Geology 101 Final
Geology 101 Final Geology 101
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alanna Wight on Sunday December 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Geology 101 at Washington State University taught by Wilkie in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 120 views. For similar materials see Geology in Geology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 12/13/15
Study Guide: Lecture Exam 3 - Covers Chapters 1-7, 9,10 (old material) and 13,14,16,18,15,8 and Interlude F,D (new material) in text (Essentials of Geology), lecture and lab material Chapter 1 – Earth in Context Understand the workings behind the scientific method. What are the different steps and the balances and checks associated with the scientific method? Observations, Hypothesis, Theory, and the Scientific Model The Earth began to differentiate forming a stratified Earth. How does density change with depth? What are these zones (not necessary to memorize depths)? How are these zones (Fig 1.16) grouped? Which one makes up the tectonic plates? Which zones are strong and which ones are weak or ductile? The zones are the crust, mantle, and core (inner and outer). The density changes with depth by that the more into the earth you go the more dense it gets. It gets weaker the farther you go in How old is the Earth? 4.53 Billion years old (universe although 14 billion) What is the theory of plate tectonics? What is the driving force behind plate tectonics? The theory of plate tectonics is that the plates are moving over the asthenosphere and are constantly broken down and recreated The driving force behind plate tectonics is Convection Chapter 2 – The Way the Earth Works: Plate Tectonics What type of plate boundary do earthquakes occur at? What type of plate boundary do volcanoes occur at? All of the plate boundaries can create earthquakes Convergent and hotspots form Volcanoes What are the three main types of plate tectonic boundaries and any subdivisions of each? What are the plate motions relative to each other? What are the stresses associated with each? Are there any features associated with these boundaries (mid-ocean ridge, trench, subduction zone, rift, volcanoes)? Divergent Boundaries: Plates move apart from each other Convergent Boundaries: Plates move towards each other (Subduction or Collision) Transform Boundaries: Plates slide past each other Hot Spots: Plates move over them. Identify the plate tectonic settings for real world examples of the different type of plate boundaries and hot spots (location or mountain range)? (Iceland, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, East African Rift, Red Sea, Cascade Mtn, Andes Mtn, Himalayas, Hawaii, Yellowstone, Aleutians Island Chain, Japan, Gulf of California, Sea of Cortez), San Andreas fault) Convergent - Cascade Mountain range, Andes, Himalayas Divergent - Mid-Atlantic Ridge, East African Rift, Red Sea Transform - Gulf of California, San Andres Fault Hot Spot - Hawaii, Yellowstone What determines which plate will subduct? The density determines which plate will subduct Decompression melting forms new oceanic crust at divergent boundaries What are hot spots? Where would you find them? Do they create or destroy oceanic or continental crust? What feature/landform do you find above them? Hotspots are stationary surface expression of volcanic activity from thermal plume They form volcanoes that are active until they are too far from the active zone The direction is based on the dates from youngest to oldest Chapter 3 – Patterns in Nature: Minerals What is a mineral? Naturally Occurring Inorganic - No organic carbon Crystalline Solid - atoms are arranged in a particular structure (cube) Specific Chemical Compound - contains particular elements is a set ratio What are mineral polymorphs? What are the polymorphs of carbon? (as discussed in class) Minerals with the same composition but form different crystal structure Polymorphs of Carbon: Diamond and Graphite What is the most abundant mineral group in the crust? Silicates are the most abundant- Silcon, Oxygen Other groups include: Carbonates, Oxides, Sulfides, Sulfates, Native Elements Chapter 4 – Up from the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks How are igneous rock formed? What are the two types of igneous rock? How does the location where they cool affect the speed of cooling and there crystal size? Created by magma cooling Extrusive Igneous Rocks: from when magma erupts at the earths surface, cools rapidly and creates small crystals Intrusive Igneous Rocks: forms when magma cools underground, cools slowely and creates large crystals Understand and be able to use (or recognize in slides) the following terms: plutonic, volcanic, intrusive, extrusive, aphanitic, phaneritic, porphyritic, pegmatitic, glassy, vesicular, pyroclastic. What does each texture indicate about the rate of cooling? Plutonic: Another word for Intrusive Igneous rocks Volcanic: Aphanitic: Crystals too fine to be distinguished, cooled quickly Phaneritic: Large crystals that are