365 Final Study Guide
365 Final Study Guide WLDF 365
Popular in Ornithology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Wildlife
verified elite notetaker
This 38 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elizabeth Notetaker on Sunday December 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to WLDF 365 at Humboldt State University taught by Dr. Kristen Kling in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 114 views. For similar materials see Ornithology in Wildlife at Humboldt State University.
Reviews for 365 Final Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 12/13/15
WLDF 365 Final Exam Study Guide (Cumulative) Fall 2015 Mark Colwell ORIGIN OF BIRDS Origins: Two competing hypotheses Heated debate! Linked to discussions of: – Origins of flight – Original function of feathers Theories of evolution of birds from reptiles: Theropod Origins evidence w/ Archeopteryx Bone morphology: ● Similar foot structure ● Carpal bone (semilunate) present ● Dinosaurs tucked their forelimbs like birds ● Uncinate processes ● Shoulder sockets Oviparity & “nests” “Feathers” present Similar respiratory system feathers evolved for thermoregulation, then flight capabilities ”Ground up” origins (cursorial) supported by lots of evidence, but hard to believe flight originating from ground Thecodont Origins evidence w/ Protoavis spp. (fragmented) ● Gliding origins more likely and ● Small, treedwelling thecodonts have been found ● Bird bodies are dorsoventrally flattened whereas theropod bodies are laterally flattened ● However, currently, no supporting fossil evidence and highly debated feathers evolved first as elongated scales to aid in gliding/later flight arboreal origins Criticisms of Theropod Origins: 1) Digit Homology a) birds: 2,3,4 b) Theropods 1,2,3 2) Cladistics a) could be biased, need independent test 3) Temporal Paradox a) mixed fossil evidence, (can’t be your own grandma) 4) Groundup Flight a) hard to believe b) whereas gliding flight is more common ▯ Archaeopteryx lithographica shows intermediate characteristics between reptiles and birds, had asymmetrical feathers, non keeled sternum, used as evidence in Theropod theory of bird evolution 15 MYA (Jurassic) Protoavis texensis, had avian skull features, used as evidence in Thecodont theory of bird evolution 225 MYA ▯ Shared Similarities between Birds and Reptiles: 1) Single occipital condyle 2) Single middle ear bone 3) Jaw of 5 fused bones 4) Oviparity Evolutionary theory predicts existence of intermediate forms: Features shared with reptiles: 1. Scales 2. Single occipital condyle 3. Lower jaw with quadrate + other bones 4. Single middle ear bone (stapes) 5. Pecten present in eye 6. Nucleated red blood cells 7. Oviparity & egg structure Terms: ▯ Cursorial: adapted for running, refers to grounddwelling organism ▯ Arboreal: living in trees ▯ Cladistics: “A system of classification based on the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of groups of organisms, rather than purely on shared features. Many modern taxonomists prefer cladistics to the traditional hierarchies of Linnean classification systems.” (http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/cladistics) ▯ Convergent evolution:the appearance of apparently similar structures in organisms of different lines of descent. (http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/convergent%20evolution?s=t) ▯ Theropod: grounddwelling dinosaurs (potential bird ancestors) ▯ Thecodont: arboreal dinosaurs (potential bird ancestors) ▯ Archosaurs: “any reptile of the subclass Archosauria including the extinct dinosaurs and pterosaurs and the modern crocodilians and birds.” (http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/archosaur) ▯ Additional Qs: 1) What feature of the fossil of Archaeopteryx indicates that it was capable of gliding flight? 2) What feature of the fossil suggests it was probably not capable of sustained flapping flight? ▯ SYSTEMATICS Speciation Models: 1) Allopatric a) populations diverge in isolation i) relies on phylogeographic data EX: Darwin’s finches Species Concepts: 1) Biological a) = Traditional view, based on reproductive isolation b) =Contemporary view, based on shared derived characters 2) Phylogenetic Morphological Taxonomy 1) Skeletal a) palate, keeled sternum i) presence/absence distinguishes most birds 2) Musculature a) syrinx i) difference between songbirds and all others b) hind limbs i) controversy of where avocets should be placed, once thought to be related to flamingos 3) Scales of foot 4) Sperm structure Behavioral Taxonomy 1) Courtship 2) Song 3) Maintenance ~What characters are diagnostic of modern birds? ▯ Feathers ▯ Oviparity ▯ Number of Birds: ▯ 100,000 species during Mesozoic ▯ ▯ ~10,600 today ▯ 37 extant orders according to Cornell Lab of Ornithology ▯ Passeriformes has the most species of any order. ~5,000 ▯ ▯ Variation arises