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PSYC 001 Final Class Notes.pdf

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by: Carol Chen

PSYC 001 Final Class Notes.pdf PSYC 101

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All the Class Notes for Psychology 001's Final Exam
introduction to psychology
Andrew Ward
Study Guide
50 ?




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"Yes YES!! Thank you for these. I'm such a bad notetaker :/ will definitely be looking forward to these"
Miss Taryn Tromp

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This 38 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carol Chen on Sunday December 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 101 at University of Pennsylvania taught by Andrew Ward in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views.


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Yes YES!! Thank you for these. I'm such a bad notetaker :/ will definitely be looking forward to these

-Miss Taryn Tromp


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Date Created: 12/13/15
INTELLIGENCE ● Intelligence tests: ○ Determined regardless of a child's chronological age. ○ Determined upon mental capacity, i.e. intelligence of a 5 years old. ○ Assessment seemed to bring order to a chaotic society- those who would benefit from education or from military service; ○ IQ- Intelligence Quotient- ratio of mental (intelligence) SAT ● Empirical rule for normal distributions ○ 68% of the data ○ 95% ○ 99.7% ○ So if get 200 (3 SD's below the mean), only .15% (0.3/2) are worse! ● Reliability of SAT? ○ R=0.9 ■ It's pretty reliable. In psychology, we get excited about r > 0.3 ■ Coaching? ■ Not really helpful. Doesn't really help with Verbal, but does help with Math. ● Validity of SAT? ○ Doesn't do a bad job ○ r= 0.5 with 1st year's GPA ○ There's less of an association as you move up in grades. ■ People direct themselves where they perform better; ○ Essay is not predictive of your ability; ■ The new SAT ○ Some believe that the SAT is changing because it's losing market share to ACT; ○ But the correlation with 1st year GPA is lower than r=0.5 here at Penn. ■ Range restriction. ■ If we want to increase correlation, we need to admit people with lower scores. ● Genes and Intelligence ○ MZ vs. DZ twins ■ MZ: identical twins ■ DZ: fraternal/ sororal ■ Raised together vs. apart ■ Hard to do the study ■ Raised apart might be raised by relatives; ■ Raised apart can be raised separately after 3 years old ○ Adoption studies ■ If you see similarity in intelligence with your biological parents, then maybe intelligence scores have something to do with genes. ■ GRAPH ● Heritability ○ Proportion of population variation due to genes ■ This is variation across the population, not within the individual ○ H (heritability quotient) = genes/ (genes + environment) ■ As environment variation goes up, H goes down. ■ Does not mean "genetically determined", it does not mean what you think it means ○ Clicker: heritability of finger number? ■ LOW ■ Genes determine finger number; ■ "due to genetics" =/= genetically determined ■ Most variation in finger number "due to" ACCIDENTS; ○ Heritability of wearing earrings is very high ■ Because if you have XX then you'll be more likely to wear earrings; ■ But there's no genes for wearing earrings; ● Other problems with genetic model ○ Identical twins look alike ■ Then it might mean they might be treated the same because appearance matters; environmental factor; ○ IQ's are going up (Flynn Effect) ■ 3 IQ points a decade ■ More on nonverbal tests ■ Maybe because of nutrition and better health, not genetics ○ Expectancy: Rosenthal (1968) ■ Teacher's expectancy towards students; ■ Positive expectations can affect students' intellectual performance; ■ Results ■ But this is only statistically significant with grades 1 and 2 ■ However, bottom line is: expectation still matters! ■ Dweck (1975; 2006) ■ Fixed mindset vs. growth mindset ■ Give these two groups of people challenging problems, people with fixed mindset give up; ■ This is about motivation not really about how smart you are innately. ■ Role of test motivation in intelligence testing. ■ If you pay these people, suddenly they became smarter! ■ Questi ons the validity of intelligence testing in labs; ■ Performance vs. mastery ■ Ethnic/ racial differences in intelligence? ■ Within group differences greater ■ A lot more so than between groups; ■ But let's assume, intelligence is 100 ■ And genetic =/= unchangeable; ■ PKU- avoid amino acid ■ Another condition that is 100% genetic: ■ Let's say myopic is 100% determined by genes, but we've solved it with glasses; ■ And yet, stereotype persists (stereotype threats) ■ May be a self-fulfilling prophesy ■ He served as mentor for blacks, ■ Threat in the air, you don't even have to believe them to be affected by them when you're in the group; ■ Made Stanford students take tests ■ Previewing new measure in lab, non-diagnostic ■ Erase racial differences ■ A diagnostic tests ■ When it is diagnostic, white participants perform better than black participants ■ If you simply ask for race, ■ You are priming a stereotype that you don't even have to endorse to be affected; ■ Negat ive thoughts, test anxieties, ■ Women and math (Steele, 1999) ■ Gender difference ■ No-gender difference, ■ No sex difference in performance, ■ Men get stereotype lift? ■ Asian women and math (Shih, 1999) ■ If you prime Asian identity, you perform better. ■ If you prime women identity, you perform worse compared to control. ■ You have to be subtle when you prime. ■ Blatant doesn't help. ● Intelligence is not a unitary construct; ● Emotional intelligence ○ 4 sub components ○ Emotional stability ○ Knows how to read people's emotions ● Practical intelligence: ○ Good street smart, occupational intelligence ○ Separate stairways to the basement ■ In case of fire; FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYSIS ● Theory of personality ○ Unconscious ○ Childhood ○ Drives ● Therapy techniques ○ Makes the unconscious conscious ○ Have patient with abnormalities that defy biological explanations ■ Maybe something in the mind was producing this physical illness ■ Hypnotize someone, they do something unconsciously ■ They do something but didn't say that they are being suggested; ● Unconscious drive ○ Sex: broader drive toward pleasure, sex in general ○ Aggression ○ Death instinct ■ WWI, can't believe that some people can do things so atrocious ● The unconscious ○ Civilized society --> repression ■ Lives in the Victorian age; even piano legs needed to be covered (too sexual) ○ Constant battle --> Illness (psychological and physical) ○ Have to make the unconscious conscious ■ He eventually abandoned hypnosis ● Freudian techniques ○ Dream analysis ■ However, manifest content still conceals latent content; you're not completely free ○ Free association, ■ Eventually, you'll stop talking and this is what Freud is interested about because this suggests that something is being repressed; patients needed to get it out to get over it ○ Slips of tongue/ forgetting ■ Like calling mother "monster" ○ Personality systems ■ Believes conflicts come from childhood experiences ■ Id (unconscious) pleasure principle ■ To eat, to drink, to get warm, to want sexual pleasure ■ Unconscious ■ Fantasize things ■ Ego ■ Forms after birth ■ Mediator between id and superego ■ Can't get instant gratification ■ Ego tries to please the id, but can't always do that ■ Rational thought ■ Superego ■ Conscience ■ Society/ parents ■ Proscriptions, parents pass along values of scoeity ■ "that's not right, that's not moral" ■ Ego gets anxiety from ■ Id ■ Reality ■ Superego ● Defense mechanism ○ Repression- primary defense mechanism ■ Repressing things unconsciously ■ Vs. suppression- repressing things consciously ○ Displacement- puts unacceptable urge to safer target ■ Older babies can't suck on mom's breasts so suck on lollipops ○ Sublimation- socially acceptable ■ Aggression redirected --> artists draw violent pictures ■ Aggression redirected --> football player ○ Reaction formation- do the opposite ○ projection- somebody else ■ It's not me who's having an unacceptable urge, it's them ■ I hate her, but saying no, it's her who hates me. ○ Rationalization- reason away ■ Rationalizes unacceptable urges/ acts ● Manifests physical symptoms ● Film clip ○ Odors can be strong memories trigger ■ Close to the brain region associated with memories ○ Reaction formation ■ I love him I love him no I hate him ○ Helped me into the water ○ Nonverbal cues ■ Hitting on the pole ○ All the references to water ■ Suggestive of conflict revolving water ○ Childhood memories form the basis of adult personality ● Psychosexual stages (GRAPH) ○ Oral ○ Anal ■ Toilet training ● Fixation ○ Make up for deficit ■ If you lack oral pleasure, you become fixated or stuck on the stage, you become obsessed with lollipops ● Sexual development for boys and girls are different ○ Oedipus (boys) ■ Love for mother (wants to marry mom) ■ Jealous of father ■ Castration anxiety ■ Identify with father ■ In doing so, you're reconciling morals and societal expectations/ rules ■ Dad embodies societal proscriptions of the time ■ Resolution superego ○ Complex (girls) ■ Penis envy ■ Desire for father ■ Jealous of mom ■ Identify with mother ■ Resolution: superego ● Evidence for Freud's claims ○ Repressor study ■ Denial of increased stress ■ Modern test: repressor avoids or just doesn't hear provocative terms ○ Terror management theory- denial of death ■ Knowing that ultimately we will all die ■ Become more judgmental and prejudiced ■ Self-esteem is suggestive of fear of death and our denial of it ○ Projection study ■ Extremes saw others as extreme instead ■ Ex. false consensus effect ■ My choice is more normative and common than the opposite choice ■ False doesn't need to be false, it's just different; it doesn't reflect the actual statistical data; ■ Overestimate ○ May it's just that, ■ Dreams are just primitive and do not have any symbolic significance; they don't mean to repress anything; ○ Criticisms of Freud ■ Limited data set; rich Venetians as patients ■ Victorian society ■ Personal bias ■ He's mom's favorite child ■ Doesn't have lots of children patients ■ Vague and untestable ■ Non-falsifiable ■ His theory explains everything ■ "sometimes a cigar is just a cigar" ● Legacy of Freud ○ Neo-Freudians ■ Focus on current relationships ○ Irrationality/ implicit ○ Sometimes we are rational and sometimes we are not ■ Hot/cold empathy gap ○ Psychoanalysis still applicable to some mental disorders ○ Grand theory of personality ■ Provided a guide for further discussion NOVEMBER 17 ○ Freudian slip ■ Anything short of admirable ■ Meant to say, nothing short of admirable ○ Structured personality tests: way of diagnosing aspects of personality ■ MMP! (1939) ■ Looks at 10 different dimensions of personalities ■ Conversion hysteria- very anxious ■ CPI ■ Looks at other dimensions like sociability, sense of belonging ■ Myers-Briggs ■ 2.5 million/year ■ 89 Fortune 100 ■ Different dimensions ○ Reliability- repeatability ■ Will you still have the same typology score when you take it another time? ■ Malcom Maxwell, no ○ Validity ■ Convergent validity: correlates with other tests ■ Predictive: accurately predicts future ■ Many of the tests do not do a good job with this ■ Construct: fits in with general theory ■ You score fits about an overall scheme that you're measuring ■ Ex. deviance ■ Might manifest itself with dropping out of school, being ill-natured, becoming actors, or more likely to shoot your friend during hunting; ■ Mayb e your score correlates with some of them; you don't have to correlate with all of them to have validity ■ Ex. intelligence ■ Spatia l ■ Verbal ○ Barnum effect ■ Descriptions that can apply to anyone ■ Vague and general enough description, people can find things in them and say, that's so accurate and that's so me; ■ Used by astrologers, psychics ■ Example ■ You think Penn is intense? ■ You think about your romantic partner? ■ No one "dates here? ■ Psych 1 is your favorite class ○ Assessment ■ Projective personality tests- structure unstructured material ■ Without even your knowledge ■ Rorschach Inkblot ■ Discovers that kids give different answers to inkblot ■ In answering the question, you're revealing something about your personality; ■ Validity seems none existent; ■ But it's more accurate when you consider a lot of things, what's the content of your response, which areas of the inkblots did you focus on… ■ Correl ation about .2 ■ TAT ■ Have 30 different cards with detailed illustrations and ask people to tell stories ■ Doesn't seem to do better than Rorschach ■ But it might do a better job if you're to get insight into immediate needs ■ Be aware of… ■ Illusory correlation: see a relationship that isn't there ■ You see ■ But it's because of your bias not the respondents' actual personality ■ Ex. "draw a person" test ■ Ooh they drew big heads that meant they were concerned about their own intelligence ■ No validity ■ Study: ■ Mix descriptions with particular drawings ■ Clinici ans see nonexistence associations ■ O h yes, I see paranoia in them with their drawings of small eyes; ■ Trait theory ■ Underlying stable attributes ■ Big 5: ■ They are independent dimensions: ■ Openness ■ Conscientiousness ■ Extraversion ■ Agreeableness- are you friendly or not; ■ Neuroticism ■ Not Freudian concept, just means emotionally unstable ■ If you're low on neuroticism, you're emotionally stable; ■ Big 5 used to do cross cultural research