P101 Final cumulative Exam
P101 Final cumulative Exam PSY 101
Popular in Introductory Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 48 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nowak Notetaker on Sunday December 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 101 at Indiana University taught by Dr. Thomassen in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 189 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 12/13/15
Maddie Nowak P101 Final Exam Study Guide Define Psychology Psychology: the scientific study of behavior and mind Goal: develop a knowledge base about human and animal behavior Study Behavior: normal vs. abnormal • Normal (mostly): to understand basic processes and understand what is considered abnormal Modern psychology developed out of: philosophy and physiology Main method for psychology: experiments Clinical Bias: Incorrect perception that psychologists are all clinicians (treatment providers) What Psychologists Do Clinical • Diagnoses and treats psychological problems (ex. Depression, anxiety) • Workplace: clinics, private practices • Psychiatrist: also specialize in treatment of psychological problems, but are medical doctors o Licensed to prescribe medication Applied • Extend psychological principles to practical, everyday problems in the world • Workplace: school, industrial/organization, private industry Research • Conduct research to discover principles of the mind (create knowledge) • Workplace: academic, other labs MKNOWAK The Science of Psychology Principles of Behavior Empiricism: theory that knowledge arises directly from experience Rene Descartes: • French philosopher • Argues mind and body separate • Introduced concept of reflexes (automatic, involuntary rxns of the body to events in the environment) Nature via Nurture Nativism: the mind innately holds certain kinds of knowledge (knowledge present at birth) Darwinism: natural Selection for adaptive and wanted traits Psychological characteristic are influenced by both genes/nature and experience/nurture Schools of Psychology Wilhelm Wundt • First psychologist/father of modern psychology • First psychology lab: 1879 University of Leipzig (GR) • Professor of philosophy • Established experimental lab to study the elementary components of immediate experience • Scientific techniques to understand mental processes • Main Focus: immediate conscious experience MKNOWAK Research Psychology Structuralism Functionalism Behaviorism • Break down the minds • Function of immediate • Observable behavior simple thoughts and experience ONLY sensations • Analyze function and • Discover how changes • Study immediate its purpose in the environment conscious experience • Introspection (self can lead to changes in • Systematic reflection), naturalistic measurable behavior introspection: self observation, individual • Method: carefully reports on internal differences controlled experiences • Originated out of experiments • Wundt, Tichener North America emphasized on animal (Taste), Fechner • James, Angel behavior • Behavior modification: **Darwin’s idea about how actions are evolution and natural changed by selection was influential in reinforcement and no development of reinforcement functionalism (Skinner) • Pavlov (salivating before eating), Watson (environmental fear), Skinner (radical) Clinical Psychology Psychoanalytic Humanistic • Analyzing personality by focusing on • Each person’s unique self and unconscious determinants of capacity for growth (aka human behavior potential movement) • Treat personality and psychological • Humans are basically good disorders • Positive psychology • Childhood experience • Rogers, Maslow • Freud MKNOWAK Sigmund Freud • Neurologist • Developed therapeutic technique of psychoanalysis (“insight” therapy, unconscious determinants of behavior) • The unconscious mind defends itself from those seeking to discover its secrets Cognitive Revolution 1950s shift away from behaviorism began = renewed interest in fundamental problems of consciousness and internal mental processes Cognitive psychologists = research psychologists = study processes such as memory, learning, and reasoning • Study on internal mental phenomena Neuroscience • Influenced via development in molecular bio, and imaging (FMRI) • Emphasizes biological and chemical processes for psychological phenomenon • CNS • Can be reductionist/oversimplified MKNOWAK Phineas Gage Brain Damage • Rod entered lower left cheek bone and exited top of head • Most of his front left side brain destroyed • Personality loop changed o Became untruthful, short-tempered, psychopathic braggart o Looked like and acted ad a “fairground freak” • 1860: began having epileptic seizures and died later in the year Milgram Experiment (obedience to author figures) WHO By: Stanley Milgram (Yale University Psychologist) - nervous Holocaust actions would happen in America WHAT • social psychology experiments • measured willingness of study participants to obey authority figures who instructed them to perform acts that conflicted their personal conscience THE EXPERIMENT • 3 people • subject (“teacher”) instructed to “shock” “confederate (“student”) when wrong • Shock increased by voltage (but fake) • if teacher/subject wanted to stop an excuse would be motivate them to continue RESULTS Prediction: avg 1.2 would complete and give full voltage MKNOWAK • 65% gave full voltage, were very uncomfortable and paused at least once • Authority won over humanity • few people have resources needed to resist authority Tools for psychological research Operational definitions: definitions that specify how concepts can be observed and measured - want to be valid and reliable Scientific Method - observe (the behavior