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PSY 230 01152015 Qhapter Introduction to Child and AcL esgenL Development Stability vs Plasticity Stability the degree to which children maintain their same rank order in comparison to other children with respect to some characteristic Plasticity can talk about it in terms of traits Plasticity of traits the ability to change as a result of expe ence Neuroplasticity brain plasticity 0 When it is subject to damage does it have the ability to recover o The ability to recover from damage 0 Ability of the brain to reorganize neural pathways 0 Research shows that there are new areas where new brain cells are regenerated If damage occurs to a particular area the brain has the ability to reorganize the neural pathway and new synapses are formed to recover from that damage Someone with a stroke is able to recover because new synapses are formed a The brain is plastic and can recover from damage a The younger you are when the damage occurs the more plastic your brain is n It also depends on the age and time of the damage the severity and the duration of the damage and the type of damage Phenotype plasticity the ability of one genotype to produce more than one phenotype o A genotype is what your genetic code says and a phenotype is what gets expressed 0 Anything that is speci cally genetic and has no in uence from the outside Eye color not monogenetic 0 Nutrition and hair color can be affected by external factors Hair color can be changed by exposure to chlorine age and environment a Example of something that has a high phenotype plasticity Intelligence has to be developed and realized How much of intelligence is inherited and how much is genetic When we say that it is stable we are implying that it is genetic There are outside in uences like health and nutrition 0 Child that is severely malnourished His brain will be affected and he will not be as intelligent as he could have been if he had gotten nourishment Intelligence is stable but there are also outside factors like social and cultural in uences The opportunities that are presented to us Con nuous propose quantitative changes 0 changes occur over time nonstage continuity theory 0 An example is height 0 The older the child the taller they are Discontinuous Proposes that development proceeds in a steplike fashion 0 The stage theories are discontinuous Qualitative changes occur from one stage to the next ls child development continuous or discontinuous It s both Locomotion develops in a discontinuous way 0 Babies don t move at all and then they crawl and walk and then run 0 Our teeth development are discontinuous 0 Babies are born and they get teeth which then fall out before new teeth come in Skeletal development is continuous 0 As children get older their bones get stronger Language is an example of continuous development Piaget is the most development psychologist of time 0 He developed the theory of cognitive development 0 Interested in how children think and he was the rst one to look at their thinking as qualitatively different from that of adults 0 One of his stages has to do with symbolic thinking 0 A young baby cannot think symbolically It develops eventually and one of the ways they begin to understand that is through play a Roleplaypretending 0 As children get towards adolescent they re able to think abstractly and hypothetically Quality of adolescent thinking Nature vs Nurture The extremes are called empiricism and nativism Empiricism is 0 all nurture 0 Total plasticity and an in nite ability to change our mind and our behavior 0 Behaviorism is linked with empiricism We are born tabula rosa and everything we become is learnt Nativism is 0 all nature 0 Holds that behaviors is programmed into the brain and inherited 0 Infant core knowledge and Chomsky s language theory are nativism lnteractionism both nature and nurture interact to produce development Epigenisis takes interaction a bit further 0 Not only do they interact but our genetics changes based on our environment 0 All development is the produce of epigensis DNA is the material where your genetic code is listed 0 Located in your chromosomes in every single cell of your body The epigneome states there is more to it that just DNA and genetics 0 The DNA is in uenced by the environment Epigenetics Methyl groups are chemicals that tag FNA and they can dictate which genes are inactive and which ones get activated 0 The DNA is wrapped around histones and those are the genes that are inactive When it is loosely wrapped around genes those genes are activated 0 Other molecules can attach to histone tails to unwind them The epigneome is exible and can be in uenced by the environment ExperienceExpectant vs ExperienceDependent Abilities Experienceexpectant processes are those that all members of a species will learn to do The brain is hardwired to expect certain stimuli in order for the skill to develop 0 Your ability to see depends on your exposure to light 0 When you are a baby you have to be exposed to light in order to see A different type of ability is experiencedependent process 0 All members of a species do not develop