distinguishable, cooled slowly Porphyritic: Both sizes, cooled at different temperatures Pegmatitic: Extremely Large, cooled slowly Glassy: No minerals present, no crystals, fast cooling Vesicular: Contains holes from gas release Pyroclastic: Fragments of material ejected explosively into the air Chapter 5 – The Wrath of Vulcan: Volcanic Eruptions Be able to discuss any of the following: Mt. Rainier and Hawaii, in terms of the dominant landform (composite and shield volcano), eruptive style, composition of magma/lava, viscosity of magma/lava, type of plate boundary. Describe the volcanic hazards associated with Mt. Rainier, WA. Mt. St. Helens Dominant landforms: cascade mountain range, ring of fire; eruptive style; pyroclastic; composition of magma/lava: high in silica (intermediate to felsic); viscosity of magma/lava: high; type of plate boundary :convergent. Columbia River Basalts Dominant landforms: Cascades, ring of fire; eruptive style; pyroclastic: compostion of magma/lava: intermediate to felsic; viscosity of magma/lava: low; type of plate boundary : divergent Mt. Rainer Dominant landforms: Cascades, ring of fire; eruptive style: pyroclastic; composition of magma/lava: intermediate to felsic; viscosity of magma/lava: high; type of plate boundary: convergent. Hawaii Dominant Landforms: Caldera; eruptive style:fissure; composition of magma:mafic; viscosity: low; type of plate boundary: hot spot Interlude B – A surface Veneer: Sediments and Soil What is weathering and erosion, how do they differ? Weathering is the process which rocks are broken down at the Earth's surface Erosion is the process that moves pieces of rock fragments and deposits them elsewhere Be familiar with the different types of chemical (hydrolysis, oxidation, dissolution) weathering and physical weathering? Chemical weathering: Converts minerals and rocks into altered solids, solutions and precipitates (only occurs to those minerals exposed to the "weather".) Hydrolysis: The reaction of any substance to water example: Feldspar- forms clay Oxidation: A mineral reacts with oxygen to make a different product example: Iron in minerals like pyroxene or hematite (Fe2O3) Dissolution: Minerals dissolved by water or acids. examples: Halite or Calcite Physical weathering: fractures rock, breaks material into smaller pieces Exfoliation: form of mechanical weathering in which curved plates of rock are stripped from rock below. Frost Wedging: the repeated freezing and thawing of water in areas with extremely cold weather. When water freezes, it expands Chapter 6 – Pages of Earth’s Past: Sedimentary Rocks What is sediment and where does it come from? A sediment is the product of weathering from other rocks and minerals What are the 3 classes/categories of sedimentary rock and under what conditions do they form? Clastic - moving waters (beach, tides, rivers or streams) Chemical - Marines and deserts Biochemical - Deep sea, reefs, continental margin or shelf For clastic rocks be able to recognize sorting and rounding differences? What do these textures indicate about the sediment transport distance? How is the sorting, rounding and size of particles affected by the agent of transport (wind, water, ice)? When the rocks are finely sorted and more round, it has traveled a far distance from the origination. When the rocks are coarse and more angular, the closer they are to origination. What are sedimentary structures? Be familiar with the different types of sedimentary structures and what information they provide? Bedding: parallel layers of sediments, each layer is called a bed Cross bedding: sets of bedded sediment at an angle to horizontal, deposited by currents example: Dunes Graded bedding: Beds progress from coarse grains at bottom to fine grains at top of bed. Mudcracks: polygonal pattern of cracks that develop in mud cracks that develop in mud as it dries example: mudflats Bioturbation: burrow marks left in sediments by animals How does sediment become a sedimentary rock? What is lithification? 1. Weathering: becomes clasts/ breaks down rocks 2. Erosion: 3. Transportation 4. Deposition: when moving water/wind/ice settles out clasts and accumulates Lithification: hardening of soft sediments through compaction and cementation. Buried clasts are squeezed tightly together (compaction) and then binds them together (cementation) Chapter 7 – Metamorphism: A process of Change What are the controlling factors of metamorphism? Temperature (heat), pressure, fluids- hot water can transport ions (chemical weathering) What are the main types of metamorphism (regional, contact, shock), where do they occur geologically and what type of plate boundary are they associated with them (if any)? Contact Metamorphism - heat from rising igneous intrusions metamorphoses preexisting rocks. Low/high temps, low pressure Regional Metamorphism – most common. caused by deep burial or tectonic forces that increase temperatures and pressure over broad regions. Low-high temps, low-high pressures Hydrothermal metamorphism - Hot water percolates through spaces in rocks, high