Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide BIOL 2040
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chris Hicks on Sunday December 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2040 at Bowling Green State University taught by Daniel Pavuk in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Concepts in Biology I in Biological Sciences at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 12/13/15
Biology Study Guide Final Exam Ch. 10 Cellular Reproduction Mitosis Prophase- “The first phase”, Nuclear envelope dissociates, organelles fragment, nucleolus disappears, centrosomes move toward poles, microtubules extend between centrosomes, and sister chromatids start to condense Prometaphase- “the first change phase”, Same activities from prophase continue and kinetochores form with microtubules connecting to them Metaphase- “the change phase”, chromosomes align on metaphase plate, chromosomes maximally condensed Anaphase- “upward phase”, cohesin proteins degrade, chromatids separate into chromosomes as they’re pulled by microtubules, cell visibly elongates Telophase- “Distance phase”, chromosomes reach pulls and decondense, mitotic spindle depolymerizes and nuclear envelope forms Cytokinesis “cell motion”, separation of cytoplasm into 2 cells, animals- cleavage furrow, plants- cell plate Ch. 11 Sexual Reproduction Meiosis I Prophase I- synapsis, crossing over occurs at chiasmata, tetrads remain together Prometaphase I- microtubules attach to kinetochores Metaphase I- tetrads line up at equator of cell with each homologous pair’s kinetochores facing an opposite pole (random), independent assortment Anaphase I- chiasmata break as each pair of homologous chromosomes is pulled apart (sister chromatids remain together) Telophase I- separated chromosomes get to poles (cytokinesis occurs) Meiosis II Prophase II- new spindles, nuclear envelopes break down, etc. Prometaphase II- spindle fully forms, nuclear envelope all gone, kinetochore and microtubules attach Metaphase II- sister chromatids fully condensed and aligned at cellular equator Anaphase II- sister chromatids pulled apart and cell elongated Telophase II- chromosomes arrive at poles and decondense, nuclear envelopes reform (cytokinesis occurs) Week 10-11 (26 Oct.-6 Nov. 2015) Cellular Reproduction Key Roles of Cell Division- 1) ability of organisms to make more of own kind 2) renewal and repair 3) growth and development Cell Division- represents reproduction of cells and continuity of life Unicellular organism- division for them is reproduction -prokaryotes go through binary fission, eukaryotes are more complex processes Multicellular- use cell division to: repair damage, renew cells in organs once fully grown Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes- most cell division results in genetically identical daughter cells -exception- meiosis- 4 unidentical daughter cells, only eukaryotes do mitosis AND meiosis -dividing cells duplicate their DNA Genome-whole genetic code, prokaryotes- mostly circular -DNA is a couple meters long -Somatic cells- body cells Exam Review- Aposematic coloration- advertising that it’s dangerous, “warning coloration”, Batesian Mimicry- model= toxic, mimic=non-toxic, Müllerian-all toxic (look similar), K- selection (density dependent)- more parental care, less offspring, longer lives, live at carrying capacity, r-selection (density independent)- many offspring, less parental care, shorter lives, not adapted to competing Onion Root Tips- rapid cell reproduction Distribution of Chromosomes during Eukaryotic Cell Division- -not dividing/DNA replication: diffuse/stretched out/elongated -After replication: compact (chromatin (made of DNA/proteins) make chromosomes) -condense and coil/fold -coiling and folding prevents tangling Sister Chromatids- pair, joined copies of same chromosome -cohesins- join sister chromatids (sister chromatid cohesion) -Each one has a centromere (made of centromeric DNA sequences and proteins) -chromatid arm- each chromatid has a pair of arms -uncondensed/unduplicated chromosomes -During cell division: separation of sister chromatids, upon separation they’re termed chromosomes therefore pair of daughter cells with same chromosomes are parent -Eukaryotic cell division: Mitosis- division of nuclear material and nucleus (prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase/cytokinesis), two