Biology 242--Final Exam Study Guide
Biology 242--Final Exam Study Guide Biology 242
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meredith Sergent on Saturday April 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 242 at University of Louisville taught by (Dr. Alexander, Dr. Corbitt, Dr. Eason, Dr. Fuselier, Dr. Mansfield-Jones) in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life in Biology at University of Louisville.
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Date Created: 04/02/16
Biology 242—Spring 2016 Final Exam Study Guide Drs. Alexander, Fuselier, Eason, MansfieldJones, Corbitt **This information is taken from the Spring 2016 Exams 14 administered by the course instructors** Information from Exam 1 Plasmodial slime molds are protists that possess a large multinucleated amoeboid mass at some time in their life cycle. (question 1) Ciliates are protists whose outer surface is covered with rows of cilia, has a macronuclei and one or more micronuclei, performs conjugation. (question 1) Brown algae are protists in the group Phaeophyta (kelps), large autotrophic multicellular organisms in marine environments, alternation of generations (question 1) Diatoms are protists in the group Bacillariophyta, photosynthetic, many are shaped like petri dishes, food stored in laminarin. (question 1) Cellular slime molds are protists that possess a large multicellular amoeboid mass. (question 1) Evolution of terrestrial plants from earliest to most recent: (question 2) Mosses (no leaves or seeds)ferns (leaves, no seeds)conifers (leaves and seeds)flowering plants (leaves, seeds, and flowers) Cladogenesis is the budding off of one or more new species from a parental species, the parental species may or may not be seen later on down the line. (question 3) Green algae (Chlorophyta) is similar to seed plants in that they both have chlorophyll, but green algae does not have seeds, pollen, stomata, and xylem. (question 5) In ferns, the gametophyte stage is smaller in size compared to the sporophyte and the gametophyte is not dependent upon the sporophyte for protection and nutrition (question 6) Ferns are land plants that have flagellated sperm and has a diploid dominant generation in which the diploid adult is larger than the haploid adult. (question 7) During the life cycle of vascular plants, meiosis occurs in the process of spore formation. (question 8) In the plant life cycle stages, gametophytes immediately follow plant spores. (question 9) An angiosperm sporophyte is the plant that arose from a zygote that was produced by the fusion of two gametes. (question 10) The most useful way to separate mosses and ferns is by the presence/absence of vascular tissue. (question 11) Vascular plants are all multicellular, have xylem and phloem (vascular tissues), alternation of generations, and diploid dominant generations. Not all vascular plants develop seeds (ferns). (question 12) In angiosperms, fruits aid in the dispersal of seeds by wind and animals (question 13) In regards to sporophyte and gametophyte generations in flowering plants, the sporophyte generation is larger, dominant, what we see when we see a flowering plant in nature. The gametophyte generation is not photosynthetic and is confined to a few cells found in the flower. (question 14) If you didn’t know about that the fourchambered of birds and the fourchambered hearts of mammals evolved independently of each other, then you could logically assume that the common ancestor of the two species had a fourchambered heat. (question 15) Transduction is the direct transfer of plasmids from one cell to another. (question 16) Gymnosperms and angiosperms both have seeds, roots, vascular tissue, and leaves. (question 17) Apicomplexans perform schizogony, where multiple fission was preceded by the fusion of gametes. (question 19) A bird’s wing and a mammalian foreleg AS FORELIMBS still have the same basic underlying structure and development and are therefore considered homologous structures (question 21) Dinoflagellates possess two flagella, are marine, and cause red tide. (question 22) For land plants, in the alteration of generations, meiosis in sporangia found on sporophytes produces haploid spores. (question 23) Spirochetes include bacteria that move by axial filaments that run beneath the outer membrane. (question 24) Domain Eukarya is the only domain where you find a nuclear envelope. (question 26) The ancestors of land plants were probably similar to modernday Charophytes (green algae). (question 27) Evolutionary trends in plants (from ancient characteristicsrecent characteristics): (question 28) Nonvascularvascular Plants without seedsseedbearing plants Haploid generation dominantdiploid generation dominant Nonflowering plantsflowering plants Flagellated spermsperm without flagella Phylogeny is the field of biology where species and higher taxa are placed into various groups and the evolutionary relationships among species through time is elucidated. (question 30) Euglenozoans have anterior flagellae and a large single mitochondrion containing a mass of DNA called a kinetoplast. (question 31) Histones associated with DNA are found in Domains Eukarya and Archaea. (question 37) In mosses, the young sporophyte depends upon the gametophyte for nutrition. (question 38) Characteristics of ferns: flagellated sperm xylem with tracheids, separate gametophyte and sporophyte phases, and lacks seeds. (question 40) Certain bacteria are able to withstand environmental extremes because they can form resistant stages called endospores. (question 43) Functions/properties of bacterial capsules: ‘glue’ bacteria together into colonies, increase resistance to host defenses, adhere bacterium to substratum. (question 44) Obligate anaerobes are organisms that are poisoned