from: 1) Extinction 2) Phyletic evolution 3) Speciation 1) Endemism a) isolated islands or locations b) EX: ratites in Australia c) no genetic flow due to geographic barriers d) Galapogos e) radiation of species due to isolation f) species with smaller ranges g) specific habitat requirements 2) Diversity a) close to the equator b) due to resources, niches without high costs c) ice age time lengths, have had more time to evolve d) tropics e) places difficult to get to (Isolation, and away from human) Findings of DNA in taxonomy of birds: ▯ ▯ 1. Ratites group together ▯ ▯ 2. Owls with goatsuckers ▯ ▯ 3. Large number of taxa in Ciconiiformes... ▯ New World vultures grouped with storks...now reversed they’re back with raptors! ▯ ▯ 4. Wrentit was a babbler...but not anymore!!! ▯ 5. Passeriformes restructured ▯ ▯ (It is not the most common form of distinguishing species because so few species have been karyotyped as of yet. There has also been little variation between chromosomes. ) ▯ ▯ Change in Classification of Canada Goose: What was formerly known as the Canada goose is now separated into two groups (large and small bodied forms). Largebodied remain known as Canada Goose (B. canadensis) with many subspecis. Most closely related to the Hawaiian Goose. The Smallbodied form Geese (B. hutchinsii) are now known as Cackling Goose, with several subspecies. Most closely related to the Barnacle Goose. Communication most recognizable facet of bird biology commonalities with human speech learning and development dialects develop during critical periods early on in life beauty of song is negatively related to visual beauty can help link groups of birds and populations Terms: Cladistics= “A system of classification based on the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of groups of organisms, rather than purely on shared features.” Systematics=study of evolutionary relationships among organisms ○ Systematists classify based on evolutionary relationships Taxonomy=classification of systematics into a hierarchical scheme ○ Taxonomists identify, describe, and name organisms Evolutionary significant unit= species Species= a group of individuals who are able to mate with other members and not with members of individuals outside the group to produce viable offspring Subspecies= EX: Audobon’s Warbler vs. Myrtle Warbler both subspecies of Yellowrumped warbler tiny areas where ranges overlap, hybridization occurs once separate species, now recombined need to determine whether there is genetic flow back and forth between, all subspecies generally share genetic flow between other subspecies subspecies are harder to find in birds than with other animal taxa Biological species concept= Traditional view, based on reproductive isolation Phylogenetic species concept=Contemporary view, based on shared derived characters Ratite=member of the group of flightless birds, lack keel and palate Carinate= birds with keel, refers to Carinatae, the group of all birds and their extinct relatives to possess a keel, or "carina", on the underside of the breastbone used to anchor large flight muscles (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carinatae) Paleognathae= one of the two living clades of birds that lack a palate contains ratites(group of nonflying birds) and tinamous (group of flying birds) Neognathae= other clade of birds that possess a palate, includes the vast majority of bird species Fahrenholz’ rule= states that speciation of parasites is parallel to that of birds ▯ ▯ FEATHERS ▯ ~True or false, feathers are diagnostic of birds. Explain your answer. True: Of all extant organisms, feathers are only found on birds. False: However, given fossil evidence, it is known that other creatures (such as dinosaur ancestors) also possessed feathers. having evolved from dinosaurs ▯ Feather growth in a developing embryo: 1) Papilla 2) Accelerated epidermal growth and evagination 3) Epidermal collar, vascularized, and innervated ~How does the replacement of subsequent feathers proceed within each follicle? triggered by: 1) hormones 2) seasonal changes 3) stress 4) absence of feathers ▯ Sequence of molts and plumages acquired by a Western Sandpiper (in first year): ▯ 1) Natal Down JuneJuly (hatched in the Arctic) > undergoes prejuvenal molt > 2) Juvenal Plumage AugustOctober > undergoes first prebasic molt > 3) First Basic Plumage NovemberMarch > undergoes first prealternate molt> 4) First Alternate Plumage AprilJuly > undergoes second prebasic molt (original retrices and remiges finally molted now) > 5) Second Basic Plumage AugustMarch Scarlet Tanager: egg>naked>natal down>juvenile (happens over span of 3 weeks) will do partial molt PB overwinter The terms breeding and wintering can be confusing because these plumages are not observed during exact know time periods during the year. Breeding and wintering seasons can vary by species and each can molt at