experiencedependent abilities The development of abilities depends on experience 0 Areas that are not used will wither and die 0 Ability to speak a language is experience dependent Not everyone will learn it but those who are exposed to it will learn Sensitive and Critical Period A sensitive period is a bit longer than critical period The critical period for language development is during early childhood o It becomes harder to learn languages as you grow older 0 Prenatal development rst trimester is when the embryo or fetus is most susceptible to toxins and environmental factors We re talking about a window of opportunity for growth The growth of an organism is most susceptible to harm Lickliter 1990 looked at bobwhite quail hatchlings A fetus can hear and that ability develops prenatally Vision does not develop till after birth Quails imprint on their mothers is by the sound of the voice and they recognize them right away 0 One of the theories for recognition is that they heard it before they hatched o Lickliter wanted to know what would happen if you exposed hatchlings to visual stimulation before they were born He removed part of the eggshell of the experimental group and exposed them to light The other part wasn t exposed to light He found that the chicks that had been given visual stimulation could see much better than the other group but they couldn t recognize the voice of their mother lmplies that during development is when there is a certain time for some things to develop and the reason why we don t develop vision prenatally is because we need to develop hearing By exposing the hatchlings to visual stimulation their auditory development was hampered Lesson to learn is that earlier experience is not always important How can this be applied to the development of children That earlier experience isn t always important 0 Children who are doing certain types of activities can actually damage or hurt their environment and can stunt their growth 0 A childbaby won t do something before they are ready How can this process be applied to cognitive development 0 Some parents think they they are helping their child by pushing their child to learn certain skills before they are ready 0 Earlier is not necessarily better 0 Keeping a child home when he should be out playing and you try to teach him how to read you may be hurting their development The First Years Fallacy In the 1980 s there was research that looked at the brain development They determined that critical period for brain development is age 03 You need to expose your baby to as much stimulation as possible if you want them to do well Recommendations were made 0 Early literacy letter knowledge word recognition 0 Early math numbers and operations 0 Written expression 0 Motivation to read They put rats in stimulating vs nonstimulating environments 0 They found that stimulation made a difference in brain development 0 The research was applied to kids We know that the brain continues to develop through life and that the window is not closed 0 One of the claims made was that by the time a child is ten his brain isf ed 0 Not true Some of the research led to the head start program where they put kids in prenursery prek programs and the early thinking behind these programs was that these kids needed to be stimulated The window does not close The Importance of Play Children need to play It is theirjob and how they learn 0 It s where they develop social skills and how to behave around others 0 They learn to become more independent and how to roleplay 0 They learn things like gender roles and different interests 0 They learn coordination o By playing with objects and learning how to manipulate them they learn how the world works and how objects behave 0 They learn muscle coordination and body movements Coordination of body movements is also linked to thoughts n Both are in the cerebellum They learn to play independently and more about selfawareness and how to get their needs met Play is important for development They need to be given time to play and toys to play with Normative versus ldiographic Normative focuses on normal development Research looks at what all children have in common The idiographic looks at abnormal child development and atypical development 0 What makes this child different from this child One of the main sources is cultural differences SocioCultural In uences You have to look at the family environment heritage ethnicity language customs etc All of these things in uence development What might be adaptive in one culture might be maladaptive in another culture Cross cultural research is geared towards understanding what are the things that are true for all children regardless of the culture that they live in Huge body of research that focuses speci cally on this issue Resilience vs maladaptive development 0 How can a children that is brought up in a bad environment do well 0 Relationship is a protective factor 0 A child would need a solid relationship and stable factor Severe Adversity in Early Childhood There is a lot of research that says that even children that are brought up in bad environments when they