FINAL Exam Study Guide
FINAL Exam Study Guide BISC 1005
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This 40 page Study Guide was uploaded by SophieSol on Saturday December 12, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BISC 1005 at George Washington University taught by Scully, T in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 184 views. For similar materials see The Biology of Nutrition and Health in Biological Sciences at George Washington University.
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Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide If you have too much of anything, this can be bad o Fortification = added nutrients Vitamins Fats Knowing your baseline o Everyone has a different baseline o You can alter your genes by what you eat to crave certain things Optimizing your food intake o Cooking burns energy! Optimize activity o It can be a single activity, but rather than doing this, make a habit of taking stairs and walking everywhere helps in the long run Incorporate activity throughout the day vs. exercise Change with age o Every 10 years your metabolism slows down, activity influences this Incorporate sustainable activities When you are stressed before a test, you should consume antioxidants What is unique about you? Body physics o Genetics o Environment o Stress o How you think about and treat your body Cell Membrane Outline of transport o Passive transport Diffusion Facilitated Osmosis o Active transport Facilitated What portion of the cell membrane functions as the main gatekeeper? Phospholipids Fats are, they are unique (hydrophilic) Gate and Gatekeeper o All cells have a cell membrane o Separates cell from environment o Serves as a selectively permeable barrier o Biologically important molecules transported across membrane We need different substances at different concentrations outside and inside cells Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide Fluid mosaic model: cell membrane o Mobility of components of the membrane Components o Bilayer of phospholipids o Cholesterol o Proteins: move substances in and out of cell Some don’t need energy to function Some need assistance (ATP) to carry substances across membrane o Glycolipids and glycoproteins Most sugars we use for energy, stored in form of glycogen and burned in form of glucose Sugary lipids and proteins that allow cells to stick together Reminder of terms Digestive tube digestive cells bloodstream storage/use Solution = solute (substance that can be dissolved, hydrophobic and aren’t dissolving in water on their own) + solvent (liquid that does the dissolving, water-based… liquid is water) Diffusion Movement from area of higher concentration to lower concentration Rate of diffusion (depends on a lot of things but most importantly… o Heat o Concentrations Can occur within one area or across a membrane between two areas Ie. Packet of drink mix going into water: diffuses until equally distributed in water (reaches equilibrium) What can diffuse across the membrane? o Any small substance Gasses CO2 O2 Hydrophobic substances Once they are in digestive cells, they must be packaged for delivery o Must be wrapped in proteins, which happens by small intestines and liver o Any small fat o Any small gas o Water Osmosis Special case of diffusion for water Moves from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide o If there is a higher level of solute concentration on one side, then there will be a net movement of solvent to that side Does not involve the movement of solutes An isotonic solution has an equal concentration of solute on either side A hypotonic solution has a lower solute concentration A hypertonic solution has a higher solute concentration Ie. Say you eat something consistently that is 50% salt and 50% water o In digestive cells: usually you have about 75% water, so 25% solute o This will cause you to lose water from digestive cells and you move a very high concentration of salt into bloodstream Will balance by use water from body cells Hypertension o In a hypertonic solution, cells lose water o In a hypotonic solution, cells gain water and can burst In plant cells, they like to have the maximum amount of water possible Why can’t we drink salt water? o Because it is a hypertonic solution to our cells causing water to rush out of our cells Facilitated Passive Transport Most hydrophilic substances cannot cross the cell membrane without help Facilitated diffusion using two types of membrane transport proteins: o Channel proteins Move substances down a concentration gradient based on a molecule's size and charge, and without an energy input o Carrier proteins Passive carrier proteins Assist in diffusion Important passive carrier of glucose is GLUT As we move from A B C D o Glucose moves from high concentration lowlowlow storage or use o Bloodstream requires glucose to be at a certain level o In the small and large intestine is where we get the majority of storage of glucose Liver is where there is storage (glucose is made into glycogen Use is constant but based upon activity They only let in one or two substances (if it is two, they must be identical) Concentration gradient Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide o Differential concentrations within or between compartments of a substance Facilitated diffusion: needs assistance… proteins! o