temps, low pressures What is foliation? What pressure condition is needed for its development? What other factor determines if a rock will develop a foliation? Will a limestone or sandstone parent rock develop foliation under directed pressure (and a high temperature)? Why or why not? Foliation is the preferred orientation of platy (flat) or elongated minerals. Directed pressure is needed for its development Yes, intermediate-high schist: coarse grained Chapter 10 – Deep Time: How Old is Old? and Interlude E: Memories of Past Life: Fossils and Evolution Know the difference between absolute and relative dates, and how they're determined. Absolute dates: determine event's actual time Relative dates: putting events in proper order Know and understand (be able to apply) the principles of relative dating (original horizontality, superposition, cross-cutting relationships, etc) Law of Horizontality: units deposited horizontally to gravity Law of Superposition: undisturbed succession of sedimentary rock, the oldest layers are on the bottom Cross-cutting relationships: an igneous intrusion is always younger than the rock it cuts across Inclusions: are pieces of one rock unit that are contained within another, it can be assumed that the rock next to the one including the units must be older to be able to provide the fragments Know each type of unconformities (each type), what do they represent and how they form. Uncomformities- markers of missing time Discomformity- an uncomformity in which the rocks above and below the uncomformities are parallel Angular uncomformity- after sediments are created there is uplift and turn angular and then there are more layers created at the top Noncomformity- sedimentary rocks in contact with crystalline, igneous or metamorphic rocks Geologic Time Scale: You DO NOT need to memorize all of it. You should know the names and ages of the Eons (Precambrian) and Eras (Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic). You should be able to put them in relative order from oldest to youngest. Eons: phanerozoic and precrambrian Precrambrian: from birth to earth up to before complex life forms developed (>543 million years) Phanerozoic: last 543 million years +Eras: cenozoic-recent life (0-65mya) -age of mammals Mesozoic: age of middle life (65-251mya) -dinosaurs Paleozoic: ancient life (251-543mya) -shells got harder Chapter 9 – Crags Cracks, and Crumples: Crustal Deformation and Mountain Building and Interlude F (Box F.1) Be able to recognize all structures presented as a map or a cross-section view given the age relationship and strike and dip symbols of the units. Be able to name the type of structure (horizontal or plunging anticline or syncline, reverse or other fault types), the type of stress involved, the strain type and the type of plate boundary where each would form. Anticline - A shape Syncline - U shape Right and Left lateral- dip-slip, side to side, horizontal motion (transform) Reverse- compression, dip-slip, vertical motion (divergent and rifting) Normal- tension, dip-slip, vertical motion (divergent and rifting) Non Plunging: lines of sediment are straight, do not bend Plunging: lines of sediment bend Strike Slip: direction and angle of anticline/syncline Horizontal Fold Axis is non plunging Thrust Fault: folds move older rock over newer rock creating double layers Chapter 13 – Unsafe Ground: Landslides and Other Mass Movements Know the controlling force of mass wasting – GRAVITY The processes that transport large quantities of earth materials down slope Know the important factors in mass wasting (water saturation, angle of repose, vegetation, earthquakes) Nature of Slope Material: Solid rock may be reduced by deformation, physical, chemical weathering Sedimentary rocks with bedding planes Foliated metamorphic rocks Unconsolidated Material Angle of repose- maximum angle at which a slope of loose material will lie without cascading down Shape and size of grains, amount of friction and cohesion affect Vegetation- plants add slope stability by protection against erosion Water Saturation- water fills pore spaces Water in some spaces binds particles Water between all particles keeps them apart and allows them to flow You WANT damp sand! Not dry or water-saturated Steepness- affected by tectonic and erosion activity, human interactions Review the types (fall, slide, flow) and rates of movement (e.g., creep compared to rock avalanche) Fall- solid blocks of rock fall rapidly from a steep or vertical slop, ONE UNIT FAST ROCK Talus is debris Rock Avalanche- flows by entraining air as it moves down slope, FLUID FAST ROCK Air hockey table Slide- single mass of rock or sediment is released and moves rapidly along a plane of weakness, ONE UNIT MODERATE ROCK Creep- slowest mass wasting process, unconsolidated material moves slowly downslope under the influence of gravity, FLUID VERY SLOW UNCONSOLIDATED Causes once vertical objects to slant over time Slump- rapid slide of unconsolidated material (usually soil) along a curved surface, ONE UNIT SLOW TO MODERATE UNCONSOLIDATED