by oxygen. (question 46) Cyanobacteria are important nitrogen fixers and possess heterocysts for nitrogen fixation (question 47) For plants, secondary compounds provide protection against predators. (question 49) All protists are multicellular. (question 50) Information from Exam 2 Root hairs absorb most of the water and minerals taken up from soil. (question 1) In arthropods, only insects have wings. (question 2) Spiders have book lungs. (question 3) In winged insects, wings do not come from modified walking legs. (question 4) Terrestrial air breathing insects use tracheae. (question 5) A major drawback to exoskeletons is that ecdysis is essential for growth (question 6) Echinoderms have a water vascular system. (Echinoderms are sea stars, etc.) (question 7) Chordate characteristics: postanal tail, dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal gill slits, notochord. (question 8) Mycorrhizae is a mutualism with fungi and roots. (question 9) All fungi are heterotrophic (question 11) The developmental stage after the zygote is the morula (question 12) If companion cells cannot function, sieve tube members wil be immediately affected. (question 13) Evaporation of water from leaves drives the flow of water through xylem. (question 15) Mesophylls are involved in photosynthesis. Guard cells are involved in the regulation of evapotranspiration. Sieve tube members are involved in the translocation of sugars. Companion cells assist sieve tube members. (question 16) Secondary growth is produced by both the vascular cambium and the cork cambium. (question 17) An older tree’s bark contains cork, cork cambium, and phloem. (question 20) A growing root, a growing young root, a storage organ in summer, and a shoot tip are all considered sinks. (question 21) The common eukaryotic ancestor or all animals was probably a protist. (question 30) The primary function of meristems is to produce more cells. (question 35) Mollusca are diploblastic aquatic predators. (question 41) Terrestrial earthworms respire through the skin. (question 46) Shells of clams and snails are secreted by the mantle (question 50) Information from Exam 3 Animals that lay eggs are monotremes. (question 2) The first true teeth developed in sharks (question 3) Rayfinned fish have swim bladders (question 4) Earliest jaws were seen in placoderms (question 5) Frogs, snakes, cats, and alligators are all tetrapods (question 6) The four basic tissues are: epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous (question 9) Bacteria in the large intestine produce vitamin K. (question 10) Watersoluble vitamins are: B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12, C (question 11) Hagfish and lampreys are agnathans (question 13) Filtration is least selective process in nephron (question 14) Pressure on flaps by blood starting to flow the wrong direction makes a valve in the heart close (question 20) A naïve lymphocyte is a newly matured lymphocyte that has never encountered an antigen before (question 22) A mast cell would be likely to carry around antibody IgE. (question 23) Neutrophils come from bone marrow (question 30) In a vertebrate heart, a ventriole during systole has the highest pressure (question 34) MHC (major histocompatibility complex) proteins are used for presenting antigens to lymphocytes (question 40) Cellmediated adaptive immunity is a function of T lymphocytes (question 41) Information from Exam 4 Watersoluble hormones have membranebound receptors. (question 1) Only females have negative and positive feedback on the HPG axis. (question 2) Endoskeletons protect internal organs against damage, store reserves of inorganic nutrients, provide muscle attachment points for locomotion, hold up the structure against gravity. (question 4) Hydrostatic skeletons let an organism pass through small spaces (question 7) The condition of a skeletal muscle cell that has think filaments actively pulling on thin filaments is contraction (question 8) The fastest possible conduction velocity of an action potentials is observed in neurons that are think, myelinated. (question 10) Steroid hormones enters the target cell nucleus directly and alters gene expression. (question 11) Portal vessel system carries releasing hormones. (question 13) Epinephrine is released from the adrenal medulla (question 16) FSH (folliclestimulating hormone) causes its target cells to enter meiosis (question 18) Both the testes and ovaries and penis and clitoris developed from the same embryonic structure in males and females, respectively (question 24) 3neuron reflex arc sequence: receptorsensory neuroninterneuronmotor neuroneffector (question 27) In a population exhibiting logistic growth, the change in numbers per unit time increases up to K/2 and then decreases as the population size approaches K (question 29) Density dependent factors are factors whose success depends on the population (predation). Density independent factors are factors that don’t take population size into consideration (fire, drought, natural disasters) (question 32) rselected species: lots of young at one time, small body size, little parental care, short life span, high reproduction rates. Kselected species: few young at one time, extensive parental care, longer life span, larger body size (question 33) Community: all different interacting species that occupy a given habitat (question 36) An acetylcholinesterase enzyme needs to be right outside a skeletal muscle cell at the motor end plate in order to do its musclerelated job. (question 38) Ovarian cycle: follicularovulationluteal (question 39) Ovulation is the follicular response to a surge of secretion of LH (question 45) One skeletal muscle fiber is equivalent to a skeletal muscle cell. (question 46)
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