HSTA 255 Final Study Guide
HSTA 255 Final Study Guide HSTA 255 - 01
Popular in Montana History
HSTA 255 - 01
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Popular in History
HSTA 101H - 00
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Notetaker on Sunday December 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HSTA 255 - 01 at University of Montana taught by Jeffrey M. Wiltse (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 133 views. For similar materials see Montana History in History at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 12/13/15
HSTA 255 Final Exam Study Guide Section 1 Two short answer questions about Jared Diamond s chapter Under Montana s Big Sky Section 2 Choose one of two given essay questions out of the possible four 1 What according to Diamond is responsible for Montana s environmental problems a Mining pg 35 i By far the biggest toxic waste issue ii Too expensive to clean up the pollution b Logging pg 41 i Logging and burning forests l DDT ii Clearcut hillsides looked ugly really ugly c Fire pg 44 i Result partly of climate change and partly from human activities 1 Nonnative sheep grazing in national forests ii Direct effects of logging iii Sometimes helps maintain the natural habitat but mostly destroys it d Soil i Exhaustion erosion salinization overgrazing ii Caused by crop rotation lack of deep roots to take in water e GlaciersWater i The most visible effect is in Glacier National Park ii 150 glaciers to 35 estimated none by 2030 iii Annual rainfall l3 inchesyear iv Lack of water to irrigate 1 Water is overallocated v Water quality vi Due to loss of water Montana will be among the big losers of climate change f Antigovemment attitudes i poor and proud of it ii unrestricted land use and loss of regulations are bad How according to Diamond has Montana s economy changed in recent times a The federal government owns over 1A of the land in the state and 3 of the land in the county mostly under the title of national forest b Was a substantial period of agriculture farmingranching although the environmentdistance from markets is disadvantageous c Economic phases in Montana i First phase Native American cultures ii Second economic phase in Montana was the mountain men or fur trapperstraders in the early 1800s iii The third economic phase in Montana started in 1860s was mining logging and food production d Modern economy i Huntingfishing transformed from subsistence activity to recreational ii Fur trade is extinct iii Miningloggingagriculture declining in importance iv Economically geared towards the elderly 1 Tourism recreation retirement living health care v Global warming means less agriculture drought has now forced abandonment of large areas Diamond asserts on page 5 6 that Montanans are polarized meaning they cannot agree on a vision for their state s environment and future What according to Diamond are the polarizing issues in contemporary Montana and why is there such disagreement over them a Businesses are profit making not charities They lose money by cleaning up their mess b Differing public opinions about solving forest fires c Can t afford to fix the dams but desperately need to d Getting rid invasive species but herbicides means bad water quality Selfish behavior on the part of the individuals f Own particular backgrounds and values g Gaps in Montana based on wealthsocial classresidencypolitical status i Long time residents often have different interests than newcomers 4 Diamond claims Montana s own economy already falls far short of supporting the Montana lifestyle What according to Diamond is the Montana lifestyle and why cannot the state s economy support it a County residents in their 50s has increased steeply but the number in their 20s has actually decreased bThe Montana government is being subsidized by federal government as well as out of state income iTourism and recreation have become necessary evils cThe service industry is major in Western Montana not major occupations iPeople in Montana don t earn enough to live high class iiPeople who can afford a better lifestyle are out of staters iiiEconomy enables only a small population to live Montana lifestyles d no simple cheap way exists to clean up old mines ePeople want a higher standard of living but are ruining the environment to get it iPeople want to manage and restore the forests but it would cost about 100 billion iiThey want their homes protected from fires but don t want to pay for it iiiWanting to fish but are killing native species f Higher population means using more water than is available iMany people moving into Montana for the natural landscape g The lifestyle was highly valued by older generations but many farmers children today have different values i Farm costs have been rising much faster than farm income iiMany people have to get two to three jobs to get by in the state 1 Shortage of high paying jobs many young people leaving the state Short answerID based on lecture Write a long paragraph on 2 of three given terms defining and explaining the significance to Montana History a These will all be major points out of the lectures Essay question One will be given out of the possible four 1 How did the Montana economy change during the period covered in Unit 3 1920 to the present a 19201926 Agricultural depression in Montana i 50 farms in the state either abandoned or foreclosed ii Caused by increasedheavy indebtedness drought and low yields low crop prices iii Brought end to the homestead boom caused a lot of out migration iv Left Montanans bitter and cynical victim s mentality b 19291941 National great depression i Montana economy suffers worse than the nation as a whole 1 Not only is agriculture pulled back into depression but also cities and industrial areas for the first time ii 19291934 7000 farms in the state abandonedforeclosed iii Timber drastic slowdown in construction over 50 companies shut down iv Copper Anaconda production dropped by 90 c 1941 Agricultural economy stabilizes i 19411948 farm income doubles wet weather cycle high crop prices ii War economy industries booming d After WWI i Traditional industries prospered logging mining agriculture 1 Massive construction boom 2 Beef Cattle Wheat Barley made up 75 income for farmers 3 Farmers received 50 million in federal subsidies ii Montana didn t receive any new industries that drove growth and prosperity in the rest of the West e 1950 Montana one of the richest states in the nation per person basis f 1970s Shift from Western Montana to Eastern Montana i Metals miningAnaconda declines see below ii 