Travels as a unit, typical of the Palouse Typically forms stepped scars Flows- fluid mass movement high water content Debris avalanche is fastest, mixed with air Know the effects of deforestation on mass wasting deforestation alters the rates at which natural erosion and deposition take place How do structures in the rocks affect mass wasting? Nature of Slope Material: Solid rock may be reduced by deformation, physical, chemical weathering Sedimentary rocks with bedding planes Foliated metamorphic rocks What are the triggers for mass wasting? Can human activity trigger mass wasting? How? Weathering, Physical erosion, Faults/Folds (tectonic activity) Human Activity: added mass of building on slopes, removal of vegetation, increasing angle of slopes, addition/removal of water Chapter 14 – Running Water: The Geology of Steams and Floods How do rivers and streams fit into the hydrologic cycle (run off verses infiltration)? run off is when water returns to the sea infiltration makes weak surfaces underground more slippery Not all runoff flows into rivers, much of it soaks into the ground as infiltration What are the different water reservoirs? Be able to place them in order from largest to smallest? ocean glacier groundwater How are materials transported in rivers and streams? What are the sediments called that are transported via streams? Dissolved load- in solution (ions) Suspended load- in suspension (finer particles that are suspended in water column, murky muddy) Bed load- along the bottom (large particles, sliding rolling saltation (bouncing)) Movement of bed load forms ripple marks at LOW velocity Movement of bed load forms dunes at HIGHER velocity Be able to recognize the difference between stream channel types (straight, meandering, braided). Straight- fast flowing, mountain streams (steep slopes), straight segments Braided- multiple channels, split and rejoin, carries high amounts of sediment, high velocity at terminus of glacier Meandering- one main trunk winds back and forth across flood plain, low slopes (low velocity) through easily eroded bedrock (low suspended sediment) Be able to recognize the different stream drainage patterns and what each tells you about the underlying rocks. (dendritic – flat lying or composed of similar materials, etc.) Drainage basin- area of land which funnels all the water into streams draining the area Drainage divide- ridge of high ground along which all rainfall runs off down one side of the rise or the other Dendritic- flat lying layers (similar rock type) Looks like tree Trellis- folded rock layers Rectangular- rock units cut by joints or faults Radial- high mountain peal (volcanoes) Point with streams coming off it (like a flower or sun) Describe how velocity changes within a meandering stream. How does this lead to the formation of point bars and cut banks? How do meandering streams change over time? How do oxbow lakes form? Velocity is higher in the middle of the stream, in a meandering stream the high velocity area bumps against the points of the stream causing high erosion. Cut banks form in the inside bends where the velocity is slower, depositing materials. Meandering streams change as erosion increases, cutting bigger bends. In floods, new streams can form connecting bends, and cutting off the larger bends to become oxbow lakes, IF two bends are close by they will connect Be able to define (and recognize units of) the following terms: velocity, gradient, discharge. Velocity- speed of the stream Distance over Time Gradient- rise over run (slope) Feet per mile Discharge- the volume of water flowing past a certain point in a given unit of time (typically cubic feet per second or CFS) Q=VxA in terms of CFS 25ft/16.3 seconds= 1.53 ft/sec 35ft x 1.53ft/sec= 50.49 ft squared 50.49ftsq x 1.53ft/sec= 77.25 ft cubed/sec = 72 CFS Recognize and explain how the following form: floodplain, levees, terraces, alluvial fans, deltas. Floodplain- area covered in water during flooding, fine sediments are deposited at the outer parts of the floodplain Levees—during a flood the thickest and coarsest sediments are deposited at the channel edges Man-Made: increase sediment deposition (raising channel above floodplain) increase time to drain flooded areas behind levees backs up water upstream of levee, increasing flooding in upstream areas Terraces—mark previous level of floodplain, formed by renewed down cutting to lower base Alluvial Fans—fan shaped accumulations of sediment Form where streams adjust velocity when leaving a narrow valley for a broad relatively flat area Bajada- multiple alluvial fans that have merged Deltas—triangular shaped deposits of sediment deposited as streams enter the ocean (slow velocity) If a flood has a recurrence interval of 20 years, what is the % chance that this magnitude flood will happen this year? What about the next year? Recurrence interval- the average time between two floods of a given magnitude Depends on climate, width of floodplain, channel size 5% it will happen this year, 5% next year Chapter 16 – Hidden Reserve: Groundwater Be able to describe the hydrologic cycle. Water enters the hydrologic cycle by evaporating from the earth's surface and rising into the atmosphere. After a period of time, this water condenses and falls back down in the form of rain or snow. Some of this rain or snow stays on the land and surface water. Gravity then plays its part in making all the surface water run down the slope. This running water collects in stream sources and are moved from the higher to lower elevation. List the factors that control the rate of groundwater recharge (infiltration). 