Heart cells consistently have the most activity o Amino acids are the only ones which are absorbed in any sort of large amounts in the stomach and large intestine (therefore are an exception to the rule) Passive transport o Downhill in energy o Movement from high concentration to low. Pushing bal downhill (no effort, no help needed) o Can be simple diffusion or facilitated diffusion Active transport (always facilitated and always requires energy) o Requires added energy o Movement from low to high concentration o Energy derived from ATP o Produces a concentration gradient o Anytime the word “facilitated” exists needs help from proteins o Ie. Pushing ball uphill Requires assistance and energy o Active carrier proteins transport Specific molecules across the cell membrane based on the shape of the molecule Use energy in the process Moves substances from low concentration to high Happens a lot in kidneys What part of a grain contains the fiber which is good for digestion? o Bran = protection for potential baby (germ) and is a tough coat = fiber o Endosperm = food flour that has protein and starch which is gluten o Germ = offspring Membrane involved transport o Exocytosis Secreting material out of cell Get large things out via transport vesicles LDL and HDL are large complex secreted by small intestine and liver and are released to bloodstream o Endocytosis Opposite action Bringing material into cell Pinocytosis “Cell drinking” Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide o Gathering water outside cell and bringing it inside Occurs when concentrations are high Phagocytosis Cells can absorb another cell and digest it (eat other cells) Receptor-mediated endocytosis Specific receptors allow them to dock and then are brought inside by a vesicle, and materials are used Requires a protein for docking and internalization o Why high cholesterol occurs Nutrients gases Fat soluble vitamins Water soluble vitamins Minerals Amino acids Fats Monosaccharides Cholesterol H2O From digestive tube: Where are they absorbed? How do they move into the digestive cells? Anything unique about their transport once inside? Where are they How do they Anything unique absorbed? move into the once inside? digestive cells/how are they absorbed? Minerals Small and large Facilitated Active transport and intestine diffusion and kidneys active transport Water soluble Mainly small Facilitated Kidneys: Actively vitamins intestine but also diffusion transport back into large intestine bloodstream Monosaccharides Small intestine, Facilitated Kidneys reabsorb large intestine diffusion any sugars, active Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide transport Amino acids Small intestine, Facilitated Kidneys: active large intestine, diffusion transport of amino stomach acids back into bloodstream if necessary Fats Small intestine Diffusion Must be packaged mainly but a little bit (LDL and HDL), in large intestine involves exocytosis to put into bloodstream and then receptor- mediated endocytosis H2O Everywhere Diffusion Active transport, (osmosis) and pinocytosis facilitated diffusion, in large intestine you have active transport Gases Not absorbed by Simple diffusion Like LDL and HDL, digestive track but must be packaged by lungs Epigenetics and Nutrition o #1 thing you should pay attention to when you are consuming something (on nutrition label) is the serving size o Calories and what contributes to them Fat 9 calories/gram Look for hydrogenated oils (trans fat) Carbs 4 calories/gram Look for added sugar (empty calories) o I.e. sodas Protein 4 calories/gram Alcohol 7 calories/gram Energy Production to generate ATP o Anaerobic energy metabolism No oxygen needed Phosphocreatine Structure o Amino acid-based substance Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide Supply o Get enough from protein sources Set point o Like everything else there is a limit o Excess needs to be broken down and excreted in urine Where o Mainly in skeletal muscle but other organs like liver, heart, brain…things functioning all the time When o Initial onset of activity in skeletal muscle o Background production Simple production o Phosphocreatine adds phosphor onto ADP ATP Glycolysis coupled to fermentation o Aerobic Oxygen is used Aerobic cellular respiration o Key players Energy carriers Receive Store Deliver o Delivers one of the phosphate groups Electron transport chain Water Producers absorb from environment Gases We generate CO du2ing cellular respiration and need it for photosynthesis o Key players in harnessing energy from glucose Receive Store Deliver Chemical carrier: ATP Electron carriers: NADH, FADH , 2ADPH o These are specialized energy carriers that store energy in loosely bound electrons o NADPH provides hydrogen to anabolic pathways Glycolysis: universal ATP production Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide First step in breakdown of sugars and takes place in cytosol 6-carbon molecule o Pyruvate (two 3 carbon molecules) o ATP is produced o NADH is recycled Does not require oxygen (an+erobic process) Requires presence of NAD (empty electron taxi) Prokaryotes do not have mitochondria so it must occur in cytosol You can’t use the NADH if it is full so this is why it must be recycled Fermentation o Fermentation by anaerobic yeasts converts pyruvate into an ethanol, releasing CO g2s o Lactic acid