of interest) - detect regularities - generate hypothesis (specific prediction about relationship btwn variables) - Test hypothesis • scientific method: multistep technique that generates empirical knowledge • empirical knowledge: knowledge derived from systematic observations of the world Observational Research Observational/descriptive research: methods designed to observe and describe behavior o observing can affect the behavior you’re recording o Reactivity: when behavior changes as a result of the observation process ▯ Reduce via measure results of behavior rather than behavior itself (ex: analyzing litter left behind in mall for shopping behavior) ▯ The Hawthorne Effect o External Validity: how well results of an observation are representative of real life MKNOWAK Naturalistic Observation: record natural occurring behavior, not what’s produced in a lab Participant Observation: observer attempts to become part of activities to blend in Case Study: (descriptive technique) effort is focused on a single case, usually an individual - hypotheses formed about the possible causes of a behavior or psychological problem (historical perspective) - difficulties on generalization based all on one case Survey: (descriptive) gather limited amounts of info from many people - Sample Bias: subjects misrepresenting themselves (self-reported) Random Sampling: everyone in pop has equal likelihood of being selected for sample - if pop of interest is extremely large - Representative samples - All possible biases, viewpoints, and backgrounds will be represented - Decreases chances of confounding variables Central Tendencies = value around which scores tend to cluster Mean: avg (summarizes observations into single rep. number) - most affected by extreme scores Mode: most frequent Median: middle point in set of scores Variability MKNOWAK = how scores differ/vary from one another Range: difference btwn largest and smallest number Standard Deviation: avg distance of scores from the mean Correlation: if 2 variables (one recorded and one expected) vary together in a systematic way - describe how behaviors co-occur in world, but limited - cant determine causality • common link w/ Third Variable (uncontrolled factors) • causality requires control - Correlation Coefficient • Direction of relationship o Negative (-): part opp directions o Pos: they go together/direct relationship • Strength of relationship o The bigger (approaching 1) = stronger o Sign (-/+) doesn’t matter Experimental Research • Allows inference of causality • Controlled experiment • Uses descriptive stats (describe data) • AND inferential stats (to determine if observed diff. btwn groups is dependable (aka represent larger pop) or if happened by chance/other factor) MKNOWAK Experiment = technique where investigator actively manipulates the environment to observe its effect on behavior Purpose: determine why behavior occurs - establish cause and effect - establish causality Independ. Variable (X): what’s being manipulated / changed by experimenter - at least 2 diff conditions required Depend. Variable (Y): behavior that’s measured or observed (outcome of interest) Operational definition: variable of interest that allows it to be directly measured Confounding variables: (confuse) uncontrolled variable, other than x, that changes systematically with the independent variable - confusion - to decrease chance all factors that could vary must be held constant - when effectively controlled: internal validity and can determine causality Placebo: Inactive substance that resembles experimental substance • leads control group to believe they’re receiving treatment Blind Controls • control expectancies and reduce bias effects In descriptive: blind observers code data w/o knowledge of the study In experimental: Single: subjects blind to what group they’re in Double: experimenter and subject blind to who in what group MKNOWAK Ethical behavior • American Psychological Association (APA) set guidelines Informed Consent: gaining permission and providing participants with significant factors that could affect willingness to participate - pregnant, kids, those w/ cognitive disorder cannot give consent - phys and emotional risks - general nature of project - any therapeutic procedures - deception is allowed if scientific, educational, or applied value of study is clear and no way to answer study w/o deceiving participants • Non-coercive: reward cant be too large (ex money) • Participants must be able to quit at any time w/o neg consequences • Confidentiality maintained Debriefing: conclusion of experiment to clear up any misunderstandings about research and to explain why and general purpose of experiment. Including any deception involved Animal Research • Less than 10% • Consent cant be obtained • Aplysia: the sea hare • Must care for animals properly (APA guidelines for treatment in research) MKNOWAK Neurophysiology Neuron: nervous system cells that receive and transmit & receive info electro- Chemically • Neurons identified by direction of info Sensory Neuron: (Afferent) carry messages from environment to CNS Motor Neuron: (Efferent) carry messages away from CNS to muscles and glands InterNeurons: transfer info from neuron to neuron • Greatest amount Glial Cells (“glue”) • Don’t directly communicate on their own • Remove waste • Fill space btwn neurons • Help neurons communicate efficiently • Loc: wrap around neurons -> insulate -> myelin sheath (protects and increases rxn speed) Reflexes Sensory neuron -> interneuron pathway -> spinal cord -> motor neuron ->muscle contracts • Loc: spinal cord • “No brainer”: before message has reached brain, body has acted • Requires NO input from brain Neural Transmission btwn & within neurons Synapse -> dendrites -> soma -> axon -> terminal buttons -> synapse (etc.) Dendrites: receive info Soma: cell “body” • Metabolic center • Info processed • Genetic material stored MKNOWAK Axon: transmits info • Action potential travels down Terminal Buttons (part of Axon): contain & release chemical neurotransmitters into synapse Synapse: gap where next dendrite picks up messages/neurotransmitters Neural transmission within neurons: travel electrically (generating axn potential) Neural transmission btwn neurons: transmitted chemically (release of neurotransmitters) Resting Potential = Uneven distribution of ions on outside and inside of cell -> tiny negative electrical charge -K+ inside cell (negative ion) -Na+ and Cl- outside cell/leave (positive ions) => Net effect is negative • Hyperpolarization • Inhibits messages/neurotrans • More negativity (requires larger stim for threshold to be reached) Action Potential = Electrical signal/ excitatory message 1. Neuron receives stimuli (mechanically or via neurotrans) 2. Sodium channels open, sodium rushes into cell => positive charge 3. Threshold voltage reached and A.P. occurs • Depoloralize • More positive (able to reach threshold) • Increase speed if myelinated (glial cells) • Nodes of Ranvier: site of salutatory conduction (hopping from one myelinated axon to next) MKNOWAK AP reaches end of axon -> triggers terminal buttons -> release Neurotransmitters o Relay info from one neuron to next o Excitatory or inhibitory message Refractory Period =Rest period • Additional AP cannot be generated Agonist = mimic neurotransmitters • Directly stimulate receptors • Nicotine mimics AcH • L-dopa mimics effects of dopamine (Parkinson’s) • Valium mimics GABA • Heroin mimics endorphins (endogenous morphins) Antagonist= oppose or block neurotransmitters • Prevent neurotrans • Curare blocks AcH • Hallucinogens to serotonin sites block perceptual pathway transmission Neuromodulators= modulate effectiveness of other neurotrans • Adenosine decreases neuronal firing and the release of neurotrans o Caffeine = Adenosine Antagonist Peripheral NS Nerve= bundles of axons that communicate with rest of the body Somatic NS: nerves that bring info TO brain and nerves that connect to skeletal Muscles for mvmnt (body sensations) • w/o environment wouldn’t reach brain nor begin any mvmnt MKNOWAK Autonomic NS: autonomic (involuntary) needs (HR, BP, glands, digestion) • Regulated by hypothalamus • Handle and recover from emergency situations Sympathetic NS: fight or flight (increase) Parasympathetic NS: rest and digest; back to homeostasis (decrease) Brain Investigation Techniques EEG: electrical activity in the brain CT: highly focused X-Rays; shows STRUCTURE, not function PET: radioactive substances (glucose and O2) absorbed in brain areas that are Active • Specific tasks = diff areas of brain MRI: detailed 3D anatomical view fMRI: measuring blood O2 in brain • what parts metabolizing O2 (task specific) • Shows anatomy and function The Brain Hindbrain = basic life support • Medulla and pons (HR, breathing, reflexes) • Reticular formation (arousal, sleep, head mvmnt) • Cerebellum (coordination) Midbrain = neural relay stations and help coordinate sensory rxns • tectum (visual and auditory) • substantia nigra (release dopamine) Forebrain = higher mental processes • thalamus (sensory input relayed; closes input during sleep) • hypothalamus (regulate Fs) • Hippocampus (memory) • Amygdala (fear, aggression, defensive) MKNOWAK • Cerebral cortex (higher mental processes, reason, plan) Lobes: Frontal= plan, decision making, memory, personality, higher level thought processes, language production • motor cortex: controls voluntary muscle mvmnts Temporal= auditory, speech & language perception Occipital= visual processing Parietal= includes somatosensory cortex • Sense of touch, temp, pain The brain is lateralized = each side responsible for unique and independent functions - right hemisphere controls left side of body (vice versa) corpus callosem (major communication bridge): connects 2 hemispheres Endocrine System = network of glands that communicate via bloodstream • Hormones: (chemicals) released into blood by glands to control internal regularity functions - slower, more widespread, longer lasting Phenotype = gene expression (what you see) Genotype = actual genetic info inherited; program DNA Twin studies: identical and fraternal twins compared -> determine roles heredity and environment play in psychological traits Monozygotic = one egg - Identical - Homozygous - Same environment in-utero MKNOWAK Dyzgotic = 2(+) eggs (separate) - Fraternal - Not identical genetic material Prenatal Development Germinal Period (0-2 wks) • Conception -> implantation • Most fertilized eggs fail to implant Embyonic Period (2-8 wks) • Mass of cells becomes arms, legs, fingers, toes, heart beat • Sexual differiation begins at 7-8 wks Fetal Period (9 wk-birth) • Bones, muscles, systems, mvmnt • Last 3 months: rapid growth (body size and complexity of brain tissue) XX= female XY=male (y chromosome secrets testosterone) Terarogen= environmental agents (disease or drug) that can potentially damage developing embryo or fetus • Disease: (German measles/rubella) mom gets w/in first 6 wks of preg => baby at risk for heart defects • Enviro/drug: (alcohol) fetal alcohol syndrome Neurogenesis: processes of creating new brain cells/neurons • Environment affects/influences • Antidepressants • Hippocampus (memory and experience influences) Brain Plasticity: cells grow in size and complexity and supporting glial cells added Babies’ maturation/control of NS in a down & out style • Head->shoulders->arms->hands->fingers MKNOWAK • Neuron-muscle connections