identical cells, cytokinesis- cytoplasm division, meiosis-gamete formation, four haploid and unique cells Lab Fungi- uni or multicellular, vegetative body made of hyphae, mass=mycelium, hyphae cells made of chitin, store carbohydrates as glycogen, heterotrophs, get nutrients through absorption, most are saprophytic (feed on dead organic matter), can be parasitic, spores: sexually through mitosis or asexually through meiosis Lichens- mutualism between fungi (moist environment) and algae/ photosynthetic bacteria (nutrients), can live in harsh environments Phylum Zygomycota- hyphae cells are haploid-fuse->diploid nuclei-meiosis->haploid spores-mitosis->hyphae Rhizopus Stolonifer- “bread mold”, on much food, sexual and asexual Pilobolus Crystallinus- “fungus gun”, coprophilous- grows on dung Sac Fungi- Phylum Ascomycota Class Cell Cycle- life from birth to cell division Interphase and Mitotic Cycle -Interphase- G 1 1 Gap, S (DNA Synthesis/replication only occurs here), G - 2 g2p, nd ready to enter mitotic phase, (G 0 resting phase), grows during all phases, chromosomes are copied here, some cells (like neurons) never leave interphase -Mitosis-Prophase (mitotic spindle forms, sister chromatids form, nucleolus gone), Prometaphase (no nuclear envelope anymore, growth of spindle), Metaphase (chromosomes aligned along “metaphase plate”), Anaphase (sister chromatids separated), Telophase (nucleoli reform with envelope also)-> Cytokinesis (while mitosis is still occurring, different between plants and animals, Plants form cell plate, Animals have cleavage forming cleavage furrow) Mitotic Spindle (MS)- many events depend on it, made of fibers of microtubules and proteins, cytoskeleton provides materials for it, spindle microtubules elongate (polymerize by adding subunits of tubulin) and shorten (depolymerize) -centrosome- MTOC (microtubule organizing centers), one at each pole of cell, have pair of centrioles -kinetochore- pair on each of replicated chromosomes, thru centromere, made of DNA segments and associated proteins, sires of attachments of kinetochore microtubules -during prometaphase- tug on chromosomes and align them on metaphase plate -other microtubules- non-kinetochore microtubules, overlap each other, not on kinetochore, aster microtubules (by metaphase) attach to plasma membrane -spindle complete -Separase-enzyme catalyzes cleavage of sister chromatids-> separate (anaphase) (cohesins broken), individual chromosomes at this point, pulled because of shortening (depolymerization) of microtubules, non-kinetochore microtubules overlap/stretches cell to help with telophase/cytokinesis which end together Ch. 11 Sexual Life Cycles and Generation of Genetic Variation Living organisms are distinguished by their ability to reproduce their own kind Genetics- scientific study of heredity (transmission of traits from one generation to next (inherit traits from parents)) and variation (need this, differences among individuals in same species (including offspring and parents)) in organisms Genes- units of heredity, DNA segments -passed to next generation via reproductive cells called gametes (sperm and eggs) -each one has specific location called locus (loci) -most organisms’ DNA packed into chromosomes Asexual reproduction- single individual giving genetic information to offspring, no gametes -clone- offspring is genetically identical to parent Sexual Reproduction- gametes involved, 2 parents give rise to offspring with unique combination of genes - Variation helps with survival in changing environments Week 12-13 (9-20 Nov. 2015) Sexual Reproduction and Genetics The Alteration of Fertilization in Sexual Life Cycles- Life Cycle- generation to generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism from conception to production of offspring Sets of Chromosomes in Human Cells- human somatic cells (everything except sperm and eggs, 23 pairs of chromosomes) Karyotype-examination of cell at metaphase, ordered display of chromosome pairs in cell Homologous Chromosomes- homologs, some length and shape with same genes, in homologous pair Sex Chromosomes-genetic sex determination, humans: males=XY and females=XX Autosomes-all other pairs of chromosomes -each pair of homologous chromosomes: one comes from each parent, 46 chromosomes in human somatic cells (diploid: 2n: full complement (23 pairs: 2n=46) of chromosomes), cell DNA synthesis occurs: each replicated chromosome has sister chromosome has sister chromatids -Each gamete has 23 chromosomes-> haploid # n = 23 for humans -each set of 23 has 22 autosomes and 1 sex chromosome -unfertilized egg (ovum): X, sperm: X or Y, males determine sex -Fertilization- union of sperm and egg, becomes diploid zygote -sexual maturity: produce gametes through meiosis (4 genetically unique, haploid cells) -Fertilization and meiosis alternate Three main types of sexual life cycles: differ in terms of timing of meiosis and fertilization 1. Animals: gametes are only haploid cells (meiosis with no further cell division), gametes fuse to make diploid zygote-> mitosis and cytokinesis 2. Plants and some algae: alteration of generations -cycle includes diploid and haploid multicellular stage -diploid sporophyte makes spores (become multicellular/haploid gametophytes (make gametes (fuse to make diploid zygote (mitosis to diploid sporophyte)) by mitosis) through mitosis) by meiosis 3. Fungi and some protists, no multicellular diploid, only diploid stage is zygote -> makes haploid cells through meiosis-> through mitosis to multicellular haploid-> makes gametes through mitosis -depending on life cycle type: haploid or diploid cells perform mitosis -only diploid can undergo meiosis -in all 3: halved, doubled… causes genetic variation Ch. 12 Mendel, Genes, and Inheritance How are traits passed from parents to offspring? -“Blending” hypothesis- genetic material of parents blended in offspring, eventually everything should look the same -“Particulate” hypothesis- parents pass on “Discrete heritable units” ->Gregor Mendel-documented with garden pea experiments, made ground shaking genetic principles Why pea plants?- distinct heritable features or characters - flower color-purple or white -character variants or character traits -mating can be rigorously controlled -Flower- male and female parts (stamens->pollen->sperm, carpel->egg) -can self-fertilize -can accomplish cross pollination -emasculate and dust another’s pollen on all female plant st -F1- 1 filial generation -selected pea characters that varied between discrete alternations True Breeding- self-pollination produces offspring with parent’s characteristics Experiments examining 1 character- 2 true-breeding, opposites, ex: purple + white flowers Hybridization- crossing true breeding parental plants P-generation-parental plants F 1eneration- P’s hybrid offspring F 2eneration- offspring of self-pollinated F 1 Dominant Traits- all expressed in F hyb1ids Recessive Traits- masked by dominant in F but bu1 reappears in F 2 -purple = dominant and white = recessive in pea plants Mendel’s results with other discrete pea traits- found: F off1pring had dominant trait, recessive reappeared in F g2neration Mendel’s Model- 1) alternative versions of genes: account for variation in inherited characteristics called alleles 2) for each character-> organism gets 2 alleles (one from each parent), somatic cells-23 pairs of chromosomes, genetic locus at same position (even if they’re different alleles) 3) if 2 alleles at locus are different the dominant allele determines the organisms phenotype (appearance), the other (recessive) allele is hidden 4) The Law of Segregation- 2 alleles for heritable character separate during gamete formation and are in different gametes Meiosis and the Law of Segregation- homologous chromosomes separate F 1ybrids- 2 different alleles (true breeding peas- gametes are the same) Punnett Square- when you know what genetic makeup, dominant- capital letter, recessive- lowercase letter Homozygous- TT, tt, same alleles Heterozygous- Tt, one of each type of allele Genotype- genetic makeup Phenotype- expressed allele The Test Cross-individual with dominant phenotype (1 or 2 dominant allele copies, homo- or heterozygous dominant is not known) is mixed with homozygous recessive, if there are any homozygous recessive offspring then dominant is heterozygous The Law of Independent Assortment- Mendel got law of segregation by following a single character with tow alleles (F1offspring in this cross are monohybrids), cross between monohybrids is a monohybrid cross -2 law of inheritance- followed 2 characters simultaneously: crossing 2 true breeding parents differing in 2 characters make dihybrids -dihybrid cross- 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio -used to develop Law of Independent