and regional research ■ Women scored higher than men overall, except on extraversion ■ Being neurotic and conscientious is good for your health ■ You're worried about your wealth but you go exercise ○ Happiness is personality things? Some relationships between personality and well-being ■ It's not saying that personality is all genetics ■ 2 people in the family can be very different in terms of personality; ○ Sam Gosling ■ You can tell a lot about a person's personality by looking at their door room or office ■ Conscientious people have stamps in wallet ■ Sitting on the end of row? Neurotic; ■ These things are not very valid; ○ Challenge to Trait Theory ■ Mischel: poor cross-situational consistency r< 0.3 ■ Is the kid who cheats on exam the same kid who steals teacher's change? No! ■ Because what are traits? Traits are supposed to be stable and manifest itself across different situations. ■ Messy office but super neat car ■ We might only see you in the same situation ■ Oftentimes, roles matter more than personality. ■ In court, you wouldn't ask what their personality is but you ask if they are defendant or not ■ People underestimate situational influence ■ Fundamental attribution error ■ Situation matters too because situations confer roles to people and roles matter; ■ As evidenced by the prison experiment ■ Resolution: interaction. They both matter. ■ Not only they matter, they pick the situations; extroverts pick the gym; introverts don't go out; ■ People change situations ■ People might be very different if you are not around ■ People in the foam party are hyping other people up but they don't necessarily know that ■ Surprising consistency? ■ Delay of gratification ■ Walter Mischel ■ The kids who can wait…15 years later have higher SAT scores and social functioning; ■ SHORT CLIP ■ Willpo wer muscles, you can build them up, you can strengthen it by pushing yourself; ■ L ike fasting for a day, ■ F ocus on self-control than self-esteem; ■ Life is one exercise of delayed gratification ■ Delay depletion ■ D emotivating people, they have to resist the chocolate chip cookies and when it comes to the boring task, they give up quickly ■ Social cognitive theory ■ It's not about traits. It's about underlying response tendencies; ■ We have underlying response tendencies; ■ Considers situational factors ■ Delayed gratification, if you have to delay this thing, can you delay or not? ■ Another source of consistency? ■ What does that mean if you have a trait? ■ If you are aggressive, you show aggressive in more situations. ■ Traits manifest themselves in a number of domains; ■ Ward, et al.: Maximizing vs. satisficing ■ Maximizers: you want the best in everything ■ Correl ated with unhappiness, depression, and regret ■ They search and search and find the best and as soon as they do, they regret it; ■ People are attracted to lots of choices ■ The paradox of choice; there's really such thing as too much choice; you introduce paralysis than liberation; ■ Maxi mizer- obsessing over making the perfect choice ■ I think as long it's good enough, it is good enough ■ Maximizers care about choosing the best in more domains; HEALTH AND PSYCHOLOGY ○ Health Psychology ■ How psychology can contribute to good or bad health ■ Common causes of death have changed over time ■ Percentage of high stress people decreases with age ● ○ Stress and Health ■ Hans Selye ■ Studied ovarian extract in rats – resulted in enlarged adrenal glands, shrunken lymph nodes, bleeding ulcers ■ Same effect with control group injected with saline ■ Determined that effects were due to environmental factor ■ Continued testing different stressful situations ■ Borrowed term from physics – stress ■ When the normal animals is subjected to stress, the arenal corteces show hypertrophy ■ General Adaptation Syndrome ■ Alarm reaction stimulates glands to release hormones that mobilize the body’s defenses ■ Stage of resistance ■ Stage of exhaustion ■ Alarm reaction mobilizes resources, body’s resistance can only last so long before exhaustion sets in – reserves depleted ■ You get sick after exams ○ Holmes & Rahe, 1967 ■ Correlated stressful effects with illness – more stressful events more strongly correlated with illness ■ Most to least stressful – death of spouse, divorce, detention in jail, major injury/illness, marriage, marital reconciliation, pregnancy, trouble with in-laws, vacation, minor legal problem ○ Daily Hassles ■ More numerous ■ Accompany major events ■ Require action ● ○ What’s stressful? ■ Perception is everything ■ Stress – negative feelings when can’t cope ■ Appraisal and response matter ● ○ Effects of Stress ■ Autonomic Nervous System – involuntary ■ Sympathetic – fight or flight, arousing ■ Parasympathetic – calming ● Para ● Sy sympathe mpathe tic tic ● Hear ● He t slows art speeds up ● Dige ● No stion digestion ● Blad ● Bla der dder contracts relaxes ● Erec ● Eja tion culation ○ Effects of Sympathetic Arousal ■ Good for short term stress (cave men), bad for us ■ High blood pressure ■ Cardiovascular disease ■ Diabetes ■ Ulcers (not necessarily caused by stress but promoted) ■ Slowing of growth – psychosocial dwarfism ● ○ HPA Axis ■ Hyptohalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal ■ Distress system ■ Cortisol release – suppresses immune system – useful for quick energy expenditure in situations where it’s not important to worry about cold or flu ● ○ Stress Effects on Immune System ■ Poor health practices (diet, sleep) ■ Direct innervation (nerves to immune structures) ■ Hormonal suppression of system ● ○ Limitation of Studies ■ Lab studies – can only inflict mild stress, short duration – even this stress has effects but not as severe ■ Field studies – self-report, not always accurate, retrospective, correlational ● ○ Research Studies ■ Dental students allowed researchers to inflict scalpel wounds to mouth ■ Healing is a sign of immune system health ■ 8 days to heal at start of semester ■ 11 days to heal during exams ■ Stress weakened immune response ○ On vacation with rhinovirus ■ People inhaled the virus and asked about stress ■ High stress – 47% get colds ■ Low stress – 27% get colds ○ 3-mile Island residents – fewer immune cells years later ■ Stress response from living near a nuclear power plant that had a major incident ● ● ○ Type A ■ Competitive ■ Time pressured ■ Hostile ■ Hostility is the key risk factor for heart attack/stroke ■ What to do? Reappraisal – learn to reinterpret situations so you don’t get angry to begin with ● ○ Suppression ■ Suppressing emotion can lead to increased arousal ■ Bad for cardiovascular system ■ Gross and Levenson studies ■ Expose people to an emotion- provoking stimulus ■ Some people asked to suppress response, others not ■ People suppressing showed greater arousal ■ UCLA HIV Studies ■ Looked at closeted gay men ■ Those who were concealing their identity showed an earlier AIDS diagnosis and mortality ● ● Depression ○ Decreases with age ○ Linked to health problems – correlated with heart attack and death ○ Pessimists more likely to develop coronary heart disease ● ● Causal Direction? ○ Study – view humorous or sad movies ○ Sad – decreased immune function ○ Happy – increased immune function ● ● Martin Seligman ○ People’s explanatory style ○ 3 dimensions – external/internal (your fault or something external), stable/unstable (is it something that will go away?), specific/global (undermine one situation or everything you do?) ○ Those who habitually say it’s me, it’s going to last forever, undermine everything I do – pessimists ○ Not me, not going to last, not going to effect everything – optimists ○ Depression, achievement, health ○ Pessimists more susceptible to colds, accidents, worse ● ● James Pennebaker ○ Write or talk about negative events – benefits health ○ No feedback needed ○ Benefits among college students, professionals, and prisoners ○ Not inhibiting ○ Organizes thoughts – “narrative articulation” ● ● Langer & Rodin ○ Perceived control ○ Nursing home residents heard a speech – “we’ll take care of everything” vs. “if you want change, take action” ○ Those who received the perceived control message were healthier ○ 30% of people in the “everything for you” condition had died compared to 15% in perceived control group ● ● Positive Illusions ○ Shelley Taylor ○ Most people think people are better than average with positive traits ○ HIV patients with “realistic” acceptance died 9 months sooner ○ People with illusory belief lived longer ○ Good for health ● ● Social Support ○ Low levels predict increased risk of death ○ Important during times of stress – buffering hypothesis ○ Breast cancer support group members lived on average 18 months longer than people who were not ○ Not always available, not always helpful ○ Everyone had an earthquake story that no one wanted to hear ○ Two kinds of unhelpful responses – minimizing and giving advice ● ● Finding Meaning ○ Bad events “make sense” ○ Silver linings ○ E.g. religion ○ Religion encourages healthy behavior, social support, positive emotions ○ Exercise has physical and psychological