in upper body develop b4 lower body Aging Brain - Neurons die w/ age OR continue to increase in complexity - Remaining neurons will increase in complexity - Dendrites decrease in length = decrease in cognitive ability - Ability to recall decreases w/age - Recognition ability remains constant w/ age Dementia: physical based loss in mental functioning o <1% over 65 yrs old afflicted o 20% afflicted at 80 yrs old Basics of Erikson Cognitive: development of thought Utero (0-18 mo) = over-produced gray matter; followed by pruning Early Adolescent (11-12) = pruning connections lost • end of critical/sensitive period for learning languages Late Adolescent = increase in myelination in adult cortex relates to maturation of cognitive processing • frontal lobe changes Infant Study Techniques Preference= if baby has visual capability to differentiate • via measuring overt behavior of visual system • what baby “chooses” Habituation= how baby perceives and remembers the world • decrease in responsiveness to repeated stimulus • novelty = new things Rewarding= what cognitive abilities baby has (memory) MKNOWAK • simple motor mvmnt/axn-> reward Schemata: mental models of the world; used to guide and interpret experiences Assimilation: fitting new experiences into existing schemata Ex) classifying horse as “doggie” Accommodation: change existing schemata to accommodate new experiences Ex) new category for horses Jean Piaget - naturalist - Binet and Piaget created first I.Q. test - Noticed different cognitive abilities related to cognitive development - Mental abilities - Children’s mistakes are systematic - children think differently from adults - development of thoughts based on schemata - stage theory: progressive and sequential Piaget’s stages of cog development Sensorimotor (0-2 yrs): revolve around sensory and motor abilities • lack object permanence (ability to recognize objects exists even when out of sight) –developed around age 1 • survival reflexes • no distinction btwn self and enviro preoperational (2-7 yrs): think symbolically but lack ability to perform certain basic mental operations • imaginary play is common • language development • egocentrism (view world only from own perspective) MKNOWAK • lack principal of conservation: ability to recognize physical property of object remains the same despite superficial changes in appearance • centration: focus attention on one aspect and ignore the rest • don’t understand reversibility (operations can produce or undo) Concrete operational (7-11 yrs): true mental operations • verbalizing, visualizing, mental manipulation • understand reversibility and categorizing • difficulty understanding problems not with status quo Formal operational (11- adulthood): master abstract thinking • no limitations (may invent and experiment) • not everyone may reach Moral Development Morality: ability to distinguish btwn appropriate and inappropriate Kohlberg’s Stage Theory (based on REASONING for answer to moral problems) Preconventional: external consequences; reward or punishment Conventional: to maintain or disrupt social order Postconventional: abstract ethical principle, driven by personal codes that may not agree with societal norms. Not seeking approval from others/ authority Harlow’s Monkeys Primary motivator of attachment = contact comfort Strong emotional attachments give a guarantee survival feeling Monkey chose soft fake mom w/o food over wire fake mom w/food Temperament: child’s general level of emotional reactivity • based in biology:genetic factors influence inhibited (shy) or uninhibited strange situation test: classify children according to type of attachment (secure, resistant, avoidant, or disorganized/disoriented) - gradually subject kid to stressful situations -> how react towards parent/caregiver Erikson and personal identity development MKNOWAK Personal identity= sense of self and how well measured up against peers Infancy and Childhood Trust vs. mistrust (year 1) Autonomy vs. shame or doubt (terrible twos) (self-control?) Initiative vs. guilt (3-6) Industry vs. inferiority (6-12) Adolescence and young adulthood Identity vs. role confusion (adolescence) Intimacy vs. isolation (young adulthood) adulthood and older adulthood generativity vs. stagnation (contributed successfully to community?) integrity vs. despair (success and failures) Kubler-Ross: Death and Dying Theory 1. denial 2. anger 3. bargaining 4. depression 5. Acceptance Sensation and Perception Sensation: translating messages (stim) from environment • Sensory neurons • (first) Perception: producing stable interpretations of translated messages • (then) Stim -> sensation (physical) ->perception (higher order psychological part) -> response MKNOWAK Sensation: building blocks of experience • data driven ( real info) • bottom-up processing • physical • translating the message Perception: experience of stim/events • conceptually driven (from mind) • top-down processing (organizing data mentally) • psychological • producing stable interpretations Optical Illusions show the difference btwn sensation and perception • sensory info has not changes • perception changes • we see in 2D and perceive in 3D (depth perception) Hollow Mask Illusion • ignore monocular depth cues of shading • shadows overridden by top-down processing (expectations of reality) Schools Structuralism – Wundt, Fechner, Weber = experiences from basic senses SENSATION Gestaltists (form) = organize principals of visual PERCEPTION - fundamental and innate - how we experience as whole, rather than pieces MKNOWAK Sensation • afferent • Axn potentials respond to stim Sight: vision - electromagnetic energy - wavelengths of light Sound: hearing - physical - sound waves thru air Touch - physical - pressure on receptors Smell - chemical - molecules in air or liquid Taste - chemical - molecules on tongue receptors Transduction: going from physical world (external stim) to the language of the mind (neural impulses) • allows brain to manipulate enviro data • ex) photoreceptors detect light, but eye and brain detect image Transduction occurs w/in photoreceptors (create neural impulses) 400nm-700nm: visual colors short=violet/blue medium=yellow/green long=red Rods (about 120 mill/eye) • sensitive to low light, mvmnt • outer eye (peripheral) MKNOWAK Cones (about 6 mill/eye) • sensitive to fine detail (visual acuity), color • densely packed in center (fovea) Blind Spot = no receptor cells to transduce visual message • loc: optic nerve leaves back of eye(retina) Dark Adaption Photopigments in photoreceptors chemically react to light • break down in bright • regenerate after low light (=adaption) Processing in Retina (ganglion cells) • tuned respond to specific “trigger” • brightness/contrast/lateral field • receptive fields across retina • magicians and pick pocketers Visual Cortex = neurons pick up and process features • feature detectors = cells that respond to very specific visual events • damage = prosopagnosia (failure of face recognition) Color Vision Trichromatic Theory • 3 types of cones (blue, red, green) • colors sensed = comparing activation of colors (most are a mix of the colors) • wrong kind of photopigment in cones= certain color blindness Opponent Processes Theory MKNOWAK • receptors respond positive to one color and negative to complementary color (afterimages) • yellow – blue • red – green • black – white Stable Interpretations • inborn tendencies • bottom-up = physical messages • top-down = belief of expectations 5 laws of visual organization (Gestalt) **all TOP-DOWN** Proximity = closeness - processed as unit similarity - similar = associated Good Continuity - continuation of lines Closure - closed figures favored over open Common Fate - moving in same direction = group together Depth Cues Monocular depth cues require input from one eye • anything used in drawing 3D object (relative size, overlap, linear perspective, shading, haze) Binocular depth cues require 2 eyes • Retinal Disparity: diff btwn location of images in each retina MKNOWAK • Convergence: how far eyes turn inward to focus on object Phi Phenomenon = illusion of mvmnt when stationary lights are flashed in succession • Apparent motion • Assume motion w/o actual movement • Movies, flipbooks Perceptual Constancy =perceiving properties of an object to remain the same even tho physical properties of sensory message are changing • Perception(mind) of objects far more constant or stable than our retinal images(physical) • top-down • sensory messages unstable • size constancy (ex: someone walking away) • Shape constancy (ex: door closing) Sound Sound is mechanical energy (vibrating stim) - speed of vibrations = Frequency (various pitches) - Intensity of vibrations = Amp (volumes) Transduction: sound energy -> neural impulses • Loc: cochlea • Receptor cells: basilar membrane hair cells Localization= compare difference in arrival times and loudness btwn ears MKNOWAK Touch Mechanical prs on cell - Pressure-sensitive receptor cells in skin Pain “ Close the Gate ” : brain can block pn signals from reaching higher impulses • Signals stopped in spinal cord • Brain releases endorphins Vestibular Sense • Semicircular canals = mvmnt, acceleration • Vestibular sacs = balance Taste and Smell Chemoreceptors ( chemical stim) Taste = actual sensation produced (physical, bottom-up) Flavor = influenced by taste, smell, visual, expectation (psychological, top-down) Sensations absolute threshold = level of intensity that lifts stim enough for rxn/aware sensory adaption = reduce sensitivity to stim source that remains constant - more sensitive when stim first arrives Weber’s Law = when the just noticeable difference (jnd) for stim magnitude is constant proportion of size of standard stim - stronger standard stim = larger increase needed - jnd depends on how intense standard was - relationship btwn physical and psychological not always direct Consciousness = subjective awareness of internal and external events MKNOWAK - limitation of awareness - William James Attention = internal processes used to set priorities for mental functioning - Selectively focus on some while ignoring others - ex) Dichotic Listening Task = cannot listen to both stories - non-conscious screening Dichotic Listening Task = different auditory messages presented separately and simultaneously to each ear - cannot attend to both messages (ignore one) Cocktail Party Effect = shut out everything except our conscious awareness - self-relevant makes it into consciousness (someone yelling name) Automaticity = Fast and effortless processing w/o attention - requires little or no focus - more automatic process = less likely consciously aware - more consciousness available for developing new and creative demands Disorders of Attention Visual Neglect: tendency to ignore things on one side of body (usually left) • damage to right parietal lobe • complex disorder • symp: read only one page, dress one side Blindsight: unaware of perceiving stimuli w/in area of visual field • damage to primary visual cortex Prosopagnosia: unable to recognize familiar faces MKNOWAK ADHD: difficulties in concentrating or sustaining attention • distractible, cannot finish tasks • psychological disorder Hypnosis = heightened state of suggestibility in a willing participant (social interaction) - Franz Mesmer - Control pn, reduce smoking, improve athletic performance, treating psychological disorders - NOT deep sleep - EEG brain activity resembles