varying times during the year as well. Plus some birds have more than one type of molt ● Northern Shoveler: ▯ females are drab colored ▯ males molt into eclipse plumage > alternate (possess for long time, perhaps 10 months) ○ spend most of their time in alternate plumages ○ nonbreeding plumage isn’t truly nonbreeding discrepancies in phenology (timeline) breeding and winter seasons vary by location more consistent way of describing plumages Types of Feathers: ● Vaned ○ composed of rachis and vane ○ found on wings and tail ■ provide aerodynamic contour of body ○ Functions: 1) Location, 2) Thermoregulation, 3) Communication, 4) Protection ● Down ○ lack hooks, loops & rachis ○ present in precocial young ■ under contour feathers ○ functions: 1) Thermoregulation, 2) Crypsis (avoid observation by other organisms, camouflage from predators) ● Semiplume ○ rachis is longer than longest barb ○ found among flight & contour feathers ○ functions: 1) Displays, 2) Thermoregulation ● Filoplume ○ long, hairlike feathers ○ found amidst flight feathers ○ richly innervated with tactile nerves ○ functions: 1) Sensory, 2) Aerodynamics ● Bristles ○ vaneless countour feathers ○ found near eyes, nostrils, mouth ○ function: 1) Enhanced foraging abilities, 2) Protection ● Powder down ○ downlike ○ produce talcum powderlike substance ○ present on herons, egrets, rollers of Madagascar, ○ function: 1) Feather maintenance ▯ ~Identify the following structural parts of a contour feather: a) rachis, b) calamus, c) vane, d) barb, and e) proximal & distal barbules. ▯ ▯ www.poultryhub.org ▯ Advantages of dark colors: 1) Retention of heat 2) Sturdiness, will last longer a) melaninsharder to degrade compared to other pigments, 3) Fewer parasites Can age birds by looking at their feathers: Faint White edging on flight feathers, know that the feather is young Can get very different looking birds will see more and more black as season progresses Pterylae= area on the skin of a bird from which feathers grow Apteria(singular apterium)=bare spaces between the feathered areas on the body of a bird (http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/apterium) Molt=regeneration of feathers Plumage=coat of feathers 1) Alternate, replaces “breeding/nuptial” 2) Basic, replaces “winter” Types of feather color: Structural Pigment ~How do structural colors produce: a) iridescence in the gorget of a male Anna’s Hummingbird; and b) the blue of a Steller’s Jay? a) produces by interference b) produced by scattering, less variation Structural Colors: 1) Interference a) shimmering iridescence formed by platelets on barbules, color changes with angle of light i) Iridescence (1) produced by multiple layers and light waves which either cancel each other out of accentuate color (2) observed color changes with angle ii) EX: Rufous Hummingbird 2) Scattering a) produces blues, combined with pigments b) tiny vacuoles on barb surface c) scatter short wavelengths d) observed color is the same regardless of angle Pigment=any substance whose presence in the tissues or cells of animals or plants colors them. ▯ 4 Categories: 1) Melanins (black, red, brown) important in the production of ornaments 2 types: Eumelanins (blacks & browns) Pheomelanins (light brown, red, orange, yellow) produced by diet and hormones EX: Male House Sparrow “badges” 2) Carotenoids (red, orange, yellow) EX: Cedar Waxwing 3) Porphyrins (reds, greens, etc.) EX: Turaco 4) Psittacofulvins (reds, etc.) EX: Greenwinged Macaw ▯ FLIGHT ▯ Flight Muscles: 1) Pectoralis Major a) originates on sternum and keel b) attaches to ventral side of humerus c) powers downstroke of flight 2) Supracoracoideus a) originates on sternum (dorsal to pectoralis major); its large tendon (subclavis) extends dorsally passes through triosseal canal then inserts on dorsal side of humerus b) attaches to dorsal side of humerus c) powers the recovery stroke or upstroke of flight ▯ 4 Forces that affect Physics of Flight: 1) Lift= generated by secondaries and tail 2) Gravity= based on the mass of bird pulling it down 3) Drag=resistance to forward motion types: surface friction, profile, induced 4) Thrust=provided by primaries Static pressure= atmospheric pressure Dynamic pressure=kinetic energy of wind both generate lift against wing Aspect ratio=ratio of wing length to width Gliding Flight: involves glide ratio=horizontal:vertical distances Soaring Flight: upward air movement counters downward glide of bird EX: Turkey Vulure Types of soaring: Static EX: Thermals Slope Appalachian Moutains Dynamic EX: Air generated off waves Common Murre off cliff ○ Common Murre, heavy with small wings, (birds with 2x the wing loading are generally 3X the weight) ○ bird has to create lift (vacuum created by downstroke) and thrust (downstroke), needs more dynamic pressure, needs more assistance from environment ○ in calm conditions, will have to use a lot of energy, or glide ○ uses lift and thrust to control its fall ○ in strong wind(NW breeze), lift is provided, due to unequal movement of air around wing creates lift, can fly better How is airplane flight similar? Shape, designed from birds use jet engine to generate thrust albatross adjusts wings based on wind movement around wing wing shape helps create lift by creating vacuum at edge of updraft and downdraft increases pressure, pushes wing up differences in pressure keep airplanes up Lift in Airplane: Plane moving down runway, pushing air around it, will create discrepancy in pressures if it moves fast enough, wind deflected upward (less pressure), greater space with higher pressure, greater space with lower pressure > generates lift more turbulence,plane puts up flap increases drag to slow down and land ▯ Cambered wing and generation of lift: ● Static pressure= atmospheric pressure ● Dynamic pressure=kinetic energy of wind ▯ Bernoulli’s Law=constant relationship between static and dynamic pressure, where if one is high the other is low https://www.google.com/search?q=Bernoulli%E2%80%99s+Law+definition&ie=utf8&oe=utf 8 ▯ taking in quantity of air and pushing it into smaller space, produces higher pressure ▯ everything is constant if you combine both areas around wing discrepancy of pressure creates lift ▯ Adaptations for flight: 1) Strong light skeleton 2) Reduced body weight 3) Rigid body skeleton ribs with uncinate processes over each other for extra support 4) Enlarged keeled sternum 5) Braced pectoral girdleallows for spring loading 6) Modified wing jointsallows wing adjustments 7) Powerful flight muscles Bird Adaptations: 1) Skeleton a) reduced number of bones due to fusion b) lack of teeth c) pneumatization (air pockets inside bones) 2) Reproduction a) leftside of females is functional b) seasonal c) oviparity: i) found in all birds ii) vary in shape, color, size, number (1) some species lay exact number: EX: chickens lay 1/day ▯ EX: hummingbirds lay 2 in a nest Feather Maintenance: 1) Bathing, preening, anting 2) Uropygial gland 3) Antimicrobial activity MIGRATION Migration=predictable roundtrip movement, connected to seasons Partial migration=a segment of a population migrates and another is resident EX: Snowy Plover (species as whole is a partial migrant with resident and transient subpopulation) Why has migration evolved? benefits of moving to another region 1) more food, less competition 2) less predation returning home advantages (knowing where to find food+mate, how to evade predators) Irruptive Movement= irregular seasonal occurrence of birds outside normal range Zugunruhe= changes in behavior and physiology during migration (i.e., migratory restlessness) Hyperphagia=changes in behavior and physiology and anatomy in relation to eating quickly prior to migration Fuels for Migration: 1) Lipids a) stored subcutaneously 2) Protein a) from pectoralis major 3) Glycogen a) for quick starts Advantages of Fat: ▯ Fat produces 2X the Energy & 2X the water. Helps with maintaining flight and preventing dehydration. Orientation=ability to move in a given compass direction Navigation=directed movement • Vector: – Assumes same direction – Typical of naive birds • True: – Adjust for displacement – True for adults Cues to Orient+Navigate: 1) Sun/Polarized 2) Stars 3) Geomagnetic Fields 4) Olfaction *all birds have backup systems ▯ ~Identify and briefly discuss how time, energy and danger influence the evolution of migration strategies in a spring migrant bird. Manage: ▯ Time... enough to breed, molt, which requires ▯ – Energy... as fuel, but not so much because high wing loading makes for.. – Danger... of predation ~ How does migratory behavior (e.g., duration and directionality) of captive blackcaps correlate with what is known of the migration system of their wild counterparts? ▯ placed in cage outside so they can see stars ▯ ink cap at base ▯ flies up in particular direction ▯ observations tell us, focused direction of behavior: amount of urge to want to migrate due to hormones ■ direction in experimental birds matched that of wild counterparts Migration cues: 1) sun compass 2) star compass 3) geographic landmarks 4) polarized light 5) sunset 6) chemical odors ● Wilson’s: adults leave first ○ juveniles go last, can be two weeks later ○ migrate at night, use stars for navigation, sunset orients EW ○ mechanism to help navigate ○ see magnetic fields with right eye (pigeon), photoradiation ○ (falcon would migrate during day, due to vision) ● Blackpoll: live in Canada stage in Northeast(nova scotia) take off during night, also fly during day (use magnetic fields and movement of sun) head to Venezuela follow photoradiation, go to where it’s densest Migratory cues continued... a) olfaction local cues familiarity with local smells and those carried by wind, and oceanic dimethylside odors experiment using pigeons, blocked nostrils, and birds did not