assortment- Each pair of alleles segregates independently of each other pair of alleles during gamete formation, only applies to genes on different, non-homologous chromosomes or far apart on same chromosomes (probable that crossing over will separate them) -Linked genes- close together on same chromosome so crossing over doesn’t separate them Foundation of Genetic Code- Mendel’s findings anticipated in detail the patterns by which genes and chromosomes that are inherited, overlooked until early 1900s when investigators got similar results. Meiosis (relates Mendel’s “Factors” (genes) to chromosomes) discovered later on -Walter Sutton saw similarities between Mendel and chromosome behavior during mitosis -chromosomes occur in pairs and gene’s alleles occur in pair -separated and delivered singly to each gamete (Law of Segregation) -separation of chromosome pair in meiosis is independent of other pairs’ separation (Independent Assortment) -Fertilization- one member of each chromosome pair derived from male and 1 from female parent Sutton’s Chromosome Theory of Inheritance- genes and other alleles carried on chromosomes -certain site on chromosome where gene is located is called locus (p. loci) -locus is certain DNA sequence typically encoding for protein make phenotype -Albinism (lack of normal skin color) recessive to normal skin color -webbed fingers are dominant to separated fingers -Achondroplasia (short-limbed dwarfism) is dominant Relationship between phenotype and genotype isn’t always simple -many times multiple genes determine heritable characters -principles of segregation and independent assortment still apply -when alleles aren’t completely dominant: incomplete dominance -genes can have many alleles -gene can have many alleles and can make many phenotypes Degrees of Dominance- Complete dominance- phenotypes determined by presence of dominant allele -incomplete dominance- F hy1rids- alleles aren’t dominant over one another, mixed, form intermediate-> F =2monohybrid cross (1:2:1), ex. Snapdragon flower color -Codominance- 2 dominant alleles both express Prokaryotes: Domains Bacteria and Archaea -no membrane bound organelles, E. Coli- model organism - prokaryotes are smallest organisms in the world but collective biomass likely outweighs that of plants -essentially found everywhere including in/on other organisms (bacteria in/on human body outnumber human cells 10:1) -help immune system make vitamins, protect from bad bacteria -Bacteria have many types: some pathogenic -Archaea: many live in extreme environments Importance of Prokaryotes: many metabolic activities crucial for life on Earth’s maintenance, particularly nutrient cycling, some are photosynthetic, many involved in symbioses like bacteria in our gut and Nitrogen fixing bacteria, used for manufacturing compounds, remediation, etc. Structural/functional adaptations of Prokaryotes- unicellular, size: 0.5-5 μm -3 major shapes: spherical (coccus, cocci), rod-shaped (bacillus (bacilli)), spiral (spirochaetes, vibrios, spirilla) -surface characteristics- cell wall: different from plant and fungi cell wall, maintains shape, protection, prevents them from bursting (lysis) in hypotonic environments (Low solute concentration), doesn’t help in hypertonic environment -Major component is peptidoglycan- combination of cross-linked modified sugars through polypeptides -gram stain- gram positive- peptidoglycan thick on outside and traps crystal violet (turns purple) -gram negative- thin peptidoglycan layer enclosed by outer membrane, stain rinsed away (turns red when counterstain applied) Other prokaryotic cell features- sticky layer of polysaccharide or protein -capsule and slime layer allow adherence to other cells and provide protection -Fimbriae (s. fimbria)- hair-like appendages used for attachment and made of protein -pili (s. pilus)- longer/less numerous than fimbriae, sometimes called set pili, pull cells together before DNA transfer -Motility- taxis- directed movement toward (positive)/ Away from (negative) stimulus -flagella- locations and #s (monotrichous, lophotrichous, amphitrichous, peritrichous) -differ from eukaryotic flagella- prokaryotic 1/10 the size and has different proteins, different propulsion method (prokaryotic spin and eukaryotic undulation) and eukaryotic flagellum covered by extension of cell membrane
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