waking state Sleep = most common form of consciousness • Reversible state • EEG (monitors electrical activity of brain) = technology used to know when someone is asleep • Circadian rhythms = biological activities that rise and fall in accordance w/ ~24 hr cycle o Controlled automatically by biological clocks triggering needed activities at appropriate times o Mini cycle = 12 hrs o Normal cycle = little more than 24 hrs o Reg rhythm of sleepiness and wakefulness o Environmental factors including: light, temp, social o traveling eastward = against rhythms • sleep deprivation: hallucinations start @ day 4, disrupt ability to regulate internal functions (temp), loss of weight, immune system and organs fail Sleep maintenance (restorative) = helps repair normal wear and tear MKNOWAK Survival Value (Adaptive) = removes organism from hostile • short sleepers (grazers) = predators • long sleepers • less sleep = more food Sleep Cycle • brain waves become slower and more reg & more amp, but during REM it resembles awake state Each REM ~90 mins (~4/5x during night) Awake & drowsy = alpha waves Stage 1 = theta (easily awaken) Stage 2 = (transitional) interrupted via sleep spindles (short) and K complexes (sudden, sharp) Stage 3&4 = delta activity (high activity) synchronized, slow waves -majority of sleep in stages 3&4 REM = replaces awake stage (looks similar) • dominates later stages • dreaming • physiological changes • low-amp irregular EEG patterns REM Rebound = increase time spent in REM to make up for REM deprivation Alternate views of Dreams Problem Solving Threat stimulation Activation-synthesis Hypothesis = brains attempt to make sense of random patterns of neural activity • subconscious thoughts • high order functions MKNOWAK • problem solving Freudian View of Dreams = wish-fulfillment of the unconscious (especially sexual desire) • dream in symbols • manifest content = actual symbols/events in dream • latent content = hidden desires Sleep Disorders Dyssomia = problems w/amount, timing, & quality of sleep - Insomnia = difficulty starting or maintain sleep (> month) - Sleep Apnea = sleeper repeatedly stops breathing t/o night - Narcolepsy = sudden extreme sleepiness Parasomonias = abnormal sleep disturbances - Nightmares = frightening, anxiety-arousing dreams awaken sleeper • primarily during REM • frequent => psychological disorder - Night Terrors = sleeper awakens suddenly in extreme state of panic • non-REM • goes away w/age - Sleepwalking = sleeper wanders • non-REM • goes away w/age - Hypnic Myoclania = jerk to jump start • brain sends signal to wake up body MKNOWAK Drugs and Sleep Psychoactive drugs = affect behavior & mental processes thru alterations of conscious awareness - change communication channels of neurons - mimic neurotransmitters (nicotine) - depress/block (sleeping pills) tolerance: increase amounts needed to produce effect - long term depression, anhedonia dependency: physical or psychological need for drug - physical dependency = withdrawal mental set: expectations of drug - familiarity, enviro, physical state influence Drugs: • depressants (decrease CNS) o alcohol, barbiturates, tranquilizers (Valium, Xanax) • Stimulants (increase CNS) o Caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine • Opiates (decrease CNS) -> decrease anxiety and pain, increase mood o Mimic brain chemicals (endorphins) o Strong physical and psychological attachment/dependency o Opium, heroin, morphine • Hallucinogens (disrupt normal mental&emotional functioning) o Alter perception o Mescaline, psilocybin, LSD Memory = capacity to preserve and recover info Processes: • Encoding (how formed) MKNOWAK • Storage (how kept) • Retrieval (how recovered and translated into performance) 3 phases • sensory • working memory (STM) • long-term memory (LTM) Sensory Memory Iconic (Visual) Echoic (Auditory) Eidetic (Photographic) • iconic memory • big difference: persists in time • 2-6% children have this Memory = capacity to preserve and recover info encoding = how formed storage = how maintained retrieval = how recovered & translated into performance MKNOWAK Atkinson/Shiffrin Model Sensory Memory = exact replica, lasts < 1 sec Working Memory / STM = hold info temporarily, rapidly forgotten w/o rehearsal Long Term Memory Sensory Memory Iconic: visual, lingering trace Echoic: auditory, lingering echo Eidetic: photographic • iconic memory • big difference: persists in time • 2-6% children have • generally fades @ ages 5/6 Sperling Tachistoscope = visual displays fore carefully controlled durations Working/STM • temporarily stored MKNOWAK • “seat of consciousness” = what we are aware of @ the moment • duration ~ 5 seconds • allows for conversation and to read Increasing STM Capacity • maintenance rehearsal: repeat info in form its presented o only 1 cue (less desirable for LTM) o interference ends attention • chunking: rearranging incoming info into meaningful/familiar patterns o hold 7+/- 2 chunks of info STM Lost • Decay: memories not kept active & lost overtime • Interference: form new w/old LTM (encoded) = maintain info for extended periods of time - duration & capacity “limitless” Declarative (or Cognitive) Memory • explicit (conscious willful recall) Semantic: knowledge about world w/ no specific reference to particular past episode - general info, undated - ex) facts, rules, questions on exams Episodic: particular events or episodes that happened personally to us - episodes of life, dated images, emotions Procedural Memory = knowledge on how to do something - Implicit (remembering w/o conscious awareness) - ex) sports, driving MKNOWAK Elaboration = encoding process of actively relating new info to existing info already stored in LTM • assists in