1) Condition and type of surface materials 2)Vegetation 3)Topography 4)Precipitation Be able to use the following terms as related to lecture and lab: unsaturated zone, saturated zone, water table, porosity, permeability, aquifer, confined aquifer, aquiclude, artesian well, and recharge. Unsaturated zone and Saturated zone: how far you dig until you reach water. -Water table: boundary between unsaturated and saturated zone. It is not constant. -Porosity: total volume of pore space in a sediment or rock. -Permeability: The ability of water to flow through spaces in rock. -Aquifer: the space between two aquitards, is not open to the surface. -Unconfined Aquifer: open to the surface (saturated and unsaturated zones) with a water table. -Aquitard: bed or rock through which water cannot move or move slowly. -Artisian Well: Penetrates confined aquifers in which water is under enough pressure to rise above the surface on their own. Water flows freely without help. -Recharge: When water enters or re-enters the ground. Consider the following 6 rock/sediment samples. Which sample/samples have high or very high porosity? Which has the highest permeability? Which sample/samples would be most likely to form aquifers? Which sample/samples would form aquitards? Gravel- High permeability high porosity Clay= low permeability low permeability. Porosity-total volume of pore space in sediment or rock High perm=lots of water Permeability-the ability of water to flow through spaces in rock and sediment Sample A - well-sorted, coarse-grained unconsolidated sediments.(high) Sample B - very poorly sorted unconsolidated sediments.(very high)(highest permeability) Sample C - highly fractured basalt (very high) Sample D - unfractured granite, with no vesicles (low) Sample E - unfractured mudstone /shale Sample F - very well cemented sandstone Explain when and why the following occur: cone of depression, subsidence, saltwater intrusion Cone of Depression: Occurs when water in pulled out of an aquifer faster than it can recharge. Subsidence: When large amounts of ground water have been excessively withdrawn from an aquifer Saltwater intrusion: The movement of saline water into fresh water aquifers. Can lead to contamination of drinking water sources. What is the difference between hot springs and geysers? What heats the water of hydrothermal activity? What is the source (plate boundary or hot spot) of heat for the geysers of Yellowstone? Yellowstone is known for both its hot springs and geysers. These are heated by a pluton beneath the north american plate. What is karst? How is it related to groundwater? In which rock type does karst most commonly form? Describe the features of karst (below and above the earth’s surface). Karst is a type of topography that indicates the presence of caves belowground. This is typefied by sinkhole, disappearing streams and hillside springs What is dissolution? Caves are formed primarily in limestone which dissolves in acid including the slightly acidic water that is naturally found in many groundwater reservoirs. What are speleothems? How do they form? Speleothems are made of which mineral? How does it form caves? How do stalactites differ from stalagmites? speleotherms- features formed through water based deposits of CaCO3 stalactites and stalagmites are considered speleotherms stalactites -top stalagmite- bottom How do collapse sinkholes form? Sinkholes are formed when the overlying sediment weight becomes too much for the cave to support. This happens in three primary ways: the cave becomes too large and the ceiling too thin (can collapse), water subsidence removing the grain support, or increased weight at the surface. What are some possible sources for groundwater pollution that you may see in a rural or urban setting? Agricultural waste, industrial waste, effluent from "sanity" landfills and septic tanks, radioactive waste. Chapter 15 – Restless Realm: Oceans and Coasts How do we know what the seafloor is like? Explain how man has been able to map the seafloor we mapped it through a variety of ways -early navigators used a lead line survey -used LIDAR and bounce light off of the ocean bottom to get a more detailed picture -best way is through satellite laser imagery. The ocean surface hints at what is under water and lasers can be used to measure the height of the ocean at different spots to within inches. Have portions of the continental shelf ever been exposed at the surface? If so, when might this occur and how might this change