benefits ● ● Just World Beliefs ○ Want to believe that people get what they deserve ● ● Mood uplifting experiment ● What the researchers did was while people were watching the emotional induced stimulus and ● Some people were told to suppress it…They had greater psychological arousal because they tried to suppress it; ● ○ Suppression ■ Suppressing emotion an lead to increased arousal ■ Bad for cardiovascular system ■ Gross and Levenson studies… ■ UCLA HIV studies ■ They looked at gay men who concealed their identify ■ They found that these gay men have earlier AIDS diagnosis and mortality ■ They progress faster to AIDS after getting HIV ■ They controlled a lot of things; ■ Another kind of suppression that leads to AIDS ○ Depression ■ Sex difference for dipression ■ Peaked around 18-24 ■ Depression leads to health proglrm ■ Hopelessness ■ Just correlation though; ■ Develping coronoary heart disease ■ Pessimission leads to heart disease ■ Suggests directionality ■ But good have 3rd variable ■ But it's just ○ Casual direction? ■ Study: View humorous or movies ■ Funny: immune function goes up ■ Sad: immune function goes down ○ Because of explanatory styles ■ Focus on how you explain tragic events; ■ External v. internal ■ Is my failure caused by me or not? ■ Stable v. unstable ■ Is it caused by something that stays around or something comes and goes? ■ Ex. If you failed exam, you can say I'm stupid or just I just have a hangover; ■ Global v. specific ■ I'm a worthless being, and thus it hurts everything I do; ■ Or just I'm in a bad mood ■ Predicts colds, accidents, worse… ■ These 3 dimensions affect: ■ Those who believe externa, unstabla,d n not global leads to optimism ■ Messures their depression level ■ Those who started out depressed but were optimism got better; ■ Pessimsm got chronic illness from age 40; they hadmore ■ Depression, Ahchvineess and health ■ Habit of ■ More ○ The good news ■ Re: Suppression ■ James Pennebaker ■ Write or talk about your trauma in an organized way ■ It helps; ■ You don't need feedback; you don't even need to tell others about it; ■ Benefits among professionals and prisoners ■ Good physically and psychologically ■ Why? Not inhibiting ■ Organizes thoughts "narrative articulation"; by writing it down it becomes one event that you can focus on; it works because when trauma happens, your thoughts are all over the place; ■ Re: Depression ■ Perceived control (Langer & Rodin, 1976) ■ 1st group: We'll do everything for you ■ 2nd group: You got to tell us what to do but we will do it for you ■ They had responsibility and perceived control ■ We got plants. Do you want them? If you do, you need to take care of them. ■ Those who were given perceived control method were healthier. ■ If it's not overwhelming; when people have control even if it's illusory, it can still help. ■ Positive illusions (Shelley Taylor) ■ Ask almost every positive trait, everyone thinks that they are above average; ■ Having positive illusions can have health benefits; ■ HIV patients w/ "realistic" acceptance died; ■ Social support ■ Low levels increase risk of death; ■ Important during times of stress- buffering hypothesis ■ Beast cancer support group: lived 18 months longer; ■ Have physical and psychological effects; ■ Yet, not always available; ■ You need people who will listen; ■ Not always helpful ■ Minim izing effects: tell people not to worry ■ Advic e: Here's 10 things you need to do to get over it; ■ Helpful: ■ Findin g meaning ■ B ad events "make sense" ■ S ilver linings; ■ E .g. Religion ■ T urns out that there are lots of benefits to religion; ■ Religious involvement: ■ Healthy behaviors ■ Community support ■ Positive emotions; ○ Sometimes when people ■ We ended up blaming themselves and sometimes we think they deserve that they get it; ■ Just World beliefs ■ You want to believe that they don't happen to you; EMOTIONS ● James- Lange (1890) ● Stimulus --> body response --> experienced emotion ○ Body response comes first. It precedes subjective emotion. Kind of counter-intuitive. ● "We're sad because we cry" ○ Lange: circulatory system ○ James: internal organs; ● Cannon's challenge (1927) ○ Same guy who coined fight or flight response. ○ How did you get different emotions with the same arousal? ○ Artificial arousal, no emotion ○ Organs are insensitive, slow ○ Cut nerves, you still see emotions. ● Cannon- Bard Theory ○ Two factor theory of emotions ○ Arousal and emotion follow simultaneously ● Schachter and Singer (19620 ○ Inject with epinephrine or placebo ○ Inform