fermentation Forms in severely taxed muscle cells as a result of ATP production in the absence of oxygen o Higher metabolic rates may shorted life spans, because… Toxic by-products build up quickly and are more likely to damage DNA o Anabolic vs. catabolic Catabolic must outpace anabolic in order to lose weight o Aerobic Energy Production Cellular respiration takes place in 3 stages Glycolysis takes place in cytosol (about 2 ATP) Krebs cycle is in mitochondria (about 2 ATP) o Prep: First lose a carbon atom from 3-carbon pyruvate and the remaining 2 carbon unit joins with coenzyme A o Produces CO 2hich is released in atmosphere ATP NADH and FADH 2 Oxidative phosphorylation takes place in mitochondria and produces the largest amount of ATP (30) Take home points from last class Organisms need o Food, which are organic substances o Nutrients Why do we need nutrients? Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide We create energy to make [food + nutrients] organized o Anaerobic energy production, produce ATP First reaction creates phosphocreatine from ATP Wherever there is a high energy demand, cells will create phosphocreatine Second one is glycolysis + fermentation, which produces glucose from ATP, but the fermentation recycles NADH to glucose Lactic acid fermentation Alcoholic fermentation—CO + et2anol We cannot rely on anaerobic energy production, so we go to aerobic cellular respiration o Aerobic Cellular Respiration Think of it as breaking the glucose molecule apart into 6 CO 2olecules Glycolysis prep kreb cycle This starts with 6 carbons (linked glucose molecules) and breaks it into 6 CO 2 We end up with a lot of electron carriers o NADH + FADH are 2roduced in high quantities o Then we extract the energy from these electrons to make ATP o Oxidative Phosphorylation (aerobic) We need oxygen Phosphorylation ATP We put phospho group back on ADP to make ATP o The electrons from aerobic cellular respiration provide the energy for this Byproduct is water This process is sufficient (in terms of numbers) to sustain our bodies Produces the largest amount of ATP during cellular respiration Takes place in the cristae of the mitochondria (the many folds in them, hundreds of reactions are occurring at the same time) Do plant cells need oxygen? YES Exercise and Energy Resources o Phosphocreatine 1 contraction of muscles o glycolysis Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide decoupled from cellular respiration and kicks in to boost energy o Aerobic cellular respiration Provides most energy during long term energy o In exercise: you need at least 2 minutes to tap into aerobic activity Distribution of nutrients o Glucose absorption Maintain blood glucose set point If glucose set point is reached Store as glycogen Fully glycogen stores Transformed into fat Shortage of carbs in diet Ketosis o Fats are broken down to restore blood sugar level Produces ketones Makes blood acidic Dehydration leads to nausea, headache, mental and physical fatigue, and bad breath Why is CO2 measured to detect metabolic rate? o Because it is a product of energy production needed to sustain the body Energy in a living system o Metabolism is the sum of all chemical reactions in the body Basal metabolic rate After sleeping 8 hours and fasting for 12 hours Tells you how many calories you need to function Resting metabolic rate Whenever patient is available Estimate equation Age, sex, height, and weight Metabolic rate/metabolism are essentially the same thing o Energy you need to survive Basal Resting o Measured by CO2 Product of energy use o Body physics State of your body o What is likely the range for most women in the room for BMR? Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide 1100-1500 o What is likely the range for most en in the room for BMR? 1550-1900 o Why is it different for men and women? Equation for MBR Men have more muscle Women have more fat Must have extra energy reserves to support a growing fetus Muscle requires more energy to maintain and therefore more calories used o How can you influence your metabolism? Genetics Activity Foods you eat Plastic in processed food has BPA and can turn off genes that influence metabolism Environment Work Life Age Nutrition and the first law of thermodynamics o Carbs, protein, and fat go in and RMR, Physical activity, and TEF go out What do fitness apps or exercise machines measure to determine how much physical activity you have performed? o Heart rate Max heart rate during intense activity at age 20 is 200 beats/minute Target should be 50-75% of max heart rate Resting needs o Basal/resting metabolic rate Energy need o Resting heart rate Movement of gases and nutrients o Normal breathing Oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange Physical Activity o Aerobic: Fat burning 50-60% of maximum heart rate examples are yoga, running, biking, swimming (slow paces) Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide Cardio Higher intensity (70-80% of max) Clearly more calories burnt because of more energy demand Fatio of fat to glycogen is 50/50 o Anaerobic exercise Short burst Most of calories from glycogen Examples: strength training for short duration, tennis Muscle o “white meat” fast muscle fibers = power all-or-nothing response anaerobic production ATP is used up quickly A sprinter would want more of these, and you can train