are brought into good homes they do really well There is other research that is unclear and indicates that the damage is irreversible Children brought up in severe environments develop mental retardation So what is the difference between the environments and how the children do o It depends on o The timing of deprivation the age of the child 0 The type of maltreatment of abuse sexual neglect o The duration The severity The Childs individual factors and subjective interpretation Opportunities and resources provided to the child The speci c outcomes OOOO Wm Behaviorism The classic behaviorists are Skinner Pavlov and Watson Behavior theory believes that everything that a child becomes is learnt from the environment 0 Very little focus on genetics and cognition and what s going on behind the scenes 0 The focus was on observable and observable behavior There are two different theories 0 Classical Conditioning stimulus and response 0 Pavlov s Dog Pavlov believed that our behavioral responses are learnt Unconditioned stimulus and food Pavlov paired a conditioned stimulus ringing of bell and unconditioned stimulus food and used it on dogs 0 Little Albert Whenever Little Albert was shown an animal and a loud noise was sounded the boy learnt how to be scared Unethical study Watson had every intention of deconditioning Little Albert but he moved away and never got the opportunity Radical Behaviorism Operant Conditioning the theory developed by Skinner 0 Did the most in uential work and is called a radical behaviorist o Believed that all behavior is learnt and that you should be able to observe o Focuses on reward and punishment Negative or positive reinforcement You are increasing the behavior You are decreasing the behavior by positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement is when you increase the behavior by taking something away Skinner believed that reinforcement worked way better than punishment n One of the main reasons is that when you punish a child the idea is for the child to learn a Providing reinforcement gives rewards and motivations for that behavior a Using punishment shows how to avoid the punishment 0 They learn how to avoid not the intended lesson I The Skinner box had a lever that could be pressed and delivered a reward For animals mainly rat Rat learnt how to press the level to get a reward Measured their response rate 0 Some boxes gave punishment for wrong things Skinner In uence Developed a teaching device that would ask questions and reward the right answer He also observed how children are active learners and in what environments do children learn best 0 Children are not passive learners they learn best by participation and being active Believed that children needed to be motivated to learn by providing them with rewards o Opportunity to move on to the next lesson There are a few reasons that teachers fail They use aversive techniques 0 Rely on telling and explaining 0 Failing to adapt learning tasks to the students learning level 0 Failing to provide positive reinforcement Applied Behavior Analys It s a relatively new techniqueapproach primarily used for treating children with forms of autism and behavioral problems It teaches them new responses and elimination of negative problems The analysis part of it is the teachersprofessionals that are trained in ABA o Constantly charting and plotting the techniques and successfailure Speci c and individualized for each child Social Learning Theory Albert Bandura Social learning and cognitive theory As his social theory developed he added a cognitive theory on top of that Bobo doll experiments 0 The children in his experiments viewed either an aggressive or a nonaggressive role model same or different sex Nonaggressive role model was interaction with the doll while the aggressive role model was hitting and punching Children were put in room and their behavior was observed 0 Were children who had the aggressive role model picking up to be aggressive as well 0 Children need conditioning for behavior 0 He noted that when the children had the aggressive role model they were aggressive 0 He also noted that the male children were more aggressive than the females 0 Children of both sexes were more likely to imitate a male role model Women are supposed to be more nurturing and not as aggressive more of a time period thing It was much more common for the father to be the disciplinarian Males are taller bigger stronger and have deeper voices Therefore a male looks and sounds more like an authority gure than a female n Explains why the children imitated that behavior 0 The children picked up on their environment and subconsciously picked up on that ldea that children learn through observation and that no reinforcement is needed 0 We can learn from observance Transference of learning 0 Children imitated the behavior that they saw and learnt more novel ways of being aggressive Information Processing Theories These are different theories than the learning theories 0 Looks at cognition and what s going on behind the scenes Asks questions like what behavior children are engaging in and how do children learn to think