follow same migratory path, or were not able to as quickly b) vision follow star patterns experiment with pigeons, found that they followed both natural and manmade landmarks c) geomagnetism follow earth’s magnetic fields experiment with pigeons found that when they placed metal helmets on pigeons’ heads, they were disoriented, manipulated magnets and pigeons followed that direction Evidence of Migration: 1) Juveniles migrate alone a) EX: Wilson’s Phalarope i) adults leave Mono Lake and arrive in S. America via “great circle” route (shortest distance route) ii) juveniles migrate along C. America iii) share common wintering area iv) this suggest predetermined migration programming 2) CrossFostering Experiments a) Herring Gull is nonmigratory b) Lesser Blackbacked is migratory c) eggs swapped d) what do offspring do? i) Lesser Blackbacked migrated ii) but so did Herring Gull 3) Endogeneous Rhythms a) predictable changes in physiology and behavior b) put birds under light:dark regimes (12 hours light, 12 hours dark) c) birds still maintained bio rhythms 4) Interspecific Differences a) differ in duration and intensity of migratory restlessness 5) Hybridization Experiments a) Blackcaps migrating NS show less duration of zugunruhe than other subpopulations b) hybrids show intermediate distances and zugunruhe 6) Artificial Selection a) Blackcaps in France, 76% with migratory behavior bred into formerly nonmigrating birds, shows that it was bred genetically b) selective breeding, resulted in 30% change per generation Most pursuasive evidence? experimental rather than observational studies 1) Artificial Selection a) 30% change per generation in migratory behavior 2) Hybridization a) shows intermediate migratory behavior Behavioral and physiological changes in blackpoll migrant: ▯ fatten up, molt ▯ go to Maritime provinces of Canada (Nova Scotia) ▯ stage and fatten up before: 1214 grams, in Nova Scotia 1826grams first put on fat in furcular hollow, then flanks, then attrified organs, nothing but fat Wingwhirring=behavior of hovering or flapping exhibited in captive birds paratympanic organ=The paratympanic organ (PTO) is a small sense organ in the middle ear of birds. Q:What environmental cues does a migrating Bartailed Godwit use to orient and navigate its way “home” during its nonstop migration from Alaska to New Zealand? =champion migrant wait for lowpressure system, creates favorable tailwinds ENDOTHERMY, RESPIRATION, EXCRETION Endothermy: small birds have higher costs due to surface area:volume ratio ● Benefits: 1. Maintain high body temperature when solar radiation is low 2. Exploit cold environs ● Costs: 1. Energy expensive 10x herps Up to 8090% energy expended Requires constant & high energy intake rate Conserving+Producing Heat: 1) Raise feathers 2) Shivering 3) Countercurrent circulation 4) Torpor and Hypothermia 5) Habitat selection a) communal roosting b) orientation How do birds standing in icy cold water conserve heat? counter current circulation Dissipating Heat: 1) Gular flapping, a) EX: Pelicans + cormorants 2) Panting 3) Hyperthermia 4) Feather adjustment 5) Defecation on legs a) EX: Storks + vultures 6) Habitat selection a) move to shade 7) Countercurrent circulation ● Restphase Hypothermia + Torpor: 95 species Especially hummingbirds, caprimulgids, todies Many with high metabolism Nocturnal body temperatures drop from 105o to 66o F Do birds hibernate? grey area between definitions of torpor and hibernation small birds can’t maintain metabolic rate during sleep, go into torpor larger bird, lesser degree or tendency of torpor EX: Common Poorwill (hibernate for 23), Jamaican Tody Respiratory System: have no diaphragm ”flowthrough” system with air sacs functions: 1) Gas exchange 2) Protection 3) Communication 4) Thermoregulation Difference between mammalian and avian respiratory systems: Mammals: in and out, must wait between inhalation and exhalation Birds: can constantly breathe with flowthrough system Flow through system: little stale air efficient gas exchange Circulatory System: similar to human heart have to survive at high elevations with low oxygen levels increased number of capillaries observed with increase in elevation 4 features: 1) large size of heart relative to body size 2) high blood pressure 3) larger stroke volume 4) 4 chambered 5) separate pulmonary(heart) and systemic (body) circulation Q: Which bird has largest heart? =Hummingbird Excretory System bladder absent from all but a few sp. kidney excretes uric acid have only one hole=cloaca Salt Glands: observed in birds in hypersaline environments, found in front of the eyes uses counter current system active transport of salt across thin walls of capillary network salt is dripped out or forcibly ejected from nostrils, glands are above eyes(inside skull) generally in seabirds 1) Sphenisciformes penguins 2) Suliformes cormorants 3) Procellariiformes