff  Crawling at any age seems to increase an infant’s fear of heights Seeing Depth: Binocular Cues  Binocular cues o Two eyes help perception of depth  Retinal disparity o Binocular cue for perceiving depth o By comparing images from the two eyes, the brain calculates distance o Used by 3-D film makers Seeing Depth: Molecular Cues  Monocular cue o Depth cue, such as interposition or linear perspective, available to either eye alone Gestalt Principles: Color Constancy  Color constancy  Perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object Experience and Visual Perception: Perceptual Interpretation  Restored vision and sensory restriction o Effect of sensory restriction on infant cats, monkeys, and humans suggests there is a critical period for normal sensory and perceptual development o Without stimulation, normal connections do not develop.  Perceptual adaptation o Ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field The Nonvisual Senses: Hearing Sound waves: from the environment into the brain  Sound waves compress and expand air molecules  Ears detect these brief pressure changes Hearing: Sound Characteristics Amplitude (height) determines intensity (loudness) in sound waves Length (frequency) determines the pitch Sound is measured in decibels (dB) How do we locate sounds? Why two ears are better than one:  Sound waves strike one ear sooner and more intensely than the other  From this information, our brain can compute the sound’s location The nonvisual Senses: Touch  Sense of touch is actually a mix of four distinct skin senses o Pressure o Warmth o Cold o Pain  Other skin sensations are variations of the basic four The Pain Circuit Sensory receptors (nociceptors) respond to potentially damaging stimuli by sending an impulse to the spinal cord, which passes the messages to the brain, which interprets the signal as pain Controlling Pain Placebo, distraction, hypnosis (slide 47) The Nonvisual Senses: Taste  Like touch, taste o Involves several basic sensations o Can be influenced by learning, expectations, and perceptual bias o Has survival function Table on slide 48 The Nonvisual Senses: Body Position and Movement  Kinesthesis o System for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts o Interacts w/ vision  Vestibular sense o Sense of body movement and position, including the sense of CH. 7 Learning Basic Learning Concepts and Classical Conditioning  What is learning? o Process of acquiring through experience new information or behaviors  How do we learn? o Through association: Classical Conditioning o Through consequences: operant conditioning o Through acquisition of mental information that guides behavior: Cognitive learning Classical Conditioning A type of learning that develops through involuntary paired associations; a previously neutral stimulus (NS) is paired (associated) with an unconditioned stimulus (US) to elicit a conditioned response (CR). ***Note- conditioning is just another word for learning  Pavlov o Studied digestive system; first Russian Nobel Prize (1904) o Demonstrated associative learning via salivary conditioning Classical Conditioning  Watson o Influenced by Pavlov o Theoretical goal of science of psychology is prediction and control of behavior  Behaviorism o Psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior w/o reference to mental processes o Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not w/ (2)  Acquisition o Initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus (US)so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned stimulus (CS) Generalization  Pavlov demonstrated generalization by attaching miniature vibrators to various parts of a dog’s body Classical Conditioning: Pavlov’s Legacy  Consensus among psychologists that classical conditioning is basic learning form Applications of Classical Conditioning  Pavlov’s work provided a basis for Watson’s ideas that human emotions and behaviors, though biologically influenced, are mainly conditioned responses  Watson applied classical conditioning principles in his studies of “Little Albert” to demonstrate how specific fears might be conditioned Operant Conditioning Behavior operates on the environment to produce rewarding or punishing stimuliOrganisms associate their own actions with consequencesActions followed by reinforcement increase; those followed by punishments often decrease Thorndike’s Law of Effect Skinner and Skinner’s Experiments  Skinner o Expanded on Thorndike’s law of effect o Developed behavioral technology and principles of behavior control o Designed and used the Skinner box for experiments ad recorded responses Operant Conditioning Everyday behaviors are continually reinforced and shaped  Reinforcement: Any event that strengthens a preceding response  Shaping: Gradually guiding toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior Types of Reinforcers Positive reinforcement -Increases behaviors by presenting positive reinforcers Positive reinforce -Is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response Negative reinforcement -Increases behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli -Is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response Operant Conditioning: Types of Reinforcers  Primary: Is unlearned; satisfies an intrinsic, unlearned biological need (food, water, sex)  Conditioned (secondary): gains power through association w/ primary reinforce  Immediate: occurs immediately after a behavior  Delayed: involves time delay between desired response of and delivery of reward Operant Conditioning: Reinforcement Schedules  Reinforcement schedule o Includes pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced  Continuous reinforcement schedule o Involves reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs  Partial (intermittent) reinforcement o Includes schedule reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement Operant Conditioning  Punishment administers an undesirable consequence or withdraws something desirable in an attempt to decrease the frequency of a behavior (a child’s disobedience)  Positive punishment o Presenting a negative consequence after an undesired behavior is exhibited, making the behavior less likely to happen in the future  Negative punishment o Removing a desired stimulus after particular undesired behavior is exhibited, resulting in reducing behavior in future Applications of Observational Learning  Antisocial effects o Abusive parents may have aggressive children o Watching TV and videos may teach children  Bullying is an effective tool for controlling others  Free and easy sex has little later consequences  Men should be tough; women should be gentle o Violence-viewing effect CH. 8 Memory Studying Memories  Persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information Evidence of memory  Recalling information  Recognizing  Relearning it more easily on a later attempt Ebbinghaus’ Retention Curve -Ebbinghaus found that the more times he practiced a list of nonsense syllables on day 1, the less time he required to relearn it on day 2 -Speed of relearning is one measure of memory retention Memory Models  Three processing stages in the Atkinson-Shiffrin model o We first record to-be-remembered information as a fleeting sensory memory o From there we process information into short-term memory, where we encode it through rehearsal o Finally, information moves into long-term memory for later retrieval  Atkinson-Shiffrin model updated concepts o Working memory, to stress the active processing occurring in the second memory stage o Automatic processing, to address the processing of information outside of conscious awareness  Working memory o Involves newer understanding of short-term memory o Focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory o Is handled by a central executive Dual-Track Memory: Effortful VS. Automatic Processing  Dual-track memory system o Explicit memories (declarative memories) of conscious facts and experiences encoded through conscious, effortful processing o Implicit memories (nondeclarative memories) that form through automatic processes and bypass conscious encoding track Encoding Memories  Automatic processing and implicit memories o Implicit memories include automatic skills and classically conditioned associations o Information is automatically processed about  Space  Time  Frequency o Effortful processing and explicit memories  W/ experience and practice, explicit memories become automatic Sensory Memory What is it?  First stage in forming explicit memories  Immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system  Iconic memory: picture-image memory  Echoic memory: sound memory Capacity of Short-term and Working Memory  Short-term memory o Activated memory that holds a few items briefly (such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing) before the information is stored or forgotten  Working memory o Newer understanding of short-term memory that stresses conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual- spatial information, and of information retrieved form long-term memory Effortful Processing Strategies  Chunking: organization of items into familiar, manageable units, often occurs automatically  Mnemonics: memory aids, especially techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices o Peg-word system  Hierarchies: organization of items into a few broad categories that are divided and subdivided into narrower concepts and facts Explicit-Memory System: Hippocampus and Frontal Lobes  Is dedicated to explicit memory formation  Registers and temporarily holds elements of explicit memories before moving them to other brain regions for long-term storage  Neural storage of long-term memories is called memory consolidation Implicit-Memory System: The Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia  Implicit memory system: Cerebellum and basal ganglia o Cerebellum plays important role in forming and storing memories created by classical conditioning o Memories of physical skills are also implicit memories o Basal ganglia help form memories for these skills  Infantile amnesia o Conscious memory of first three years is blank o Command of language and well-developed hippocampus needed Retaining information in