PUBLIC HEALTH FINAL EXAM REVIEW
PUBLIC HEALTH FINAL EXAM REVIEW HCS 206
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Christine Castiglione on Saturday January 31, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HCS 206 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Weiss-Laxer in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 172 views. For similar materials see Intro to Public Health in Public Health at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 01/31/15
PUBLIC HEALTH FINAL EXAM HCS 206 Chapters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 amp 11 KEY CONCEPTS Infectious disease BOTH communicable disease and disease caused by organisms that are not communicable Communicable disease ability to be transmitted from human to human human to animal animal to human or animal to animal by various routes including air water bites etc Non Communicable disease wide range of diseases Cardiovascular disease cancers depression Alzheimer s arthritis asthma diabetes chronic respiratory diseases Impact on mortality only re ects part of their overall impact Morbidity due to NCD now most rapidly growing component of morbidity worldwide Prevention types Frieden39s Health Impact Pyramid Approaches to Communicable Non Injuries prevention diseases communicable intervention diseases Counseling amp Behavioral Dietary Counseling and education counseling to counseling public reduce STDs public education to education avoid drinking about lifestyle and driving choices School based programs to preventreduce violent behavior Clinical HIV treatment Treatment of Screening and nentof Increasing Increasinglndividual an 65 for Population Impact Effort Needed p e r0 5 5 LI a Counsellng p and Education can 0 n5 rails to clinical ent falling Interventions Mi 0 ral seling to LongLasting Protective e alc Interventions I m ptl O n C and CI le designs Changing the Context39to Make iu C e Individuals Default Decisions Healthy es and ct S strians amp ocroeconomlc Factors Ilsts laws st FIGURE 1 The health impact pyramid lrtrinIinn and I PULIC muc quot fSocioeconomic Reduce h 9 aCtorS xxx tquot I COMMUNITY vinl 1lF im Immunity l it quot decrease DRQAleZATIlHAL 39 39 crowding and 39 r n mllngumush exposure to 39 INTEEPERSUNAL microbes W tami mr mmmm w r gt g in I 1 IN lwnuwl PERI and eVIdence A0000 lingwledge 39 based methods 7 a ttitudessltillls g PROBLEM EX death and injury from MV crash nonuse and misuse of child passenger seats ETIOLOGY ljchartsocial ecological model of health RECOMMENDATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Ways to measure burden of disease Mortality death example graph of causes of death from hospital records etc and life expectancy based on gender and where they live these are averages and also rely on probability as well Morbidity disease Focus on disease 1 Disease Incidence 2 Disease Prevalence 3 Medical Care Usage lost schoolwork days etc A V 39 Measures of Quality of life la new cases lncidence Rate 0 of new cases of a disease that occur during a specific FDFquot393 quotquot 3 39i k i period of time in a bObulation at risk for developing a disease Prevalence Rate 0 Total of cases new and old in the population at a specific time divided by the number of persons in the population at that time existing casesquot population at rislfquot Criteria of good screening tests FWN The disease produces substantial death andor disability Early detection is possible and improves outcomes There is a feasible testing strategy for screening Screening is acceptable in terms of harms costs and patient acceptance aso includes 1 2 3 4 5 The condition should be an important health problem There should be a treatment for the condition Facilities for diagnosis and treatment should be available There should be a latent stage of the disease There should be a test or examination for the condition DIS EASE False positives c False nega ves Gordis Epidemiology 4th Edition Copyright 2008 by Saunders an imprint of Elsevier Inc All rights EEBEWEEJ Public health quotplayersquot eg government academic etc IN CASE STUDIES FROM CLASS Childhood vaccination who are 3 stakeholders you want at meeting speci c to case refer to in class exercises Determinants of health B behavior I infections G genetics G geography E environment M medical care S socioeconomic cultural DBehavior implies actions that increase exposure to the factors that produce diseases or protect from them examples cig smoking exercise diet unprotected sex all determine development of disease Dlnfections usually direct cause of disease early amp longterm exposure to infections may contribute to or result in disease exampes diseases such as gastric and duodenal ulcers gallstones amp cancer originating in liver are increasingly suspected to have infection as important determinanteary exposure to infections may reduce diseases positive and negaUve leenetics show that despite environmental factors determinants of health are largely genetic MOST IMPORTANT DGeography in uences frequency and presence of disease Also implies geological conditions ex infectious diseases such as malaria lyme disease and schistosomiasis only occur in certain geographical areas DEnvironment determine disease amp course of disease in a few ways natural world may produce disability amp death from sudden disasters earthquakes hurricanes etc altered envrio by humans includes exposures to toxic substances l built environmentgt produces determinants like hazards on highway and pollution Medical Carel access to quality of medical care is large determinant ex when pop is highly vaccinated others are better off as well when infectious diseases are treated stops spread 3 functions of Public Health and components 0 Overall population trends affecting public health Epidemioogica stages trends which stage is country in QUANTITATIVE DATAl QUALITATIVE DATAl
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