your body to do it o “dark meat” slow muscle fibers contraction in small steps – gradation of contraction aerobic respiration: oxygen supplied by myoglobin Mayo Clinic recommendations o Aerobic activity At least 150 minutes a week of moderate aerobic o Strength Twice a week o Overall 30 minutes a day How does hemoglobin know when to let go of oxygen? o Hemoglobin sees CO2, and this indicates it to let go of oxygen How your energy production can be interrupted? o Arsenic o Cyanide o CO Thermal Effect of Feeding (TEF) o Amount of energy it takes to digest your food o Coke has 65 grams of sugar, and is high fructose corn syrup = glucose and fructose, which are monomers, so they don’t need to be broken down, so they diffuse and are absorb very easily o VS. ear of corn More breaking down involved, and must expend energy to break it down (chewing) o Tips for planning meals Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide Try to eat whole foods Reduce consumption of monomers What substance is absolutely necessary to produce a fire by burning a log? o Oxygen How could you immediately put out a fire? Measuring energy in food o Energy transfer in nonliving systems can be explosive Calories Measuring Energy in food o Energy transfer must be controlled: Heat + Carbon in food + O2 CO2 + H2O + ATP (heat loss) Calorie or calorie? o Energy needs and the energy in our food is calculated using a measurement of heat o A measure of energy calorie = amount of heat needed to raise 1g of water 1 degree C Calorie = amount of heat needed to raise 1 kg of water 1 degree C =kilocalorie o Calorimeter Burns dried food to determine the amount of energy it contains What substances will provide energy? Proteins Carbohydrates Lipids Fats o How many fat calories should you intact every day? 30% o Fats should only be 30% of your calories Limit saturated (only 10% of total fat grams consumed) Eliminate trans fats o What step uses oxygen to accept electrons? o Oxidative phosphorylation Managing nutrients o Homeostasis related to set points o Predetermined by our genetics o Detectors throughout our body Kidney Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide Heart Digestive tract Storage cells o Send out hormones Cell signaling o Signal producing cell Hormones: small proteins or other molecules o Target cell Receiving cells have protein receptors specific for that molecule Proteins Signaling molecules produce changes in the receiving cells Exist in the brain, liver o Hydrophilic molecules have cell-surface receptors Cannot cross over fatty cell membrane Must produce proteins within the cell membrane itself Must bind to cell surface receptor o Hydrophobic molecules have intracellular receptors Can move directly into cell Signaling Molecules and Hormones o Where are they working? Autocrine: on the cell Produce the signal and respond to the signal Paracrine: neighbors Signaling cell is producing a hormone to help regulate neighboring cells, that respond to that particular hormone Endocrine: Long distance communication o Cells can be centimeters to meters apart Travel in sap in plant cells Travel in blood in animal cells o Outcome of either type of signaling is gene regulation Ultimate goal is to get inside cell and change gene regulation within that target cell Food initiated health problems o Sensitivity: a food consistently causes an unpleasant reactant Not an immune reaction o Intolerance: inability to digest a compound within food = no enzyme produced to break down the substance Ie. Lactose intolerance: can’t produce the enzyme, lactase, to break it down o Allergy: immune reaction Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide Sensitized: your body produces compounds to specifically recognize the allergen— immunoglobin E Anaphylactic shock Respiratory shut down Most common food allergies: milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, soy and wheat Avocado—watch out— this can indicate other allergies, such as latex Soy allergy: food protein-induced enter colitis syndrome Delayed food allergy. Soy is one of the most common. The reaction, commonly vomiting and diarrhea, usually occurs within hours after eating the trigger tather than minutes MSG? Monosodium glutamate— flavor enhancer No positive production of Allergy antibodies Treatment Anti-IgE therapy o The medication omalizumab ntereres with the body’s ability to use IgE Oral immunotherapy o Small doses of the food you’re allergic to are swallowed or placed under your tongue. The dose of the allergy-provoking food is gradually increased o Autoimmune response: celiac disease Production of IgA Inflammation Loss of villi in small intestine Causes malnutrition o Gluten: protein complex Wheat, rye, barley, or related grains Proteins that give dough its elasticity Drugs, sauces, processed meats, even candy The fats that we consume and absorb are stored as ________ for long- term energy use. o Glycogen Is a gluten free diet better than any other type of diet? o No o “replacement” products have more fat and sugar Doctors diagnose diseases or isssues o Intolerance cannot produce a digestive enzyme (ie. Lactose intolerance) o Allergy very specific immune response related to production of a specific type of antibody which causes a histamine cascade. Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide You must become specifically sensitized to allergen (you are exposed to it at some point and react; “sensitization” means it learns the allergen and produces the antibody IgE) o Autoimmune diseases (celiac): the presence of gluten causes the body’s immune system to attack its own cells, through the production of the antibody IgA What is the maximum recommended percent of fat calories you should consume? o 30% How do you know when to eat? o Leptin: signals that your body has enough food Protein in your body that tells your system to stop being hungry, Stop eating Start burning stored energy This hormone is produced by your fat cells Greek word for “thin” o Ghrelin: signals that your body needs food Increase hunger Stop burning off stored energy Produced by stomach cells When do you produce insulin? o When you have just eaten Understanding blood sugar regulation o Scenario You have eaten glucose absorbed into the body This results in an increase in the blood sugar level Normal blood sugar levels range from about 100mg/dL to 140mg/dL o When it gets above this level, it needs to be stored as extra, and the storage is insulin A protein hormone produced by the pancreas and will be released and will inform the body that sugar needs to be restored o Signal: One from the blood stream and one inside liver cells Blood stream: glucose is moved into liver and muscle cells o Inside liver and muscle cells, we need to form glycogen Glucose is bound together through old reactions (dehydration synthesis) resulting in glycogen Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide o When you eat and fast for a long time? Blood sugar drops below the set point because you have fasted (which is a long period without eating) Signal: glucagon (protein hormone that is produced by the pancreas) The result: liver and muscle cells break down glycogen via hydrolysis into glucose In bloodstream, glucose will diffuse into bloodstream (facilitated diffusion) to restore normal blood sugar Once set point is reached, any excess becomes fat In Diabetes: no insulin production o (after eating) Excess sugars must be excreted by the kidneys You cannot store glucose as glycogen because there is no signal telling the cells to store it as glycogen o (after fasting) no stores of sugar ketosis you break down fat to restore blood sugar. But this cannot occur fast enough to restore blood sugar into normal range can go into diabetic shock and can die because brain isn’t getting the sugar it needs Carbohydrates o Humans store glucose as glycogen o What determines when glucose will be stored? o Glucose is the necessary nutrient in the bloodstream Aim to be at a normal blood glucose level Someone with high blood glucose production of insulin glucose uptake glycogen production Someone with low blood glucose production of glucagon glycogen is broken down in liver and muscle cells and glucose is released into bloodstream High blood sugar is the signal of insulin Low blood sugar is the signal of glucagon o In type 1 diabetes: no insulin production due to death of insulin- producing cells Insulin levels get lower and lower Death prevents insulin production Glucagon production still occurs, but in a different set of cells o In type 2 diabetes, there is insulin resistance Highly correlated to obesity and poor food consumption Cells do not respond to insulin, due to malfunctioning receptors or low/ineffective insulin levels Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide o If you have normal blood sugar, increases after a meal, causing high blood sugar, signaling the production of insulin, causing uptake of glucose, takes it up from bloodstream into liver and muscle cells which gets stored as glycogen o Low blood sugar after sleeping low blood sugar makes glucagon… How do most heart attacks occur? o A blockage in the coronary artery prevents blood supply to the heart How are fats transported? o Any hydrophobic substance is a protein complex LDL—moves fats to cells for use HDL—moves fat to liver for storage and cleans up lingering LDL o Total cholesterol: HDL + LDL + 20% of triglycerides Want this number to be lower than 200mg/dL Want LDL to be lower than 100mg/dL Want HDL to be above 60mg/dL Want triglycerides to be lower than 150mg/dL o Causes of erroneous numbers: Diet Physical activity Genetics o What directly signals the suppression of appetite Leptin We are unique Eating Disorders o Nourishment Malnourishment: lacking at least one type of nutrient at a sufficient level for normal functioning Undernourishment: too few calories Overnourishment: too many calories o Binge Eating Disorder Episodes of compulsive consumption o Bulimia nervosa Binge eating coupled to eliminating food from body Can be overnourished and malnourished o Anorexia nervosa Under eating and dramatic weight loss Metabolism o Both BMR and RMR are trying to determine what is your minimum energy requirements BMR: basal metabolic rate CO2 Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide After fasting and sleeping RMR: resting metabolic rate CO2 Anytime Men vs Women o Men have more muscle mass, = more energy demand so they have a higher BMR and RMR o Women have less muscle mass which means more fat and therefore have lower BMR and RMR How do you expend energy? o BMR/RMR o Physical activity o Thermal effect of feeding/food Carbohydrates—sugars and starch o 4 cals/g protein o 4 cals/g fats o 9 cals/g