the Brain  Excitement or stress trigger hormone production and provoke amygdala to engage memory o Emotions often persist w/ or without conscious awareness o Emotional arousal causes an outpouring of stress hormones, which lead to activity in the brain’s memory-forming areas o Flashbulb memories occur via emotion-triggered hormonal changes and rehearsal Synaptic Changes  Long-term potentiation (LTP) o Increase in a synapse’s firing potential o After LTP, brain will not erase memories o Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory  Kandel and Schwartz (1982) o Pinpointed changes in sea slugs neural connection o With learning more serotonin released and cell efficiency increased- number of synapses increase Memory Retrieval Cues  Retrieval cues o Priming o Context-dependent memory o State-dependent memory o Serial position effect  Memory retrieval o Memories held in storage by web of associations o Retrieval cues serve as anchor points for pathways to memory suspended in this web o Best retrieval cues come from associations formed at the time a memory is encoded Forgetting and the Two-track Mind  Humans have two distinct memory systems, controlled by different parts of the brain  Forgetting has several causes o Encoding failure o Storage decay o Retrieval failure o Interference o Motivated forgetting Forgetting: Encoding and Storage Decay  Encoding failure o Age: encoding lag is linked to age-related memory decline o Attention: Failure to notice or encode contributes to memory failure  Storage decay o Cause of forgetting is initially rapid, and then levels off with time o Physical change in the brain occur as memory forms (memory trace) ***We cannot remember what we have not encoded (committing info to long-term memory) Forgetting  Interference o Proactive: occurs when older memory makes it more difficult to remember new information o Retroactive: occurs when new learning disrupts memory for older information  Motivated forgetting o Freud: repressed memories protect self-concept and minimize anxiety o Today: attempts to forget more likely when information is neutral, not emotional WHEN DO WE FORGET?  Forgetting can occur at any memory stage  As we process information, we filter, alter, or lose much of it Memory Construction Errors  Misinformation effect occurs when a memory has been corrupted by misleading information  Imigination effect occurs when repeatedly imaging fake actions and events can create false memories  Source amnesia (source misattribution) o Involves faulty memory for how, when, or where information was learned or imagined  Déjà vu o Is a sense that “I’ve experienced this before” o Suggests cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience Discerning True and False Memories  False memories feel like real memories and can be persistent but are usually limited to the gist of the event  False memories are often result of faulty eyewitness testimony Improving Memory  Rehearse repeatedly  Make the material meaningful  Active retrieval cues  Mnemonic devices  Minimize interference  Sleep more  Test your own knowledge, both to rehearse it and to find out what you do not yet know Chapter 9 Thinking and Language Thinking Cognition- the mental activities associated with thinking, remembering, and communicating Concepts- help to simplify thinking through mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, and people After placing an item in a category, memory gradually shifts it toward a category prototype Category boundaries begin to blur when moving away from prototypes Problem Solving: Strategies  An algorithm is a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees a solution to a problem  A heuristic is a simpler, quicker algorithm but is more error-prone  Insight is not a strategy-based solution, but rather a sudden flash of inspiration that solves a problem Problem Solving: Obstacles  Confirmation bias predisposes us to verify rather than challenge our hypotheses  Fixation, such as mental set, may prevent us from taking the fresh perspective that would lead us to a solution Forming Good and Bad Decisions and Judgments  Intuition is an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning  Availability heuristics can distort judgment by estimating event likelihood based on memory availability  Overconfidence can impact decisions when confidence outweighs correctness  Belief perseverance occurs when we cling to beliefs and ignore evidence that proves these are wrong  Framing sways decisions and judgments by influencing the way an issue is posed. It can also influence beneficial decisions The Fear Factor- Why we fear the wrong things 1. We fear what our ancestors feared 2. We fear the thing we can’t control 3. We fear what is immediate 4. We fear what is most readily available in memory Ex. 9/11 scared people away from flying and onto the road- where they were much more likely to die in a car accident compared to a plane crash Thinking Creatively  Creativity is the ability to produce new and valuable ideas  It is supported by o Aptitude or the ability to learn o Intelligence o Working memory  Divergent thinking o Expands the number of possible problem solutions (creative thinking that diverges in different directions)  Convergent thinking o Narrows the available problem solutions to determine the single best solution  Robert Sternberg and his colleagues propose five ingredients of creativity o Expertise o Imaginative thinking skills o Venturesome personality o Intrinsic motivation o Creative environment Do other species share our cognitive skills?  