tubenoses 4) Charadriiformes sandpipers 5) Pelecaniformes pelicans 6) Anseriformes some ducks 7) Phoenicopteriformes flamingos Digestive System: 2 functions: 1) Process food, convert to energy 2) Rid body of waste Bill Morphology: adapted due to lack of limbs can vary between seasons EX: Eurasian Oystercatcher interspecific variation correlated to diet 1) Nectarivore 2) Insectivore 3) Carnivore 4) Frugivore 5) Piscivore 6) Granivore Rhamphotheca=sheath of keratin covering bones Tomium=cutting edge of mandibles Culmen=dorsal edge Beak Deformities: observed in chickadees and ravens Tongue Morphology: specialized for diet 1) Nectarivore a) brush shaped 2) Piscivore a) “spikes” 3) Frugivore a) fleshy EX: Flamingo, uses tongue like baleen to filter invertebrates EX: Hummingbirds, uses split tongue to extract nectar EX: Parrots: move seeds in mouth, combed shape tongue to lap nectar EX: Woodpecker, tongue wraps around head, reaches into tree cavities to eat insects Crop: principal function: 1) storage Foregut and Stomach: 2 parts: 1) Proventriculus a) chemical process 2) Gizzard a) mechanical process Intestines: 3 parts: 1) Duodenum 2) Illium 3) Jejunum Intestinal Ceca: pronounced variation in size bacterial symbionts Cloaca: =common opening nontoxic because birds produce uric acid Pathway of food through body: BillCropProventriculus<>Gizzardsmall intestineslarge intestinececacloaca Methods for quantifying diet: 1) collect birds and stomachs 2) chemical emetics and stomach pumping 3) ligatures 4) pellets 5) fecal samples 6) direct observations 7) photography Additional Qs: What percentage of the world’s birds are herbivorous? Why are there so few birds with a strictly folivorous diet? foliage is not very nutritious, have to eat a great deal in order to process and gain enough energy SENSES: Interspecific variation due to diurnal or nocturnal activity, feeding underwater or from the air, etc. Q: What percentage of the cranial volume can the orbitals take up? up to 50% Locations of the Eye: 1) Side a) =monocular, but panoramic view 2) Front a) =binocular view b) Eye Structure: ● Sclerotic ossicles ○ like reptiles ● Iris ○ colored or dark ● Pupil ○ large ○ increased light cast on retina ○ precise image control ● Pecten ○ like reptiles ○ likely nutritive function ● Cones and rods ○ for color and night vision ○ 4 types of cones (including UV sensitive cone) ● Retinal fovea ○ high cone density for acuity Flickerfusion frequency high in birds for resolving high speed information relationship between body size and perception of temporal change smaller birds have higher flicker fusion varies by species Eye shapes: 1) Flattened= wideangle lens a) short optical axis = small image and enhanced scanning b) EX: Sparrow 2) Globose = zoom lens a) long optical axis= large image b) curved cornea gathers light c) EX: Hawk 3) Tubular= zoom and low fstop a) long optical axis b) greatly curved cornea and lens gather light c) many rods d) EX: Owl Underwater Vision ● cornea alters refractive index ● compensate for sudden change in refractive index from compressed cornea ● rapid lens adjustment with ciliary muscles ● EX: Brown Pelican Q: What muscles are involved in rapid lens adjustment needed for underwater vision? =ciliary muscles Owl Adaptations: ● asymmetric skull ● binaural fusion ● facial disk to acquire sound ● binocular vision ● acoustic “crosshairs” Mechanoreception: 1) Skin/feather follicles 2) Herbst corpuscles in tip of bill, tongue 3) Feet Olfaction ● generally small olfactory bulb, which relates to poor smell ● exceptions: kiwi, vultures, shearwaters Q: Which bird is used to find natural gas leaks? =Turkey Vulture Paratympanic Organ (PTO) =innate barometer senses changes in atmospheric pressure Taste birds have few taste buds Q: What group of birds is considered most intelligent? =pigeons or corvids Q: What group of birds has best spatial memory? =corvids, parids have well developed hippocampus Q: What part of the avian brain is most involved with avian intelligence? =corpus striatum birds with greater striatal development performed more accurately on tests lesions in the striatal region interfere with learning COMMUNICATION: Vocal Learning among Taxa: 1) taxa with little learning abilities 2) taxa with rich vocal repertoires and learning a) Restricted to brief period b) Learn until a young adult c) Learn for 12 years d) Learn forever Q: What part of the avian brain is associated with song? =HVC Areas of Sound Production: 1) Feathers 2) Feet 3) Air Sacs Song + Call ● under influence of gonadal hormones ● evidence: ○ Castration done to male ■ led to no song, or no alternate plumage ○ Castration + testosterone given to male ■ still had song ○ Testosterone given to female ■ led to song in female Reasons for mimicry in birds: ● nonadaptive byproduct of learning ● sexually selected signal repertoire ● species recognition (especially in brood