alcohol o 7 cals/g recommended daily value o carbs: 225-325 o fiber: women= 22-28g men= 28-34g o protein: 50-175g/day o fat: 44-78g total fat __________ is the only vitamin that is not essential because humans can manufacture it in the skin through UV exposure. ________ is when your body can NOT produce the necessary digestive enzyme to breakdown a substance. Digestion involves breaking down large molecules into ones that can pass into our body. These reactions are called__________. Which part of the grain is NOT paired with the correct nutrient it contains? o Bran--fats o Endosperm--proteins o Germ--vitamins o Germ--phytochemicals o Endosperm—starch When cells like the ones lining your blood vessels lose a lot of fluid to their environment, they can quickly regain the fluid through the process of cell drinking also known as o Phagocytosis Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide o Exocytosis o Aquatosis o Receptor mediated endocytosis o pinocytosis If blood sugar is too high and glycogen stores are full, sugar o Is converted into protein o Is converted into fat o Accumulates as plaques o Is stored as starch o Deposited into the large intestine The most accurate way to determine which type of energy stores (glycogen versus fat) you are burning during a run is to measure o The length of your run o The pace you have run o The temperature in the room o The change in heart rate o The distance you have run Cell cycle o Cells produced during the process of cell division o G :0cell will perform its normal duties o G :1Cell gets ready to duplicate o CHECKPOINT Cell can either be destroyed or can continue into cell cycle Problems can be identified here, and can either be fixed or not If cannot be fixed, kills cell o S: replicate DNA o G :2increase again (size and stuff) o CHECKPOINT Cell can either die or finish cycle o M phase: make two new cells When the cell cycle goes wrong, leads to cancer If you require 2,000 calories to fuel your body each day, about how long would the energy drink fuel you? o 2 hours 2000/24hrs in a day = 84 Signals for cell growth o Positive growth regulators Proto-oncogenes “Accelerators” o Say to come out of G ph0se and to go to G 1 cells (turns on cell cycle) o Negative growth regulators Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide Tumor suppressor genes “Brakes” Variety of repair mechanisms Check for mistakes in DNA Check for mistakes in cell components The wrong message: Cancer o Mutation: change in the DNA sequence o Two groups of genes implicated in cancer o Accelerator gets stuck Proto-oncogene Becomes oncogenes when hyperactive because of mutations o Brakes fail Tumor suppressor genes Don’t function properly The wrong message: tumor vs cancer o Cancer is NOT a one step process o A single cell Divides unrestrained can lead to a cell mass called a tumor A benign tumor is confined to the original site Angiogenesis increases blood supply to tumor cells, enabling them to proliferate Sends out messages from the tumor to recruit blood cells o Tumor gets fed Malignant cancer invade other tissues by entering the blood supply to lymph nodes Metastatic/metastasis/metastasize o Gene mutations Tumor suppressor genes are negative growth regulators that restrain cell division and migration by Inhibiting the cell cycle/mitosis Stimulating repair of damaged DNA Promoting cell adhesion- keeping the cell where it should be Controlling anchorage dependence- keeping the cell where it should be Preventing angiogenesis o A multi-step process Example colon cancer Early polyp: o Mutation of proto-oncogene = encogene Polyp: Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide o Mutation of tumor suppressor gene Late polyp: o Inactivation of p53 tumor suppressor Malignant tumor o Inactivation of another tumor suppressor that allows for angiogenesis and metastasis What is lactose intolerance? o Lack of lactase production Cancer cells: good cells gone bad o Cancer accounts for over a half-million deaths each year o There are more than 8 million Americans diagnosed with cancer at any one time o Estimated cost of treating cancer is over 100 billion each year Biopsy o Removal of a portion of the tissue o Cell shape, size, surface, genes are detected Most cancer is not hereditary o Environment o Age = increased mutations o Result Sequential mutations in both proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes P53 is mutated in more than half of all cancers Targeted destruction o Challenge: selectively destroy malignant cells Cryosurgery and hormone therapy are used to treat abnormal or cancerous cells in a small region Radiation and chemotherapy are standard cancer treatments that affect both cancerous and healthy cells More selective cancer therapies are being tested in clinical trials Epigenetic drugs Gene therapies FIRST HALF OF CLASS An ecosystem consists of all the living and non-living factors in a defined area o Living: Biotic ingredients Organic molecules, proteins, nucleic acids, fats, carbohydrates o Non-living: Abiotic ingredients It took about 10 billion years for living things to come to come into existence, so until that happened abiotic ingredients came about Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide Atoms Hydrogen was the first stable atom that was formed as the universe aged More reactions occurred to make bigger atoms Origins