Final Exam IDs
Final Exam IDs HST 111 - M001
Popular in Early Modern Europe, 1350-1815
HST 111 - M001
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Clarissa Jane Lee on Saturday December 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HST 111 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by C. Kyle in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Early Modern Europe, 1350-1815 in History at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 12/12/15
Petrarch - Humanist poet - Father of the Renaissance - Dedicated to resurfacing and translating Greek and Latin texts - Establishment of vernacular language (Italian) as an art form in itself i.e. vernacular could match the beauty of classical languages - See: Canzionerre o Establishment of vernacular as language of art form, but also uniqueness of subject matter (unrequited love poetry) Flagellants th - Extreme religious movement prevalent during apocalyptic events of mid-14 century (especially starvation and the plague) - Extreme religious group that rises out of the harshness of life - Primarily based in northern and central Europe (Germany and surrounding region) - Flagellants went of pilgrimages whipping their flesh for penance - Condemned as heretical by established church Columbian Exchange - Post-1492 transfer of livestock, food types (give examples), and disease between the New World and Europe - Substantially changes and improves European diet o Results in mass population growth IN EUROPE - Transfer of disease wipes out numerous New World populations previously unexposed to cholera, the plague, or influenza o Natives had no prior exposure to these European diseases, thus had no antibodies or immunity Candide - Satirical work by Voltaire (enlightenment philosopher) th - Attacks 18 century society o Especially corruption in Church and State o Privileges of nobility o Emphasizes harsh reality of everyday life - Presents an ideal society of El Dorado o Theme: Necessity of cultivating our own gardens as a reflection of the rejection of society and philosophy Henry VIII (1509 – 1547) - Renaissance English monarch - Presides over English reformation - Created English National church o Catholic church, but NOT a Roman Catholic church - Works to ensure continuation of Tudor dynasty o Multiple marriages o Endless pursuit for male heir - Typifies Renaissance personal monarchy o Projection of political power o Ostentatious displays of wealth o Love of poetry, hunting, and music Emmanuel Ktht - 18 -century German philosopher - Key thinker during the age of the enlightenment - See: Critique of Pure Reason o “In order to understand the world, you need reason and experience of life – experience of the individual” o Argues for a Republican government § Necessity of all to live under the law § Living under the law brings stability and peace o Attacks structure of the church § BUT still recognizes society’s need for a moral belief in God (requirement) Elizabethan Settlement - Conversion of England back to Protestantism during first few years after Elizabeth I rises to the throne (late 1558) - Settlement worked through Parliament - Moderate settlement of “politique” o Allows some degree of toleration for Catholicism PROVIDED that Catholics did not promote their religious beliefs o See: Act of Uniformity, Act of Supremacy (Elizabeth as Supreme Governor of the Church NOT Supreme Head as Henry was), 39 Articles - Establishment of a moderate Book of Common Prayer Johannes Gutenberg - German printer - Partnered with Johannes Fust in inventing practical moveable metal type printing press - See: Gutenberg Bible/42-line Bible o Printed on paper and on parchment, and illustrated by hand to mimic a copy of the bible produced by scribe - Pioneer of moveable metal type - Invention of printing press revolutionizes communication of information - Printing press allows standardization, efficiency, fewer errors in translation and copying - See: Collaboration during the Renaissance Estates-General - French national legislative assembly - Three estates o Clergy o Nobility o Commoners - Last called to meet in 1614 – France moves towards Absolutism under rule of King Louis XIV - Recalled in 1789 (eve of French Revolution); Number of commoners are doubled to outvote the nobility and the clergy o Rapidly radicalizes in acts against Louis XVI o Staunch opposition to two other estates o When doors are barred, the commoners move to a nearby tennis court – Declaration of Tennis Court Oath § Tennis Court Oath: refusal to disband until France arrives at and establishes a new constitution Ancien Regime - Term used to describe pre-revolutionary France (and Europe, more generally) - Refers to a society dominated by a monarchy, the nobility, and the clergy o i.e. a society in which privileged classes dominate o Advancement in society is built on status, not merit/talent o Marked by evasion of taxes by privileged classes, and brutal suppression of the peasantry Treaty of Westphalia - Signed in 1648 as a declaration of the end of the 30 Years War - Dominance of secularism over religion - Series of treaty negotiations which took place in absence of the Pope - Left each country free to establish its own: o National church o Freedom of worship - Gave people outside of the dominant National Church of minority religious groups (e.g. Christians) the freedom to worship their own religion in private Jan van Eyck - Flemish painter primarily known for oil painting - Oil paintings had exquisite detail of photo-realistic representation characteristic of van Eyck - See: Arnol Fini Portrait o Van Eyck’s presence, as reflected in the mirror, and signed by hand, as a witness to the betrothal Mercantilism - Economic theory that postulates that the global volume of trade is fixed and finite o Therefore economic prosperity is a result of export > import - Marked by government intervention in the economy and high customs duties on imports Dutch Republic - Netherlands declared a republic in 1588 o Breaking away from the domination of Spanish control - “17 -century golden age” for the Dutch Republic o Becomes a dominant world economic power § Colonies § Fishing industry § Merchant shipping o Rise of Dutch East-India Company § Powerful state-run joint-stock company o Establishment of stock market § Bank of Amsterdam o Marked by the importance of the merchant class that dominate society (politically, socially, culturally, economically) o Marked by Flowering of the Arts & Sciences o Collapses due to ongoing conflicts and wars (especially with English) and its resulting expenses § Especially significant because of small size of Dutch Republic Thomas Hobbes th - Mid-17 Century theorist of English Absolutism - View established by bearing witness to and experiencing the war in England - See: Leviathan o Argues for a social contract and rule by society, inevitably leading to a strong central government presided over by a single sovereign Versailles - Louis XIV’s palace 25km from Paris - “Play village”; entertainment as a strategic approach to controlling nobility to prevent threats to the reign of Louis XIV - Marked by wealth, lavishness, decadence - Can hold thousands of members of the aristocracy and court - Marked by ordered/structured daily routines centered around Louis XIV - Political strategy to keep government and potential opposition nearby and under control Coffee Houses - Rapid spread of the social idea of drinking o Place of conviviality - Important to the exchange of information and the spread of ideas o Sites of engagement o Ideas of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment o Place for you to hear the news, read the newspapers and magazine publications o Place to hear lectures and discussions o Helped to bring the ideas of the Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment, and political power to a wider audience – i.e. enabled the circulation of ideas Jacobins - Political club during French Revolution - Initially moderate, but rapidly becomes dominated by Maximilien Robespierre (after declaration of republic) - Identified with the reign of terror and the idea of a republic of virtue - Controlled the committee of public safety - Dominated the national convention - Closed after execution of Maximilien Robespierre (1794) Social Contract - Specifically: ideas of Jean-Jacques Rousseau - “Government is an evil, but a necessary evil” o Necessary to harmonise individual liberty with government authority - Emphasis on ideas of participatory democracy Galileo - 16 & 17 century Italian astronomer and philosopher - “Father of Science” - Used own hand-built telescope to observe the heavens - See: Work about the phases of Venus, and the movement of sunspots o Heliocentric view of the universe - See: Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems o Charged guilty of heresy; sentenced to house arrest
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