Researchers make inferences about other species’ consciousness and intelligence based on their behavior o Other animals use concepts, numbers, and tools and that they transmit learning from one generation to the next o Other species also show insight, self-awareness, altruism, cooperation, and grief  Using concepts and numbers o Several species demonstrate ability to sort (e.g., Pigeons and other birds; great apes; humans)  Displaying insight o Humans are not the only species to display insight (e.g. Chimps)  Using tools and transmitting culture o Various species have displayed creative tool use (e.g. forest- dwelling chimps; elephants; humans)  Other species display many cognitive skills o Voice-recognition in baboon troops o Mirror self-recognition in great apes and dolphins o Displays of learning, remembering, cooperation in elephants Language and Thought  Language o Involves our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning o Is used to transmit civilization’s knowledge from one generation to the next o Connect humans Language Structure  Three building blocks of spoken language o Phonemes are the smallest distinctive sound units in language o Morphemes are the smallest language unit that carry meaning o Grammar is the system of rules that enables humans to communicate with one another  Semantics: deriving meaning from sounds  Syntax: ordering words into sentences When do we learn language? Receptive language: infant ability to understand what is said to them around 4 months Production language: Infant ability to produce words begin around 10 months Explaining Language Development Language diversity 700+ languages worldwide; structurally very different Chomsky  Argued that all languages share basic elements called a universal grammar  Theorized that humans are born with predisposition to learn grammar rules; not a built-in specific language Statistical Learning  Human infants display to ability to learn statistical aspects of human speech  Infant brains discern word breaks and analyze which syllables most often go together  Seven-month-olds can learn simple sentence structures (ABA pattern) *Human infants come with a remarkable capacity to soak up language. But the particular language they learn will reflect their unique interactions with others How Do We Learn Grammar?  Critical periods suggest childhood represents critical period for mastering certain aspects of language o People who learn a second language as adults usually speak it with the accent of their native language, and they also have difficulty mastering new grammar ** the older a person is, the harder it is to learn a new language Deafness and Language Development  Children born to hearing and non-signing parents typically do not experience any language during early years  Natively deaf children who learn sign after age 9 do not learn sign language, master basic words, or become as fluent as native signers  Late learners show less right hemisphere brain activity in areas related to sign language reading Cochlear implants or not?  More than 90 percent of all deaf children are born to hearing parents who often seek cochlear implants for their children. Deaf culture advocates object to this  National Association of the Deaf argues that deafness is not a disability because native signers are not linguistically disabled The Brain and Language  Damage to any one of several areas of the brain’s cortex can impair language  Today’s neuroscience has confirmed brain activity in Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas during language processing  In processing language, the brain operates by dividing its mental functions into smaller tasks Language and Thought Whorf’s linguistic determination hypothesis: Language determines basic ideas  Evidence from bilingual speakers suggest that people think differently in different languages  Bilingual parents often switch from one language to another to express emotions Words influence, but do not determine, thinking Thinking About Colors  Colors seen in same way but native language used to classify and remember them  Perceived differences expand as different names assigned Language and Thought  Expanding language expands the ability to think  Bilingual speakers use executive control over language (bilingual advantage) to inhibit attention to irrelevant information  Language connects the past and the future Thinking in Images  After learning a skill, watching the activity activates the brain’s internal stimulation of it (fMRI research of Calvo-Merino and colleagues, 2004)  Mental rehearsal can aid in academic goal achievement (process stimulation) PSYC CH. 10 Intelligence Definition: “global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, profit from experience, and deal effectively w/ the environment” Nature of Intelligence Charles Spearman- General Intelligence (g) Laid the foundation for today’s standardized IQ tests- Wechsler and Stanford Binet Thurstone- seven clusters of primary mental abilities -scoring well on one cluster usually meant doing well on other clusters, this provided some evidence of g Theories of Multiple Intelligences Gardner’s multiple intelligences  Intelligence consists of multiple abilities that come in different packages  Evidence of multiple intelligence is found in people w/ savant syndrome and ASD Linguistic, spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, intrapersonal (understanding yourself, ex. setting achievable goals), logical/mathematical, musical, interpersonal, naturalistic, spiritual/existential Sternberg’s 3 intelligences  Analytical, creative, practical intelligences Gardner and Sternberg  Differences  Gardner identified multiple relatively independent intelligences and views these intelligence domains as differentiated multiple abilities  Sternberg agrees with the concept of multiple intelligences, but proposes three intelligences  Agreement  Multiple abilities contribute to life successes  Different varieties of giftedness provide educational challenges for education Emotional Intelligence Four components (Salovey and Mayer)  Perceiving emotions (recognizing them in faces, music, and stories)  Understanding emotions (predicting them and how they may change and blend)  Managing emotions (knowing how to express them in varied situations)  Using emotions to enable adaptive or creative thinking Assessing Intelligence Types of tests: intelligence, aptitude, achievement Early and Modern Tests of Mental Abilities Francis Galton  Attempted to assess intellectual ability  Found no correlation between measures  Provided statistical techniques  Persisted in belief of inheritance of genius Alfred Binet  Tended toward environmental explanation of intelligence differences Lewis Terman  Revised Binet’s test for wider use in U.S.  Named revision the Stanford-Binet David Wechsler: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and Wechsler’s tests for children Most widely used intelligence test today Principles of Test Construction 3 criteria of a “good” test  Was the test standardized?  Is it reliable?  Is it valid? Crystallized intelligence: Accumulated knowledge, as reflected in vocabulary and word-power tests  Increases as we age, into middle age Fluid Intelligence: Ability to reason speedily and abstractly, as when solving unfamiliar logic problems  Decreases with age declines gradually until age 75 and then more rapidly after age 85 The Dynamics of Intelligence: Stability Over the Life Span  Before age 3: casual observation and intel. tests only modestly predict future aptitudes  By age 4: intel. test performances begin to predict adolescent and adult scores  Late adolescence: remarkable stability of aptitude scores; +.86 correlation Deary and colleagues study Johnson study Why do Intelligent People Live Longer?  Deary (2008)  Intelligence provides better access to resources.  Intelligence encourages healthy lifestyles.  Prenatal events or early childhood illnesses could influence both intelligence and health.  A “well-wired body” as evidenced by fast reaction speeds, may foster both intelligence and longer life. Extremes of Intelligence Low- IQ below 70, 2 stdev. below average Ex. down syndrome High- Terman study, high-scoring children were healthy, well-adjusted, and unusually successful academically People with same genes may have similar intelligences Early Environmental Influence Slowing normal development  McVicker Hunt (1982): Iranian orphanage study found dire, negative effects of extreme deprivation  Mani and colleagues (2013): Poverty can impede cognitive performance and deplete cognition capacity  Malnutrition, sensory deprivation, and social isolation slowed normal brain development High quality preschool programs boost early intelligence scores Growth mind set (Dweck, 2006)  Fostered with belief that intelligence is changeable  Increased when effort rather than ability encouraged  Made teens more resilient when frustrated by others Ability+opportunity+motivation=success Racial and Ethnic Similarities and Differences Agreed-upon facts  Racial and ethnic groups differ in their average intelligence test scores  High-scoring people and groups are more likely to achieve high levels of education and income  Groups differences provide poor basis for judging individuals The Question of Bias Three hypotheses about racial differences in intelligence:  There are genetically disposed racial differences in intelligence  There are socially influenced racial differences in intelligence  There are racial differences in test scores, but the tests are inappropriate or biased Two Meaning of Bias  Scientific meaning of bias is based on test predictive validity. If test does not accurately predict future behavior for all groups of test-takers, it is biased  A test can also be biased if it detects not only innate differences in intelligence but also performance differences caused by cultural experiences Test-Takers’ Expectations  Self-fulfilling stereotype threat is a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype  Stereotype threat may impair attention, performance, and learning.  