its surface? Does the continental shelf area have any economic importance? Please explain The continental shelf comes to the surface at convergent boundaries. It is found as blueschist evidenced as shells found at peaks of the himalayan mountains. During convergence the sea floor moves up as an accretionary wedge or as nonvolcanic mountains. The continental shelf is important economically because it is an area where metallic ores hydrocarbon and oil are very frequently removed. Identify the type of mass movement of sediment which occurs along the continental slope and rise. What submarine features do they give rise to? Dissected by submarine canyons and modified by turbidity currents How do waves form? What factors would increase a waves’ height? Understand and be able to explain the following terms: wavelength, wave height, and wave period. Waves form through wind. The stronger the wind, the higher and bigger the waves. Wavelength: The distance between crests Wave height: vertical distance between the crest and trough. Wave period: time between successive waves to pass Be familiar with the major parts of a beach profile. What is the swash zone? What causes breakers (breaking waves) in the surf zone? What is a long shore current? And how does it move sediment? Swash zone: zone where water comes on beach from a wave. Gravity causes breakers as the top of the wave gets too high. Longshore Current: where waves arrive at the shore obliquely. This moves sediment because it moves in a sawtooth pattern that results in gradual transport of the beach sediment parallel to the beach. A rip current is a seaward strong flow perpendicular to the beach. Explain what causes ocean tides on earth Ocean tides on earth are caused by the gravitational pull from the moon and sun. Tides are higher at some locations because they are closer to the sun/moon at certain times. Be able to identify some erosional coastal landforms (wave cut - cliffs,- platform, - terrace, sea stacks, sea arch), and depositional coastal landforms (tombolos, sand spits, barrier islands). Also be able to identify emergent and submergent coastlines and what landforms occur there. Wave cut: when wave erosion gradually undercuts a cliff face. Sea stacks: because the refraction waves attack the sides of a headland, slowly eating through it creating a sea arch. Eventually this arch collapses leaving sea stacks. Tombolo: A depositional landstructure as an island that is connected by a narrow land bridge like a spit. Sand spits: the coastland idents landward, beach drift stretches beaches out into open open water to create a sand spit. Barrier Islands: in regions with an abundant sand supply offshore bars rise above the mean high water level and become barrier islands. How do seasonal changes affect beach profiles? Man-made structures like groins, breakwaters, jetties are used to prevent beach erosion. In general what is there affect where there constructed? And the affect down-current (down coast) of the structures? When humans add structures in order to slow erosion sediments typically become piled and downstream is quickly eroded away. When other approaches are taken (beach nourishment, land use planning) erosion is typically not caused in new areas. Chapter 18 – Amazing Ice: Glaciers and Ice Ages What are glaciers? Glaciers are moving bodies of ice that form from the accumulation and compaction of snow. They also form under low temperatures (high latitudes/ high altitudes) in wet regions. They move under the influence of gravity. Describe the two main types of glaciers and the environment in which they form. Be able to recognize modern examples of each. Alpine/Valley Glaciers – Confined to mountain valleys. Continental Ice sheet – Unconfined, blankets topography, large. Modern Ex: Antarctica, Greenland How does the abundance of glacial ice affect sea level? Explain using the hydrologic cycle. Sea level falls during glacial periods and rises during interglacial periods. Be able to distinguish the following features as erosional or depositional. In addition, which features indicate alpine/valley glaciation? Which features indicate continental ice sheets? (i.e. be able to recognize and know the processes that form them. They may be in the form of slides or other figures). Use lab figures 11.8 and 11.13 for review. Glacial Erosions Features( indicate alpine/valley glaciation) U shaped valleys =carved by alpine glacier, Cirque: Steep-walled, bowl-shaped Hanging Valley: Tributary valley that has been isolated by down-cutting of the glacier in the main valley Horn: Pyramidal peak surrounded by three or more cirques Arte: Jagged ridges along the divide produced by erosion of cirque or tributary glaciers Striations: Parallel scratches show the direction of movement Till: a random mixture of rock debris in a fine-grained matrix. The different moraines are just an accumulation of till found at different parts of the glacier. Fjord: a glacial valley flooded by seawater (u-shaped). Kame: Caused by sediment deposition from water flowing through a circular