of life o Earth did not originally have oxygen o Within waters, complex substances began to form that became organic molecules Some of these contained at least one carbon and one hydrogen atom hydrocarbons o Biotic ingredients came together and compounds were formed Created our common ancestors We came from a single common ancestor Components of this ancestor o Cell membrane Fatty inside, water-loving outside o Inheritance/DNA o Reproduction Asexual or sexual (exchanging genetic information) o Detecting and responding to environment o Energy—all organisms need it, use it, and store it o Growth and Development o Sustainability Homeostasis o Evolution and Reproduction Evolve as a living organism Commonalities between “friends” o Endosymbiosis One organism lives inside of the other o What is symbiosis? When two or more different species live together and interact; they have a very close association with each other It is not always beneficial! o Associations Competition Two species interact but what they are doing is harmful to both of them We forced this in food production with the use of pesticides, fertilizer, etc stresses other species in the area 75% of antibiotics = used by farmers Niche: everything you need to live Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide Combination of all abiotic and biotic needs of a species or population to survive and reproduce During a competition, some part of the niche is interrupted o “Friend” Relationships Exploitation One is harmed, one benefits o Examples: Herbivores eat plants Predators kill other animals for food Parasiteslive in and on the organisms eaten They often cause harm Pathogens The average American is prescribed 17 doses of antibiotics by the age of 20 Equivalent to 30,000lbs Commensalism One species benefits and the other is unharmed/does not cost them o Example: Barnacles on whales Mutualism Both species benefit Survival and reproduction are both increased with both species Microbiome: All organisms which live in symbiotic relationships with humans o Affects digestion/absorption, immune system, stress/psychological issues, development Have enzymes that digest substances we cannot Communicate with our immune cells Amphibiosis: Transitions of one type of species-species interaction to another o Example: switching from commensalism to exploitation o This is based on population size and other present microbes Trophism: Movement of food from one organism to another o Producers to consumers Food Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide o It is an organic substance, meaning it is a hydrocarbon o Inorganic source = CO2 o Organic products are produced from inorganic sources by organisms Who makes food and who eats food? o Autotrophs: produce their own food Chemoautotrophs These are prokaryotes They transform light energy into chemical energy Photoautotrophs These are prokaryotes, protists, plants…. Or anything green or that has color and can make their own food from sunlight o Heterotrophs: eat food produced by autotrophs humans are heterotrophs Photoheterotrophs These are prokaryotes Chemoheterotrophs Can’t make their own food Rely on autotrophs to make food for us in the form of sugar, which we then use to make other substances Humans, prokaryotes, plants, fungi, protists, animals Prokaryotes o Single celled organisms that have a simplistic structure and function Include archaea Live in many extreme environments Include bacteria Live everywhere o When they are pathogens, they can harm us Can be intracellular Enter into our cells and survive o They produce a substance that causes harm o They kill the cell that causes it to burst Apoptosis: cell death Can be extracellular They multiply outside o Produce a substance that causes harm o Cause an imbalance in our normal flora (microbiome) Can be toxins Endotoxins Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide o Something structural that is there for a different purpose and unintentionally helps the cell Example lipopolysaccharide Exotoxins o Produce mainly as a defense Proteins Top disease-causing foodborne pathogen? Viruses: 58% Salmonella: 11% Top hospitalizations? Salmonella: 35% Viruses: 26% Top deaths? Salmonella: 28% How to prevent foodborne illness: Cooking food properly (ie not prepping veggies and raw meat on same cutting board Salting Pickling Drying Being clean Eukaryotes o A cell that absorbed energy from another in the form of sugar produced oxygen as a byproduct o More mitochondria in muscle cells because they are the ones that contain energy o Protists Examples Algae o They are photosynthetic Phytoplankton Zooplankton o Plants Ferns Gymnosperms Angiosperms A flowering plant Mostly what we consume If it is green, it is a photoautotroph! Roots exist below the ground o Circulatory system involves moving minerals and water to the photosynthetic cells Shoots exist above the ground Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide o Includes the leaves and stem cells o Perform photosynthesis Uses sunlight and pigments Stomata (pores) of leaves allow CO2 in What we eat: Below ground vegetation o Tubers, roots, and bulbs Above ground vegetation o Leafy greens o Fruit (this is really the ovaries of the plant) o Fruit Flowers Production of flower attracts pollinators and then seed dispersal can occur Most are hermaphroditic, meaning they have both