on their own 0 How does thinking develop and our ability to process develop The mind and the computer 0 The only way that humans receive information are through 0 The ve senses Theory says that information comes in the person processes it and then the information is either stored or discarded Stored information can be accessed at a later time Automatic vs effortful processing 0 Some of our processing doesn t involve any effort comes naturally Effortful processing takes a lot of control and a lot of effort Things fall in between the spectrum of effortful and automatic Something that is effortful can become automatic 0 Learning how to drive a car Serial vs parallel processing 0 Use the analogy of a computer 0 Things are processed one at a time 0 Parallel processing means that things can be processed at the same time 0 Being able to drive and interact with someone at the same time or being able to drive and text 0 Serial processing means that things are processed one at a time Limited Capacity 0 No matter how good you get at something there is a point where you can no longer process something or use any more effort than you are using 0 Think about the concept of multitasking 0 You re not really doing more than one thing at the same time Standard Model of Memory Atkinson and Shiffrin s came up with sensory memory STM and LTM Sensory memory refers to information that comes in and is stored for a fraction of a second 0 If you pay attention to it it becomes a part of your STM STM is where your memory is and where your thoughts are at that time 0 Sometimes things move from STM to your LTM 0 Not everything in STM gets stored there The things that are stored in LTM might or might not be accessible in the future Theory of Cognitive Development Jean Piaget 0 Interested in how children think Looked at the children themselves o How children knew stuff and how they knew it o How was their thinking uniquedifferent from that of adults 0 Children know less things than adults and also know it in a different way His theory evolved from his researchwork which had his own children as subjects 0 Observed the thinking processes of his own kids His theories were stage theories and he discovered four different stages of cognitive development Sensory motor stage birth to age 2 the infants intelligence is limited to their sensory and motor experiences 0 Receive information from senses and react with environment Preoperational 2 6 years old children develop language and use it to express intelligence and themselves 0 Intelligence is symbolic as is language 0 Words are used to stand for things and objects and concepts 0 Children in this stage start to use objects as pretend Le a broom is a guitar symbolism a developing their cognitive ability in being able to use symbolism Concrete operations 6 11 years old intelligence is logical o A child is going to start understanding logic 0 Filling different shapes with the same amount of liquid and asking which one is more 0 Formal operations 11 16 years is when children learn how to think in the abstract and hypothetically 0 It s not just logical but t s also what could be Piaget believed that there was an underlying continuity Freud39s Psychosexual Development Freud claimed that children have repressed sexual desire for their parents of the opposite sex and have resentment towards the parent of the same sex The boy will want to avoid his father and obtainmarry his mother Oedipus complex ID drives superego logical and morality and ego reason Freud is the father of psychoanalysis Said that people repress things which show up later on in life Before Freud mentally ill people were basically put in strait jackets and were put in ice water and were given lobotomies He was the first one to approach the problem in a human way Developed psychoanalysis which stated that people were mentally ill because they were repressing traumatic thoughts Most of our therapy techniques have evolved from Freud and his techniques He is also responsible for the defense mechanisms 12 persons coping technique and also for dreams our dreams are our unconscious working things out He was overly focused on sexuality and was also addicted to many things 0 He apparently didn t understand women and called them the dark continent Claimed women were envious of men because they didn t have penises He didn t like to be challenged and was stubborn He also developed the ve stages of child development all sexual 0 Oral Anal Phallic Latency and Genital He focused on sex as the source of pleasure Oral phase birth to 18 months the child is focused on oral pleasure ie sucking o If children weren t given the appropriate amount would get an oral xation of having something in their mouth smoking eating nail biting Anal phase 18 months to three years the phase where the child becomes potty trained and the focus of pleasure is on eliminating and retaining feces 0 Children need to learn this ability Freud saw it as a source of pleasure 0 Children could become anal retentive and anal expulsive ie Anal retentive for people who are were picky and 0CD like and anal expulsive for messy and disorganized people Phallic