retrieving info later • deep processing improves recall • deep= self-relevant, elaboration, concerned w/meaning • shallow= simple, flash cards mnemonics give retrieval cues consolidation allows memories to form while sleeping Mnemonic Devices = mental tricks that help people think about material in ways that improve later material Flashbulb Memories = rich records of circumstances surrounding emotionally significant and surprising events • NOT accurate: schema guides encoding & combine present w/past Visual Imagery: construct internal visual image Distributed Practice: space out repetitions - memory records more elaborate and distinctive Serial Positions Primacy Effect = Proactive Interference - remember beginning list best - old (first heard) over new (last heard) Reccency Effect = Retroactive Interference - remember end of lost - new (last heard) interferes w/ old (first heard) Context-Dependent Encoding = same enviro for encoding and retrieval MKNOWAK State-Dependent Encoding = encoding in particular state eases retrieval when in same state - mood dependent Transfer-Appropriate Processing = encoding and retrieval use same kind of mental Processes - constant conditions Free Recall: remember info w/o explicit retrieval cues • essay, fill in blank Cued Recall: remember based on retrieval cue provided • recognition rather than recall • produces better performance/results • multiple choice, word bank Effective Recall: when encoding and retrieval cues match Encoding Failure • info never encoded into LTM • STM loss due to decay or interference Forgetting = loss of accessibility to previously stored material • Cue-dependent • Must continuously update memory • Main cause: failure to use right retrieval cues Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve • Longer delay = longer time needed to recall Retroactive Interference = Receny • new interferes w/ old MKNOWAK • end list favored Proactive Interference =Primacy • old prevents new • begin list favored Amnesia = forgetting due to physiological damage or trauma - Retrograde: don’t remember prior to event o Recover slowly - Anterograde: don’t remember after event o Can’t form new o Memento o “10 – second Tom” Cognition Family Resemblance: members of a category share certain core features • Not all members have to have every feature • How similar to other members • Defining features: must have certain characteristics to fit into category Problem Solving Problem = goal and uncertainty about how to reach it • Set of given info (description) • Set of operations (permissible axns) • Goal (description of what constitutes a solution) Problem Types: Well Defined = goal and starting point are clear MKNOWAK Ill-defined = uncertainty, unclear - No one answer - Constant change - Coping w/ ill-definer: break down into sub-problems Incubation = time away from problem provides new insights ”Functional Fixedness” = fail to solve problem because typical use of object • Fractionation: elementary characteristics of object (shape, color, weight, etc.) = used to avoid functional fixedness • Avoid mental set/ problem solving set: inappropriate application of past problem solutions to new problem Aha Moment Insight = process by which solution “magically” pops into mind • Wolfgang Kohler Decision Making Heuristics Algorithms = Emotional, quick-categorizing = sets of operations applied • Kahneman & Tversky systematically to generate a solution • decisions determined via not logic • well-defined problems • irrational • systematic equation • stereotypes • logical • rule of thumb • ill-defined problems • no guarantee of success • “satisficing” MKNOWAK Common Heuristics: Means-End Analysis = find axns to reduce gap to goal at each step Working Backwards Searching for Analogies Availability = judge based off how easily examples come to mind Ex) terrorists attacks seem more common than colon cancer Representativeness • ignoring base rate: how common • conjunction error: likelihood of being both economic models (prescriptive) = what ought to do descriptive models (psychological) Framing = how alternatives are presented • gain emphasized over loss = more likely to take risk Decision- Making Biases = Influence first impressions Confirmation Biases = seeking info to confirm and avoid info that may contradict Belief Persistence = clinging to initial beliefs even in the face of disconfirming evidence Anchoring and Adjustment: initial number (anchor) determines estimate MKNOWAK Learning Orienting Response = inborn tendency to notice and respond to novel or surprising events Habituation = diminish response bcz repeated exposure Sensitization = increase response with repeated exposure • more likely (over habituation) when stim is intense or punishing Classical Conditioning = autonomic reflex ▯ learn about signaling properties of events (relationship btwn conditioned and unconditioned) ▯ Pavlov Operant Conditioning (instrumental) = learn about consequences thru own actions Unconditioned Stim (US): automatically leads to observable response Unconditioned Response (UR): observable response produced automatically Conditioned Stim (CS): paired w/ unconditioned stim to signal response Conditioned Response (CR): acquired response signaled by conditioned stim CS before US in conditioning Conditions Taste Aversions = counter-conditioning to prevent nausea Second Order Conditioning = established CS presented immediately after new event. After several pairings => new event signals CR Stimulus Generalization = new stim produces similar CR produced by CS Stimulus Discrimination = response to new stimulus is different from CR to original CS MKNOWAK Extinction = CR diminishes after CS presented repeatedly w/o US Spontaneous Recovery = CR after period