parasites) ● manipulation Q: What are some examples of bird mimics?: =Lyre Bird, Northern Mockingbird, Brown Thrasher, corvids, parrots, mynahs, etc Q: What is the difference between a song and a call? ● song ○ complex ○ used for acquiring a mate ○ generally given by males ● call ○ simple ○ communicates territory ○ contact call ○ alarm call ○ used in diversity of situations ○ given by individuals of varying ages and sexes Q: What types of birds have primitive syrinxes? =owls, pigeons, swans Song Dialects: ● within species variation ● regional and localized differences in song ● relationship to model? ○ accuracy of learning ○ distance of dispersal ○ timing of dispersal relative to learning Adaptive Significance of dialects: ● maintains species or subspecies boundaries ○ mate with “likesong” types ● can cause rapid speciation or hybridization ○ can be caused by female incorrectly song recognition Q: Why is the oscine group so diverse? =diversity of song development AVIAN REPRODUCTION: Weightsaving Adaptations: 1) Oviparity 2) Seasonal atrophy 3) Asymmetry of reproductive organs Male Reproductive System: ● Homogametic (ZZ) ● slight asymmetry (L > R) ● seasonal atrophy and recrudescence ● intromittent organ in some species (to facilitate sperm transport) ● testes size correlates with mating system ○ increases in polyamorous systems ○ driven by sperm competition ● cloacal protuberance ○ house seminal vesicles ○ cools sperm ○ swells seasonally ○ useful in sexing most passerines Female Reproductive System: ● heterogametic (ZW) ● strong asymmetry ○ left functional ovary ● strong seasonal changes in size ● born with set # of follicles ● follicles produce one ovum at a time ● laying intervals ≥ one day ● sperm storage capabilities ● chicken senescence (end of ability to produce eggs) ○ doesn’t happen in wild Copulation: ● preceded and followed by courtship behavior ● juxtaposition of male and female cloacae ● timing coincides with female fertility period Q: What are some female adaptations to polyandrous mating system? =females usually lay smaller eggs, females sing, arrive earlier than males in spring Sections of Oviduct: 1) Infundibulum 2) Magnum 3) Isthmus 4) Uterus 5) Vagina/Cloaca Medullary Bones: ● long bones (tibia and femur) involved in embryo growth ● store calcium ● mobilized during laying by hens What is the difference between Precocial and Altricial young: ● Precocial ○ high yolk investment ○ already mostly developed at hatch ○ chicks feed themselves ○ nidifugous young ■ =young leave nest shortly after hatch ○ EX: waterfowl ● Altricial ○ low yolk investment ○ hatched poorly developed ○ develop rapidly after hatch ○ chicks fed in nest by adults ○ nidicolous young ■ =young stay in nest after hatch ○ EX: songbirds Q: What is the definition of “fledge”? =when a check leaves the nest/is flight capable Types of “DoubleYolkers”: 1) Monovular a) monozygotic ● 1 blastoderm ● fraternal twins b) bizygotic ● 2 blastoderms ● fraternal twins 2) Binovular ● fraternal twins from 2 yolks Parts of Egg: 1) air cell 2) yolk 3) chorion 4) amnion 5) amniotic fluid 6) embryo 7) allantois 8) shell 9) albumin Shell Structure: 1) Cuticle 2) Spongy layer 3) Mammillary layer 4) Shell membrane Development: 1) Chick punctures air cell with beak 2) Starred egg= rough edges on outside of egg 3) Pipped egg= puncturing of membrane, then crack shell and head comes out Q: Where does respiration occur in the egg before the chick hatches? = mostly through the shell membrane has pores that permit passive respiration via capillaries of chorioallantoic membrane until the chick pips, then the chick will start to use lungs Q: What are some techniques used to age eggs? =egg floatation and candling Q: What is the largest bird in recent times? = the Elephant Bird What are some Selective Pressures on Eggs?: 1) Clutch size 2) Egg size 3) Shape 4) Color Q: What is the definition of fitness related to birds? =number of young Clutch= # of eggs laid by a single female in a reproductive attempt (nest) ● variations: ○ Brood parasites (cuckoos, cowbirds) ○ Cooperative breeders (anis, woodpeckers) Egg Laying Patterns: 1) Determinate=fixed # of eggs a) EX: Seabirds, shorebirds 2) Indeterminate= variable # of eggs a) EX: Waterfowl, songbirds Q: What experiment can be done to distinguish between determinate and indeterminate layers? =remove eggs from nest during laying period and see how female reacts ● if she replaces the removed egg, then she is an indeterminate layer ● if she does not replace the removed egg, then she is a determinate layer Timing of Egg Laying: ● Many species lay 1 egg/day ● Some lay 48 eggs )*()* ● Usually laid during morning Q: What are some arguments for variation in clutch size? 1) Population control 2) Food limitation 3) Physical ability to cover eggs 4) Lack’s hypothesis a) # of young fledged drops in large clutch sizes 5) Other hypotheses/amendments a) annual