three to six years pleasure zone is focused in the genitals Oedipus and Electra complex Latency six to puberty sexual urges quieted down and it became a time for social development Genital puberty on sexual urges return and we become interested in people of the opposite sex Erikson39s Psychosocial Theory His theory of development took everything a step further His focus was on psychosocial development and not the sexual focus 0 His focus was on the persons identity and their role in society 0 Personality develops through a lifetime His theory looks into adulthood He had eight stages and he believed that in each stage we have a particular crisis to overcome Some people get stuck in an age and the earlier you get stuck in an age the worse off you are 0 You can go back later and go back and x the crisis and the mistake made Refer to the ppt for the different stages In infancy the baby is born and it relies completely on someone else to keep it alive and warm Learns by either having its needs met or not met The next stage is autonomy vs shame and doubt which refers to things like potty training and selfmaintenance Getting stuck in that age leads to the child becoming shameful During adolescence is when identity comes into play ie who am I what do I want to become and so forth Vygotsky CulturalHistorical Psychology Russian psychologist that did some important work He was interested in how the child is shaped by social forces His theory is called culturalhistorical How does the society in uence child 0 How do adults and teachers shape how the child develops He looked at the child in context and in school and he said that teaching and learning is tied to what is valued in the culture 0 Will learn what to think about based on the culture in which they are raised The way that a child develops in one culture is different from the way he would develop in another culture 0 Culture shapes a child s thinking Zone of proximal development 0 A child alone inside circle is what the child can develop by themselves 0 The larger circle is the zone which is what the child can accomplish with help from someone If you go outside the zone or are too far away from what the children can accomplish alone you are working beyond the child 0 The idea is to know what the child can do without help and where the zone is The concept of scaffolding is similar and is giving help to the child as they are learning and then backing off as they become adept at it 0 Think of it kind of like a puzzle 0 You do it with them ie developing strategies before you back off Brofenbrenner39s Ecological System Theory He said that development is the result of continuous and progressive interaction between an active and changing child and environment Microsystem interacts directly with the child family school neighborhood children Mesosystem microsystems interact with each other the child s friends interact with the child s family the family interacts with the school Exosystem interacts with the microsystems extended family mass media social services workplace in uence is indirect Eg how the parents workplace in uences the child Macrosystem broader culture government ethnicity SES Chronosystem says that everything changes over time ie the systems change over time which affects the child Human Evolution Evolution the process of change in gene frequencies within populations over many generations Adaptation and natural selection Assumes more members of a species are born than will survive and reproduce Conditions in the environment cause some members to survive others not Inherited traits of survivors are passed on Over time produces new species It is likely that in a million years another species will evolve from humans that is more intelligent and more adaptable Why are we talking about evolution 0 Because we talk about how traits are evolving Just like traits behavior also evolves as does intelligence What makes us human and how is it that we are able to think 0 We refer to evolution to help us look at that process In the other theories that we ve talked about we ve talked about the how The evolutionary theory answers the how and the why o It improves our chances of survival or our chances of reproductions Evolutionary psychology helps us understand how our genetics interact with our environment and how our species has evolved over time Example the ability to think symbolically is necessary to learn about language which is a unique quality in humans How is language adaptive o It allows us to communicate and increases our chances of survival and reproduction Chapter 3 Genetics I Mendelian Inheritance Mendel studied pea plants and recorded their traits Looked at the different traits ie height and color and observed that when you breed a yellow pea with a green pea the offspring was always yellow Breeding of the yellow pea with other yellow peas led to the development of green peas Came up with the concept of dominant and recessive Described two laws Law of segregation for each trait there are two elements of heredity one from maternal plant one from paternal plant accurate Law of independent assortment believed all traits are