opening on the glacier. Generally cone-shaped hill of sand and gravel. Erratic: a glacially deposited rock different from the bedrock on which it rests. Large boulders left by glaciers in areas where they obviously don’t belong. Moraines: Ground end, recessional, and terminal. Moraines are the same as those found in Alpine Glaciation; each is composed of poorly sorted glacial sediments called till Esker: Long-sinuous ridge formed by sediment deposition in sub-glacial streams Drumlin: As asymmetric elongate hill, parallel to the ice flow direction, made of glacially deposited sediments Kettles: Lake formed by buried ice block in outwash sediments Ice ages have occurred (or are occurring) on earth during which geologic periods? What evidence supports this hypothesis? What factors are believed to cause ice ages (long-term causes)? Large landmasses at or near poles -Land surfaces or relatively high elevation -Nearby oceans to provide moisture as snow What factors cause the glacial and interglacial fluctuations within ice ages? (i.e. describe the three astronomical factors that affect the amount of solar radiation striking the earth.) 1. Eccentricity of Orbit: Earth's path around the sun changes from a circular to elliptical orbit 2. Tilt of the Earth's axis of rotation: varies from 21.5 to 24.5 degrees 3. Precession: Earth's axis wobbles like a top What is the Palouse loess and how did it form? Loess are fine grained silt transported by the wind. Loess are all over the Palouse when we look at rolling hills, and the rugged landscape Be able to put the following events that formed the Palouse region in relative order: the formation of the Palouse Loess, the formation of the Columbia River Basalts, the formation of the Channeled Scablands. the formation of the Palouse Loess, the formation of the Columbia River Basalts, the formation of the Channeled Scablands Chapter 8 – A Violent Pulse: Earthquakes Draw a diagram illustrating the difference between the focus and the epicenter of an earthquake. Describe the differences between P and S waves (velocity, type of motion) Body Waves P Waves (Primary Waves) • waves expand and contact (compressional) • fastest wave (~6-7 km/sec ; ~4 mi/sec) S Waves (Secondary Waves) • waves move up/down, side to side • slower than P wave (~3.5 km/sec;~2 mi/sec) How does Moment-Magnitude differ from the Richter scale? The moment magnitude scale is for measuring the size of earthquakes in terms of the energy released. The expression Richter magnitude scale refers to a number of ways to assign a single number to quantify the energy contained in an earthquake. Describe the different effects of earthquakes (tsunami, liquefaction, etc.) Tsunami: A sea wave triggered by an underwater earthquake Landslides: Rock falls, slumps Liquefaction: Unconsolidated sediment becomes water saturated and flows Seiches: Water sways back and forth over enclosed body of water (lakes, swimming pools). Ground Shift: Uplift and Subsidence Is it possible to experience a tsunami, without feeling an earthquake? Explain your answer. Yes, because tsunamis can be created very far away from the coast. Understand the relationship between earthquakes and plate tectonics. Reactivation of faults at old plate boundary Old faults that have been reactivated by erosion (release of overlying pressure) Magma emplacement Future continental rift zones How are mid-plate earthquakes explained? They are earthquakes that occur far from a tectonic boundary From the video, “The Day the Earth Shook”describe the similarities and differences between the Kobe and Northridge earthquakes. Geologically, why were there more fatalities in the Kobeearthquake? How are P and S waves used to prevent additional fatalities from train accidents? What is liquefaction? Similarities: Fires, similar ground motion, problem locating epicenter, fault lines cover area, unexpected Differences: Kobe was an old city with a fault directly beneath it and Kobe was way more densely populated Seismometer used to detect earthquake and shut down trains and nuclear plants Interlude D – Seeing Inside the Earth Describe the differences between P and S waves (velocity, type of motion, ability to move through solids and liquids, etc.). What do seismic waves tell us about the earth's interior? How does the velocity of both P and S waves change as they move through the earth? As waves travel through earth layers with different properties the seismic wave velocity or direction may change What are earthquake shadow zones? What causes P wave shadow zones to form? What causes S wave shadow zones to form? P waves are able to move through solid rock and molten rock. They also travel more quickly through solid rock. S Waves are able to move through solid rock, but cannot travel through molten rock. What do seismic waves tell us about the Earth’s interior? Seismic waves tell us the density, thickness and composition of the earth's interior. + any other questions from additional videos, in-class assignments or special topics.
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