of no US Learned Helplessness = can’t prevent so CR different from UR Thorndike’s Law of Effect = if response to particular situation is followed by satisfying consequence it will strengthen, if followed by unsatisfying consequence it will weaken B.F. Skinner’s model of Operant Conditioning (Behaviorism) DS -> R -> RS Discriminative Stim (que): response will be followed by reward or punishment Reinforcement = increase likelihood of responding • Positive: something added/given • Negative: something removed or taken away Punishment = decrease likelihood of responding • Postivie: given/added • Negative: stopped or removed Primary Reinforcer = has intrinsic value or utility (ex Hersheys chocolate bar) Conditioned Reinforcers = (secondary) stimuli w/o intrinsic value (ex money) • Secondary conditioned w/ primary Corporal Punishment Ex) spanking, dog on couch MKNOWAK Limitations: decrease effectiveness over time, doesn’t teach desired behavior Observational Learning = reinforced vicariously - see someone else rewarded/punished to learn how to act ******************************************************************************* Intelligence = ability to perform tasks • Performance ability differences are compared to infer capacity of intelligence Psychometric Approach: use of psychological tests to measure the mind and mental processes st • Galton conducted 1 tests of intelligence • Intelligence determines success in society Factor Analysis: procedure that groups together related items by analyzing correlated scores • Spearman • 2 factor (g&s) • general intelligence (g): performance of variety • Specific intelligence (s): what test also measures Fluid vs Crystalized intelligence MKNOWAK • Cattell • Fluid; natural ability to solve problems; innate • Crystalized: knowledge and abilities gained thru experience Multiple Intelligences: people possess set of separate and independent intelligences • Gardner • Believe multiple types of intelligences Triarchtic Theory: 3 types of intelligences • Sternberg 1. Analytic: process info 2. Creative: cope w/ tasks 3. Practical: solve problems Types of Tests • Intelligence (measured) • Achievement (acquired) • Aptitude (future learning rate) Necessary Test Characteristics • Reliable (Replicable) • Validity (content, predictive, construct) • Standardization (mean, standard deviation) MKNOWAK **IQ = Intelligence Quotient** • Terman • Combine mental and chronicle age • IQ= (mental age/Chronicle age)100 • Baseline = 100 ( ½ above and ½ below) • Below 70 = mentally retarded • Above 130 = gifted Mental Age: chronicle age that best fit child’s current level of intellectual performance • Binet and Simon • Enable ability to find “slow” and “quick” learners and recommend appropriate curriculum adjustments Tactile Knowledge: knowledge to perform tasks Academic Knowledge: knowledge of acquired information • Increase in tactile = decrease in academic Flynn Effect: Populations IQ tests increasing • IQ tests renormed • More people diagnosed mental retardation MKNOWAK Intelligence = ½ innate & ½ environmental Heritability: IQ differences caused by genetic factors Environmental Factors: racial, ethnic, socioeconomic Intelligence from genetic potential and environment varies within Reaction Range • Genes set limits for intellectual potential • “smart” = given opportunities at young age • “slow” = steered away from intellectual experiences Motivation = set of factors that initiate and direct behavior (towards a goal) Emotions = directive, dynamic, motivational, less stable than moods (emotions change more often) • multiple components 1. Physiological Response (arousal) 2. Expressive Rxn 3. Subjective Experience (feelings, emotional) Instinct = unlearned responses (internal) controlled by specific triggering stim in the world Drive = response to internal physiological need Homeostasis = process by which body maintains steady state Motivations Incentive Motivation = external factors that lead us toward goal-directed behavior MKNOWAK Achievement Motive = internal drive that pushes us toward success Intrinsic Motivation = self-motivated goal-directed behavior Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs • Prioritized: 1 physiological, then social Eating • Internal physiological need Internal Eating Factors • Brain: monitors signals from glucose and insulin • Hypothalamus • brain stem MKNOWAK • hippocampus External Eating Factors • place • time • culture • smell Sex Internal Factors: chemical messengers (hormones) activate to keep species alive External Factors: vision, touch, smell of sexual act Facial-feedback Hypothesis: Muscles in the face –> send signals to brain -> determine internal emotional experience Performance = best at intermediate levels of arousal • too little or too much = decreases performance Emotional Experiences Angry = physically or psychologically restrained (expectations let down) Happiness = standard for satisfaction is maintained or surpassed Disgusted = wrinkle nose, open mouth MKNOWAK • takes time to develop (must be learned) • children unaware of what’s gross and put things in their mouths Theories of Emotion Common Sense (response bcz emotion) Stim -> subjective experience -> body response (arousal) James-Lange (emotion bcz body response) stim -> body response (arousal) -> subjective experience Cannon-Bard (simultaneously) Stim-> body response (arousal) -> subjective experience Two-Factor (emotion bcz of interpretation of body response) Stim -> body response (arousal) -> interpretation -> subjective experience *emotions come from physiological (arousal) & cognitive (interpretation)* Schacter & Singer = how drugs alter experience of arousal MKNOWAK
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