Women do not perform on difficult math test as well as men unless told women usually do as well on the test (Spencer and colleagues, 1997)  Black students performed worse when reminded of their race before test (Steele and colleagues, 2002)  Blacks score higher when tested by Blacks, and women by women  Conclusion: aptitude tests are not biased in the scientific sense but they are biased related to insensitivity to differences caused by culture experiences Obama Effect  Some early research suggested that having Barack Obama as a positive role model improved academic performance by African Americans – thus offsetting the stereotype threat (Mars et al., 2009)  Later studies found either no relationship between test performance and positive thoughts about Obama or mixed results (Anderson et al., 2009; Smith, 2012) PSYC CH. 11 What Drives Us: Hunger, Sex, Friendship, and Achievement Basic Motivational Concepts  Motivation is defined as need or desire that energizes and directs behavior  4 perspectives for understanding motivated behaviors: o Instinct theory (evolutionary perspective): genetically predisposed behaviors o Drive-reduction theory: Responses to inner pushes o Arousal theory: Right levels of stimulation o Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: Priority of some needs over others Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology  Darwin o Classification of many behaviors as instincts; named but did not explain behaviors  Instinct o Fixed, unlearned pattern throughout species o Genes predispose some species-typical behavior *the more complex the nervous system, the more adaptable the organism Drives and Incentives  Drive-reduction theory suggests physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need  Homeostasis is the tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry  Incentive involves a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior Motivational Concepts -Arousal Theory  Humans are motivated to engage in behaviors that either increase or decrease arousal levels  High arousal levels motivate engagement in behaviors that will lower these levels  Low arousal levels motivate activities that increase arousal- often through curiosity Maslow -Viewed human motives as pyramid -At the base are basic physiological needs, at the peak are the highest human needs The Physiology of Hunger  Humans automatically regulate caloric intake through a homeostatic system to prevent energy deficits and maintain stable body weight  Stomach contractions  Blood sugar glucose regulation  Appetite hormones  Set point  Basal metabolic rate Hunger: The Physiology of Hunger -The hypothalamus performs various body maintenance functions, including control of hunger  Glucose o Is a form that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues o Triggers feeling of hunger when low  Hypothalamus and other brain structures o Arcuate nucleus: Pumps appetite-suppressing hormones o Ghrelin: Involves hunger-arousing hormones secreted by empty stomach Eating as Motivated Behavior  Glucose deprivation o Brain’s requirement for food in form of glucose is no less urgent than requirement for oxygen o Only a few minutes of glucose deprivation leads to loss of consciousness  Energy storage o Complex regulatory mechanisms o Primary motivation for eating is to keep energy reserves at level to avoid shortfalls Energy Balance  Prandial state (Latin=breakfast) o Energy stores replenished during and right after a meal o Blood is filled with nutrients  Energy is stored in two forms o Glycogen  Stores have finite capacity mainly in liver and skeletal muscle o Triglycerides  Stores found in adipose (fat) tissue, unlimited capacity The Appetite Hormones  Insulin: hormone secreted by pancreas; controls blood glucose  Leptin: protein hormone secreted by fat cells; when abundant, causes brain to increase metabolism and decrease hunger  Orexin: hunger-triggering hormone secreted by hypothalamus  PYY: Digestive tract hormone; sends the “not hungry” signals to the brain Lipostatic Hypothesis British scientist Gordon Kennedy (1953) proposed lipostatic hypothesis -The brain monitors amount of body fat and acts to “defend” this energy store against depletion Leptin Coupling of fat to feeding behavior suggests communication from adipose tissue to the brain  In 1994, Jeffrey Friedman isolated the protein leptin (Greek for slender)  Hormone released by adipocytes- fat cells- that regulate body mass by acting directly on neurons of the hypothalamus  Short-term regulation of feeding behavior o How long since last meal o How much did we eat then o Continuing to eat after a meal starts  Depends on what type of food  Drive to eat o Varies slowly with rise and fall of leptin o Inhibited by satiety signals that occur when we eat and begin digestive process When eating breakfast, your