inherited independently not exactly accurate 0 Most of our traits are polygenetic Punnett Square A way of visually representing the probability of genetics in offspring Gene cs DNA double helix is this material that is found in the chromosomes of every cell in our body The same set of code is found in the nucleus of every single cell in our body It contains the genetic code which is a combination of four bases 0 Adenosine Thiamine Guanine and Cytosine The code determines who we are and what we look like The code is made up of combinations of these bases A chromosome is where the DNA is located 0 We have 46 chromosomes 23 pairs in all of our cells 0 22 pairs are autosomes chromosomes that make up our body and 1 pair of sex chromosomes XX or XY Genes are basically segments of DNA 0 Some of them are very long while some are very short segments o It tells the body what kind of protein to make 0 Proteins are the building blocks of growth and development Skin hair etc The genetic code is telling the body what kind of proteins to make and when and where and how Human Genome Project An effort that came to in the 1990 s The purpose of this project is to Analyze the function of genes and proteins 0 To determine differences in the genetic makeup of individuals 0 For gene therapy and genetic research to cure disease The ndings are still unclear and our human genome has 32 billion base pairs and 20500 genes We have noncoding DNA 0 Genes make up only 2 of the genome o The rest of it is junk DNA 0 Composed of things that we no longer have and ancient viruses that we were exposed to vestigial organs that we no longeruse We have the genetic code for gills and so forth 0 Hox genes and gap genes Basically instruction genes that tell other genes when to turn on and where to turn on Genotype and Phenotype Genotype is basically the genetic code 0 For blue eyes the genetic code is bb For blue eyes B is dominant and any pair with a B in it will have brown eyes Codominant Refers to blood type ie A B AB and O Polygenetic inheritance 0 Most traits are multigenetic If you have genes in addition to other genes you have the trait eg hair color eye color skin color Epigenetic Most traits are multifactorial In uenced by genetics and the environment Heritability The extent to which differences in any trait are attributable to inher ance Most traits are not only in uenced by genetics Family studies were used to determine correlations ie twins raised together raised apart siblings raised together etc A formula is used to calculate heritability Factor ranges from 0 to 1 0 Correlation of identical twins is taken and the correlation of non identical traits is taken and subtracted and then multiplied by 2 o H r identical twins r nonidentical twins x 2 Heritability is a population statistic Genetic Disorders Genetic disorders a disease caused by a change in the normal DNA sequence or a mutation Monogenetic disorders involve the inheritance of a mutated disease causing gene 0 Dominant such as Huntington s disease requires inheritance from only one parent Recessive such as sickle cell disease cystic brosis and TaySachs disease requires inheritance from both parents Multifactorial inheritance disorders 0 A combination of inherited variations in genes often acting together with environmental factors 0 Heart disease diabetes and most cancers SickleCell Anemia Sickle cell anemia monogenetic recessive inheritance Sickle cell anemia need to have it from both parents to have the disease Sickle cell trait Sickle cell anemia is a codominant genetic disorder 0 If you have the mutation from one parent and the gene for a normal RBC from another parent you have a combination 0 Le you have the trait but not a full blown disorder Codominance both alleles are expressed in the heterozygous condition Carriers have both round and sickle shaped cells The disease have a survival advantage Sickle cells are protective against malaria Occurs most commonly in tropical and subSaharan populations where malaria is common SexLinked Inheritance Sexlinked inheritance Traits that are inherited through the sex chromosomes 0 Usually inherited on the X chromosome 0 Can be dominant or recessive usually recessive Xlinked inheritance o Phenotype more common in males 0 Women must inherit two recessive genes to be affected 0 Men who inherit one recessive gene are affected 0 Examples color blind hemophilia If the dad is color blind then a girl can be colorblind A father cannot pass color blindness to his son 0 Much more common in males than it is in females Chromosomal Abnormalities The most common chromosomal abnormality is down syndrome 0 Extra chromosome on the 21st pair 0 Also known as trisomy 21 0 They have distinctive facial features and intellectual impairments o The risk increases with the age of the mother Autosomal Abnormalities Prader Willi can occur in males and females Chromosome 15 from the father Some of the genes don t work Distinctive facial features narrow temples elongated face thin upper lip prominent nose Other features cognitive impairment short stature incomplete sexual development small hands and feet problem behavior always hungry