vs. Egg Laying in Dinosaurs: ● Clutch laid in a nest on or in the ground ● Paired oviducts that lay simultaneously Egg Laying in Reptiles: ● Clutch laid in a buried nest ● All eggs laid at once ● No evidence of medullary bone Incubation= the process by which eggs are kept at temperatures suitable for development in a humid environment that is regularly changed to allow for gas exchange and during which eggs are turned regularly. Incubation Constancy: percentage of time a female sits on a nest What is the benefit/purpose of turning eggs? = keeps the embryo from adhering to the shell Types of Reserves: ● Endogenous reserves ○ “capital” ○ = reserves that are stored in fat within female ● Exogenous reserves ○ “income” ○ =energy comes from environment MATING SYSTEMS: Darwin’s influence: ● in most birds: ○ Males tend to have brighter plumages and compete for mates ○ Females are less colorful and care for young ○ EX: Peafowl ● Exceptions: ○ female is brightly colored ○ EX: Wilson’s Phalarope Mating System Constraints: ● Oviparity ○ compared to mammals ● Development of young ○ among bird taxa ■ altricial vs. precocial Parental Care Patterns: 1) Biparental a) both parents are required to raise eggs and young i) EX: Emperor Penguin 2) Uniparental a) one sex emancipated from incubation and raising young i) EX: ducks, hummingbirds, lekking species like ruff and buffbreasted sandpiper, and a few handful of passerines. Mating Relationships: 1) Monogamy a) one male with one female i) Duration of pair bond: (1) Lifetime (a) EX: Swan, geese, wrentit (2) Annual (a) EX: Penguins, some shorebirds, raptors 2) Polygamy a) Polygyny i) one male with many females ● EX: Redwinged Blackbird b) Polyandry i) one female with many males ● EX: Wilson’s Phalarope c) Polygynandry i) EX: European Dunnuck ii) female territory overlaps with alpha male and beta male iii) males overlap with multiple females iv) males care for young in proportion to copulations d) Promiscuity i) often in lecking groups 3) Cooperative breeding a) Helpers i) EX: Florida Scrub Jay ii) nonmigratory population, longterm monogamy iii) includes parents, stepparents, distant kin iv) assist in raising young by defending territory or resources, feeding young, acting as sentinels b) Communal Breeders i) EX: Acorn Woodpeckers ii) granaries=limited resource, longterm investment, center of social unit iii) sisters with dominance relationships (1) submissive females start laying first (2) dominant females push eggs out of nest (3) dominant females start laying their own eggs in the nest Mechanisms of acquiring mates: 1) Resource defense a) Resource Defense Polygyny: i) defends territory ii) EX: Passerines (Song Sparrow), dabbling ducks b) Resource Defense Polyandry i) EX: Shorebirds (Spotted Sandpiper, Wattled Jacana) 2) Mate access or defense a) Mate Defense Polygyny i) male defends females ii) EX: Northern Pintail, Bank swallow b) Mate Defense Polyandry i) females defend males ii) sequential polyandry iii) females do not defend territory iv) EX: Phalaropes 3) Dominance a) Male Dominance Polygyny: ● lekbased ● multiple arenas with males displaying to females ● uniparental care=female ○ males only do fertilization ● EX: Ruffs and Reeves, Sage Grouse Cockofthe Rock 4) Cooperation 5) Sequential polygamy 6) Simultaneous polygamy Social Polygyny and Genetic Polyandry ● males display on lek ● uniparental care=female ● females mate with multiple males ○ raises clutch of multiple parental genetics ○ could visit lek multiple times or store sperm ● EX: Prairie Chicken Q: What is the ancestral mating condition in believed to be in birds? =monogamy Q: What are two hypotheses supporting the evolution of cooperative breeding in birds? 1) Kin selection a) inclusive fitness b) shared genes with kin 2) Ecological constraint a) individuals help because they have no other option b) habitat quality is usually bad c) habitat is saturated Q: Under what circumstances will habitat limitations favor helping? 1) Dispersal rate is high 2) Probability of territory establishment is low 3) Probability of finding a mate is low 4) Probability of breeding is low DEMOGRAPHY: Q: What is the definition of demography? =study of statistics such as births, deaths, income, or the incidence of disease (= study of population biology) deme= group of interacting individuals Q: Why study demography? 1) Theoretical value a) Life history strategies 2) Applied importance a) Hunting b) Endangered species Q: How to study demography? 1) Mark birds 2) Track over time 3) Recaptures/Returns a) Look at Swainson’s Thrush tail feathers 4) Measure breeding success a) Capture youngoftheyear b) Swans, geese, and family groups r & Kselected Species: ● correlated with vital rates (productivity and survivorship) ● differ in age of first reproduction and clutch size 1) Kselected a) EX: Penguin b) raise
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'