of symptoms or not; ○ Euphoric or angry confederate Euphoric Angry Confederate Confederate Epinephrine informed Epinephrine ignorant Placebo Slightly euphoric Slightly anger ● Emotion = arousal and cognitive label (provided by the environment) ● If you label it differently, you get different emotion ● Modern form we called the label attribution. Schachter's response to cannon ● How did you get different emotions with the same arousal? ○ Label, not arousal ● Artificial arousal, no emotion ○ Artificial arousal can lead to emotions ● Organs are insensitive, slow ○ Minimal arousal required ● Cut nerves, you still see emotions. ○ Study of paraplegics ○ GRAPH: ■ I know I'm supposed to be angry, but I don't feel that. The higher the spinal cord lesion, the less intense the fear and anger felt. ● Recent Qualifications ○ Not all emotions have the same pattern ■ Physiological signatures ○ Arousal maybe more for intensity, not existence ● Facial feedback ○ Study: hold pen while read comics ○ Those who hold the pen with their teeth are smiling. They feel that the comics are funnier than those who hold the pen with their lips (frowning). ● Surprising finding from Schachter and Singer (1962) ○ Expected ■ Epinephrine ignorant > placebo= epinephrine informed; ■ Looked to the environment, then labeled their emotions ■ I know why I'm aroused because I was given a shot. ○ Actual: ■ Epinephrine ignorant > placebo > epinephrine informed; ■ How come the epinephrine informed participants didn't feel any emotion? ■ Because they misattributed their arousal. ● Misattribution of Arousal ○ Excitation transfer: arousal from one source --> different source; ● Research: ○ Men crossing the shaky suspension bridge ○ Men crossing the steady low bridge ○ Low bridge: 1/16 people called the women confederate. ○ High bridge: 9/18 called. ○ Why? ○ Misattribution of arousal ○ Actual source: fear ○ Misattributed source: lust ○ Maybe women confederates offer some sort of psychological comfort. Negative reinforcement. ○ What's love? ■ Love is the undifferentiated arousal in the presence of an appropriate other. ● Andrew Ward's experiment ○ Participants climbed up the stairs. Aroused. ○ Some were attracted to the confederates. ● Universal emotions? ○ Positive and negative emotions ○ Low, high arousal ○ The one with the most agreement: happiness. ○ People in different cultures may identity/ feel the same emotions from the same facial expressions. ● Love makes us warm ● Most people say that they are moderately happy. ● Happiness and… ○ Social comparison ■ Sometimes we have the need to compare ourselves to others. ■ Upward- compare against those who are better off. ■ Downward- compare against those who are worse off. ○ Lyubomirsky and Ross (1997) ■ If you outperform, you engage in downward comparisons. Both unhappy and happy people feel good. ■ If you do worse, unhappy people are devastated. Happy people barely noticed and were unaffected. ■ Rate/ rank 10 desserts: ■ Get 2nd choice. ■ Rerate 2nd and 3rd choice. ■ Typical result: spreading of alternatives ■ Chosen ■ Not chosen ■ Resolution of cognitive dissonance. ■ Peopl e rationalizes and justifies because they got their 2nd choice. ■ Happy people? ■ The dessert I got was great. ■ The other dessert that I didn't get was also great too. ■ GRAP H. Happy don't show spreading of alternatives. ■ "Happ y" ■ They don't need to justify. They are just happy. ■ Unhappy people: ■ The dessert I got was alright. ■ But the one I didn't get…holy, thank god I didn't get that. ■ They were rationalizing what they got and derogating the other one. ■ "Right " ● Money =/= happiness. ● Hedonic Treadmill ○ Study (Brickman, 1978): lottery winners vs. accident victims ○ Past, present, future ○ People adapt and habituate to whatever our happiness set point is. ○ Future projections on happiness were about the same for all three groups. Past Present Future Winners 3.77 4 4.2 control 3.32 3.82 4.14 victims 4.41 2.96 4.32 ● Experiences, not possessions. ● Spend on others. ● Sources of happiness? ○ Genes ○ Close friends ○ Count your blessings. Choose to be grateful. IT will make you happier. ○ Doing good ○ "The secret to happiness is low expectations." Barry Schwartz ● Why be happy? ○ Nun study ■ Essays they wrote and coded them. ■ Conclusions: ■ Smoking 1 pack -3 years ■ Smoking 2 pack -7 years ■ Heavy drinking -7 years ■ Light drinking +2 years ■ Exercise +3 years ■ Happiness +9.4 years CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY ○ Anxiety is the most common disorder: 29% ○ Prevalence: number of cases at given time; ○ Overtime (point) prevalence ■ Areas where there are lots of conflicts have highest depression rates ○ Incidence: number of new cases in given time period; ■ 300,000 number of cases of schizophrenia were diagnosed each year; this is incidence; ○ Depression seems to ■ Seasonal affective disorder; ■ But we actually think that it links to sunlight not the temperature; it's also not the months; ○ High prevalence but low incidence? ■ YES! Disease dissipates but takes long time to cure. ○ Low prevalence but high incidence? ■ YES! Ex. cold- low one-time prevalence (short duration) but high annual incidence; ○ Psychopathology ■ Marked impairment in functioning; hinders your ability to do work; ■ DSM: Signs (external) and symptoms (internal) ■ David Rosenhan (1973): On being Sane in Insane Places ■ Classic and controversial study ■ Gained admission into 12 different psychiatric hospital ■ Every behavior they engaged in were seen through the lens of illness ■ Engaging in note- taking behavior ■ They weren't detected by staffs ■ Sane and insane aren't clinical psychological terms; ■ Clinical psychological hospitals are about treating people; ■ It shows how poor the conditions were in the hospitals; low level of care ■ Contact with staffs: 6.5 minutes a day ■ Different expose ■ Someone replicated his study and argued that she was treated well and staffs showed great care ■ DSM-5 published in 2013 ■ Updated ■ Diagnostic criteria are in need of revision ■ If you don't have a diagnosis in the DSM, it's hard to get diagnosed, treatment, and insurance. ■ Argument: if you aren't feeling well mentally- and it doesn't matter what kind and how severe- why not get treatment? ■ Schizophrenia ■ Very serious ■ Not that rare; 1% of the population ■ A psychotic disorder characterized by ■ Loss of contact it the environment ■ Noticeable deterioration in everyday life ■ Disintegration of personality: ■ Disord er of feeling ■ Thoug ht as delusions ■ Perce ption as hallucinations ■ And behavior ■ Psychosis: loss of reality testing ■ Patients don't know what's true; ■ Latest criteria that are used to diagnose schizophrenia: ■ > 6 months ■ Two or more (including 1 from first 3) ■ Delusi ons ■ Halluc inations (false sensory- seeing things that aren't there; tactile sensations that are not present; hearing things not there;) ■ Disorg anized speech ■ Disorg anized or catatonic behavior ■ Negat ive symptoms, i.e., affective flattening, alogia, and avolition; ■ Thought disorder: ■ Lose associations ■ Attentional difficulties; can't focus ■ Delusions (false beliefs) ■ Perse cution- thinks that someone's after you ■ Grand eur- thinks that you're some kind of leader ■ Contr ol- thinks that you're being controlled ■ Other symptoms: ■ Flat/ inappropriate affect: laughing at a funeral ■ Disordered motor behavior; ■ Sub-categories were no longer used because it's hard to draw the distinctions; ■ Positive symptoms (presence): delusions, hallucinations ■ Negative symptoms (absence): flat affect, social withdrawal; ○ Dopamine Hypothesis ■ Phenothiazine (Laborit) ■ Found that this drug has anti- psychotic effects; ■ Seems to calm delusion and hallucinations ■ Revolving door syndrome- patients stopped taking drugs at some point; ■ Amphetamines ■ Produce more dopamine; induces psychosis ■ They kept writing and writing but never turning the page; ■ Maybe also glutamate involved? ■ No one cause: ■ Schizophrenias- family of disorders ■ Multiple causes ■ Genes play a role: ■ Holes in your brains; enlarged ■ Relationships; ■ Not a single gene responsible; lots of genes are responsible for all different forms of schizophrenia ■ Environmental ■ But more likely is that people with schizophrenia can't get a job and concentrate ■ This graph suggests no causation ■ Expressed emotion ■ Critical, hostile judgments of family members with schizophrenia --> High relapse rates; ■ Diathesis- stress model? ■ Biological predisposition (risk factors) + stressful environment ■ Enviro nment matters; if not for the environment, they might not have the illness; ■ Eye-tracking deficits; can't "jump" properly when reading ■ Diminished nystagmus: ■ Their eyes don't move back and forth when they were spun around; ■ Implication: A single treatment is not enough because of symptoms patients manifest; ○ Exam Wed Dec. 16th 9-11 a.m. ■ Same length as midterms- everything since last midterm (including Recitation 6) ○ Anxiety disorders ■ Anxiety: fear or a


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