male and female parts o Male parts include a stamen, which has a filament that can project out of the flower and project the anther (contains the sperm pollen) o Female parts are collectively referred to as the carpel Stigma: the top part that has a sticky substance that the pollen can stick to The sperm travels down the style, into the ovary, and then into the ovule, where individual eggs are Different types of fruit Simple fruit o From a flower that has one ovary, such as the pea fruit Aggregate fruit o From one flower with multiple ovaries, such as a raspberry Multiple fruit o From many flowers, such as a pinapple Photosynthesis o To make food: Photosynthetic eukaryotes have specialized organelles called chloroplasts Sunlight is needed Water and minerals come from roots CO2 is taken in through pores Pigments come from the chloroplasts o Step 1: light reactions Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide Photosystem Light energy is converted to electrical energy and then to chemical energy o Photons, packets of energy, are measured in wavelengths and are part of the electromagnetic spectrum Antennae complex reaction center Arrangement of pigments o Any substance that can absorb light energy o Color is determined by wavelength it reflects o Light is converted into heat, light, or chemical energy o The most important one is chlorophyll a Electron Transport Chain Lost electron is replaced o H2O splits to produce O2 and H+ ATP and NADPH are produced Electron from chlorophyll a is energized Energy carriers ATP has three groups of phosphates o Tridi They receive, store, and deliver energy Electron carriers are NADH, FADH2, NADPH The first two pick up electrons and hydrogen atoms that have been released and NADPH deliver energy by providing electrons and hydrogen atoms o Dark reactions Transforms chemical energy into food via the Calvin Cycle 4 steps o Carbon fixation Remove carbon from CO2 by Rubisco (enzyme) and it is fixated to RuBP o Energize sugar to incorporate it into existing substance o Sugar exits o Recycle RuBP What type of relationship doesn’t exist within your microbiome? o Competitive Fungi o Decompose and release nutrients that would otherwise not be available Can be single celled, like yeast, or multicellular These are chemoheterotrophs o Metabolism Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide Facultative: switch from oxygen-producing metabolism Anaerobic cellular respiration = fermentation Fungi can live by either aerobic or anerobic cellular respiration Why do leaves turn colors in the fall? o Pigments are broken down which changes the light reflected Animals o Cells do not have a cell wall, which plant cells do have Allows animals to have flexibility o Invertebrates and vertebrates o Mollusks o Arthropods o We consumed 200lbs/meat/person in 2014 o What do we consume? Fish Both freshwater (trout) and saltwater (salmon) High in good fats Consider farm raised fish and overfishing Meat (land animals) High protein, bad fat Nutrition o What element makes up most of your body weight? Oxygen o What molecules are most prevalent in the human body? Oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen o Chemical building blocks of life Fats Phospholipids Triglycerides (aka cellulite, what we think of as “fat”) o Three fatty acid molecules bonded to a glycerol molecule o Built from saturated fatty acids o Fat tissue can be brown (converts chemical energy heat) or white (storage) o Lipolysis: fat cells break down triglycerides to release individual fats to produce ATP Cholesterol o Both cholesterol and fats are hydrophobic o Sterols Fats that have the same structure with different ingredients attached to them Contain four hydrocarbon rings fused together o Hormones Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide o Anabolic steroid (resembles testosterone o Examples Eggs, shellfish Trans fat is the worst fat found in food, because it affects blood cholesterol and consistently increases bad cholesterol Saturated fats/fatty acids o All carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon chain are linked with a single covalent bond o Solid at room temp o You can stack them o Examples Tropical fruits Animal products (meat) Unsaturated fats/fatty acid o The beneficial form of fats that mainly come from vegetables and fish o One or more atoms have a double bond, so there is a kink preventing them from being able to lay flat Natural peanut butter with the oil on top is due to the kinks, whereas hydrogenation of peanut butter makes it consistently smooth o Examples Veggies fish Functions: o Make up membranes of cells o Signals within cells Can act as hormones o Provide body heat o Provide insulation and cushioning Problems with food labels: o If a product has less than 0.5g trans fat/serving, it is allowed to be listed as “0” o So a reduced serving size allows companies to put 0g trans fat o Look at ingredients to determine if there is transfat Sodium It is an ion with a charge, usually found as an additive Carbohydrates Biology of Nutrition and Health Final Study Guide Monomers, individual units of a macromolecule Polymers, chains of monomers bonded together o Include carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids o How to build: Dehydration synthesis: Remove water molecules so monome
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