reactions during this process can be divided into three stages: cephalic, gastric, and substrate phases Cephalic: sight and smell of food trigger many physiological processes  Parasympathetic and enteric divisions of the ANS are activated  Saliva is secreted into mouth  Digestive juices are secreted into stomach Gastric: responses grow much more intense when you start chewing, swallowing, and filling your stomach with food Substrate: As the stomach fills with food and the partially digested food moves to the intestines, nutrients begin to be absorbed into the bloodstream Meal ends with the concerted actions of 3 safety signals:  Gastric distention  Release of gastrointestinal peptide cholecystokinin  Release of the pancreatic hormone insulin The Psychology of Hunger: Taste Preferences  Body chemistry and environmental factors influence taste preferences  Biology o Universal preferences for sweet and salty tastes o Calming effect of serotonin boost from carbohydrates The Psychology of Hunger: Situational Influences on Eating  Tempting situations o Friends and food: presence of others amplify natural behavior tendencies (social facilitation) o Serving size is significant: quantity of consumed food is influenced by size or serving, dinnerware, and cultural norms o Food variety stimulate: food variety promotes eating Obesity and Weight Control  Data from 188 countries reveal: o Proportion of overweight adults increased from 29-37% among men, and 30-38% among women o NO reduced obesity rate in ANY country in over 33 years o In 2010, no U.S. state had an obesity rate less than 20% o Extreme obesity carries wide range of health risks The Physiology of Obesity  Set point o Point at which your “weight thermostat” is apparently set. If and when your body falls below this weight, increased hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may kick in to restore the lost weight  Basal metabolic rate o The body’s resting rate of energy output  Genetics influence body weight o People’s weights resemble biological parents o Identical twins have closely similar weight, even when raised apart  Environment also influences obesity o Sleep loss contributes to fall in leptin levels and rise in ghrelin o Social influence seen win correlation among friends’ weights o Changing increased food consumption and lower activity levels are seen worldwide **The U.S. does have highest overall percentage of overweight and obese persons in the world Hormones and Sexual Behavior  Testosterone o Most important male sex hormones o Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs during the fetal period, and the  Estrogens sex hormones o Estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributing to female sex characteristics o In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity  Large hormonal surges or declines tend to occur at two predictable points in life span o Pubertal stage surge triggers development of sex characteristics and sexual interest o Estrogen levels fall in later life causing menopause in women  A third point sometimes occurs o For some, surgery or drugs may cause hormonal shifts Sexual Dysfunctions and Paraphilias  Paraphilias o Experiencing sexual arousal from fantasies, behaviors, or urges involving nonhuman objects, the suffering of self or others, and/or non-consenting persons  American Psychiatric Association (2013) o Only classifies people as disordered who experience sexual desire in unusual ways if:  Person experiences distress from unusual sexual interest or  It entails harm or risk of harm to others o Necrophilia, exhibitionism, pedophilia Sexually Transmitted Infections Women’s AIDs rates increasing fastest The Psychology of Sex  Sophisticated brain allows us to experience sexual arousal both from what is real and from what is imagined o External stimuli  Men more aroused when erotic material aligns w/ personal sexual interest  Content and intensity of sexual experience arouse women  Pornography may decrease sexual satisfaction w/ own partner; may change perceptions about rape and other sexual violence  Imagined stimuli o Sexual desire and arousal can be imagined o 90% of spinal-injured men reported having sexual desire o 95% of people report having sexual fantasies  Males: Tend to be more frequent, more physical and less romantic What Is Sexual Orientation  Enduring sexual attraction toward o Members of either one’s own sex (homosexual orientation) o The other sex (heterosexual) o Both sexes (bisexual)  In all cultures, heterosexuality has prevailed and bisexuality and homosexuality have endured The Numbers  Survey results vary by survey methods and population; less open response in less tolerant places  Exclusively homosexual: 3 to 4 percent in men and 2 percent in women  Bisexual: 5 percent of men and 13 percent of women in U.S.  