1970s declared the decade of coal in Eastern Montana g Oil and Natural Gas i Began in 1910s20s ii Postwar boom began in 1951 1 Expanded from North Central MT to EastemNortheastem MT h The Bakken boom of the 21St century i Provided high paying jobs for unskilled and skilled workers ii High tax revenue coming into Montana i Now it is less geared towards primary and secondary industries i Western Montana is centered around the service industry ii Anaconda shut down in 1970s showing the decline of metals mining 2 How did the federal government s policies towards Native Americans change during the period covered in Unit 3 1920 to the present a l920s 1930s Indian New Deal i Largely reversed intentions of previous Indian policies ii Aimed to l Reestablish tribe as basic socialpolitical unit for Indians 2 Revitalize traditional tribal culturespractices 3 Promote community based economic development a Not necessarily agriculture iii Three main provisions 1 American Indian CCC ensured Native American jobs 2 Blackfeet Craft Guild 3 Indian Reorganization Act discussed below b 1924 Indian Citizenship Act i Granted imposed American citizenship on Native Americans 1 Political assimilation not just socialcultural c 1934 Indian Reorganization Act IRA i Ended allotment of tribal lands under the Dawes Act 1 Excess land that hadn t been purchased went back to the tribe 2 Made loans available to buy back land 3 Individual property owners could trade land to tribe for shares in tribal corporations ii Gave tribes authority to adopt tribal constitutions 1 Creation of tribal councils legislative body 2 Limited form of selfgovernment reservations not sovereign nations iii Increased federal funding to tribes for health care and education 1 Day schools increased 132226 enrollment tripled 2 Federal Indian schools started teaching Indian cultureslanguagehistory iv Promoted economic development on reservations 1 Made seed money available to make businesses 2 Gave tribal councils more control over natural resources on tribal land a Timber water oil coal etc V Established affirmative action hiring 1 Native Americans given preference for federal jobs on reservations vi Tribes had the right to optin or out of the IRA d Termination 1953 i Goes back to policy of the late 19th century 1 Break apart tribes 2 Assimilate Indians as individuals in mainstream American culture ii Empowered federal government to 1 End its trustee relationship with tribeswithdraw federal funding 2 Cancel treaties and agreements that the federal government had made with tribes 3 Abolish tribal governments 4 Sell off tribal lands and other resources disburse money 5 Abolish tribesreservations curtail services given to Indians iii After given the choice only 109 tribes chose to terminate none Montanan e Relocation 1951 i Encouraged Native Americans to move off of reservations and resettle in cities 1 Government would pay for moving expenses provide temporary housing in destination cities ii Purposes l Integrate Native Americans into nonIndian communities as individuals 2 Improve Native Americans economic opportunities f 1970s Changing of Federal Indian policy i Due to Indian activism AIM Indians of all Tribes ii Instead of terminating tribes tribal selfdetermination was promoted iii Empowerment of Indian communities became important g Indian SelfDetermination and Education Assistance Act 1975 i Established tribal selfdetermination as a primary goal of federal Indian policy ii Empowered tribes to contract with federal government to operate their own health education social services law enforcement programs iii Transferred control of federal services to the tribal councils h Indian Health Care Improvement Act 1976 i Established improving the health of Native Americans as a national priority i Tribally Controlled Community College Act 1978 i Provided federal funding for tribal community colleges ii Enabled Indians to stay within their communities while gaining access to higher education j Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act 1990 i Requires public institutions that have sacred objectsremains of Native Americans to return them back to the reservations 3 Why does 1920 mark an important turning point in Montana history In order to effectively answer this question you will need to write generally about what happened in Montana during the previous period 1880 to 1920 to contrast with what happened after 1920 Most of the essay including the specific examples should pertain to what happened after 1920 a Early 20th century industrialization i Dynamic economic development industrialization population growth b 19081918 Homestead booms and tens of thousands of people come into Montana i Wet weather Enlarged homestead act of 1909 boosterism c 19141918 WWI agriculture is prosperous to the war effort d 1920 Agricultural economy falls into major depression i Compare prices of wheat from wartime to the 1920s ii Number of farms abandoned or foreclosed 4 Why was the decade of the 1970s an important period in Montana history a Shift to the left in State Politics i Liberal legislation 1 2 3 4 State minimum wage Consumer protection laws Environmental protection laws Coal Severance Tax Act 1975 ii 1972 Montana Constitution 1 Expansive civil rights protections a Stronger protections than the US Constitution b 19 November 2014 Same sex marriage legal in Montana 2 Expanded power of state government a Increased functionnumber of cabinet level positions 3 Prioritized environmental protection 4 Mandated Native American history and culture preservation b Rise of popular environmentalism i Environmental Laws 1 Montana Environmental Policy Act 1971 2 Montana Strip Mining Reclamation Act 1973 3 Montana Water Use Act 1973 ii Grassroots activism 1 Gals Against Smog and Pollution GASP c Change from economic power in the West to power in the East i Decline of metals mining in Montana and collapse of Anaconda Mining Co 1 Most valuable properties not in Montana but in Chile a By 1960s only 15 Anaconda copper coming from MT 2 Collapse in 1970s a Socialist government in Chile reclaims the mines b New environmental laws passed in Montana c Lost one of its major buyers ATampT 3 1977 Anaconda sells to ARCO 4 1983 ARCO ceases all operations of the former Anaconda Company ii Boom in energy industry drastic increase in coal production 1 During 1970s energy prices at all time high 2 Southeastern Montana contains more coal than any other comparable geographic region in the world 3 In 1975 22 million tons of coal extracted out of Montana
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