APA reports efforts to change sexual orientation are unlikely to be successful and involve some risk of harm  Gay-straight brain differences  One hypothalamic cell cluster is smaller in women and gay men than in straight men  Gay men’s hypothalamus reacts as do straight women’s to the smell of sex-related hormones  Genetic influences  Shared sexual orientation is higher among identical twins than among fraternal twins  Sexual attraction in fruit flies can be genetically manipulated  Male homosexuality often appears to be transmitted from the mother’s side of the family The Need to Belong  Pain of being shut out  Worldwide, many forms of ostracism are used  Brain scans reveal that ostracism causes physical pain  Social isolation and rejection foster depressed moods or emotional numbness and can trigger aggression  Risk for mental decline and ill health may also occur Suggests for Maintaining Balance  Monitor your time  Monitor your feelings  “Hide” your most distracting online friends  Try turning off or leaving your mobile devices elsewhere  Try a social networking fast or a time-controlled media diet Achievement Motivation  Achievement motivation is a desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of skills or ideas; for control; and for attaining a high standard  Achievements are not distributed on a bell curve and involve much more than raw ability  Grit matters. In psychology, it involves passion and perseverance in the pursuit of long-term goals Ch. 12 Emotions: Stress and Health Emotion: Arousal, Behavior, and Cognition  Emotions are adaptive responses that support survival  Emotional components o Bodily arousal o Expressive behaviors o Conscious experiences  Theories of emotion generally address two major questions o Does physiological arousal come before or after emotional feelings o How do feeling and cognition interact? Historical Emotion Theories  James-Lange Theory: Arousal comes before emotion o Experience of emotion involves awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli  Cannon-Bard Theory: Arousal and emotion happen at the same time o Emotion- arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion o Human body responses run parallel to the cognitive responses rather than causing them  Schachter and Singer Two-Factor Theory: Arousal+ Label= Emotion o Emotions have two ingredients: physical arousal and cognitive appraisal o Arousal fuels emotion and cognition channels it  Emotional experience requires a conscious interpretation of arousal  Spillover effect: Spillover arousal from one event to the next- influencing a response  Zajonc, LeDoux, and Lazarus: Emotion and the 2-track brain o Zajonc  Sometimes emotional responses take neural shortcut that bypasses the cortex and goes directly to the amygdala  Some emotional responses involve no deliberate thinking o Lazarus  Brain processes much information without conscious awareness, but mental functioning still takes place  Emotions arise when an event is appraised as harmless or dangerous Emotions and the Automatic Nervous System  The arousal component of emotion is regulated by the automatic nervous system’s sympathetic (arousing) and parasympathetic (calming) divisions  In a crisis, the fight-or-flight response automatically mobilized the body for action  Arousal affects performance in different ways, depending on the task o Performance peaks at lower levels of arousal for difficult tasks, and at higher levels for easy or well-learned tasks Physiology of Emotions  Different emotions have subtle indicators o Brain scans and EEGs reveal different brain circuits for different emotions o Depression and general negativity: Right frontal lobe activity o Happiness, enthusiastic, and energized: Left frontal lobe activity Detecting Emotion in Others  People can often detect nonverbal cues, and threats, and signs of status  Nonthreatening cues more easily detected that deceiving expressions  Westerners o Firm handshake: Outgoing, expressive personality o Gaze: intimacy o Averted glance: submission o Stare: dominance  Gestures, facial expressions, and voice tones are absent in written communication o In absence of expressive emotion, ambiguity can occur Gender, Emotion, and Nonverbal Behavior Gender and expressiveness: women and men may feel the same emotionally when watching a movie, but women will be more expressive The Effects of Facial Expressions  Research on the facial feedback effect o Facial expressions can trigger emotional feelings and signal our body to respond accordingly o People also mimic others’ expression, which help them empathize  A similar behavior feedback effect o Tendency of behavior to influence our own and others’ thoughts, feelings, and actions Experiencing Emotion  Izard isolated 10 basic emotions that include physiology and expressive behavior o These basic emotions are joy, interest-excitement, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust, contempt, fear, shame, and guilt  Two dimensions that help differentiate emotions o Positive-versus-negative valence o Low-versus-high arousal Short Life of Emotional Ups and Downs  Emotional ups and downs tend to balance out; moods usually rebound o Even significant good events, such as sudden wealth, seldom increase happiness for long o Happiness is relative to our own experiences (the adaptation- level phenomenon) and to others’ success (the relative


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