XChromosomal Abnormalities Turner syndrome is an XO which means that there is only one X chromosome and the other is either partially there or missing Distinctive features neck webbing short stature droopy eyes low hairlines no puberty speci c cognitive impairment in spatial and math associated health problems The most common feature is webbing of the neck Fragile X can occur in boys and girls Caused by a repeat in a genetic sequence on the X chromosome Distinctive features intellectual impairment behavioral problems some physical features large ears autistic behaviors like stereotypic movement and social anxiety One of the known genetic causes of autism 15 50 of fragile X get diagnosed with autism YChromosomal Abnormalities Klinefelter s which is XXY Pretty common in males These individuals are considered genetically male 0 Phenotype is female or intersex With intersex the sex is ambiguous 0 Some parts that are male ad some parts that are female 0 Lot of things that cause intersex XYY Syndrome o The phenotype is normal 0 Most people do not know they have it 0 They may have accelerated growth and may be taller than average Chapter 3 Prenatal Development Fertilization Sperm Created by the tests and carries genetic code from the father 0 Smallest cell in the human body Ovum Created by the ovaries and carries the genetic code from the mother 0 Largest cell in the human body Fertilization takes place in the fallopian tubes 0 One sperm fertilizes one ovum Germinal phase begins Zygote 0 Single cell joined sperm and egg Begins travel to uterus Prenatal Develonment There are three stages of prenatal development 0 Germinal Period 12 weeks 0 Embryonic Period 28 weeks 0 Fetal Period 29 months 9 38 weeks Twins 0 Monozygotic twins 0 Early in cell division 0 Separates into two unique clusters 0 100 genetically similar 0 Dizygotic twins 0 Two eggs are fertilized by two sperms 0 50 genetically similar 0 Germinal Period Days 1 14 In looking at the sex of the baby the sperm determines the sex It has either an X or a K Cell differentiation occurs on day 4 0 Every single cell has the same set of genes o In some cells the genes get activated to become other cells 0 What helps a single celled organism turn into a baby Blastocyst is when the cells move to the outside and a hollow sphere is made 0 The blastocyst hatches out of its membrane and this is reminiscent of hatching The membrane protecting it is hatched and the outer membrane is soft and ready for implantation Part of the cells of the blastocyst will become the placenta 0 Will integrate with the lining of the uterus Placenta made up of mom s cells and the baby s cells Blastocyst Phase In the blastocyst phase the zygote forms into a hollow sphere and the inner cells become an embryo and the outer cells become the placenta The phase ends at implantation Organogenes The embryonic stage is from weeks three to eight The germinal period is from fertilization to implantation The main thing that happens is the generation of the organs organogenesis The outer layer of the blastocyst becomes the ears the nervous system the eyes and the skin Embryonic Period Weeks 3 8 Refer to the ppt for the breakdown At the end of the embryonic period the embryo is now called a fetus There is also a yolk sac provides nutrients that dries up leaving the fetus dependent on the placenta Placenta Fetomaternal organ 0 The fetal placenta which develops from the blastocyst The maternal placenta that developed from the uterus Func ons 0 Provide nutrients Waste elimination Gas exchange It also lters against infections toxins some can get through 0 Also allows the passage of the mothers antibodies so that it has immunities once it is born It also produces hormones to support the pregnancy Fetal Periods Weeks 9 38 Primary focus is growth and sensory development All the organ systems have already been created by week 12 fetal penod You can differentiate between the male and female genitals Week 16 is when sex differences are de nitive even then a mistake can be made A speci c gene called SRY triggers the development of male sex organs 0 Absence of the gene leads to the development of female sex organs Quickening is when the baby moves Week 22 24 is the age of viability It means that the baby can survive if it was born at that time 0 While the baby might survive being born at that time period there are developmental risks and cognitive problems that may be encountered Weeks 24 38 is when the fetus is growing 0 Everything has been made 0 The only things that are left to develop are the lungs o The lungs aren t developed in a premature birth and it can be difficult for the baby to breathe Means there isn t enough oxygen circulating which can cause brain damage About 24 weeks the fetus can hear and taste 0 They hiccup yawn and suck their thumbs S39gns of Labor The fetus releases hormones that signal birth 0 When the lungs are mature production of progesterone decreases The placenta releases oxytocin which stimulates contractions which is what gets the labor going Braxtonhicks contractions indicate false labor 0 True labor is indicated by contractions that are more frequent and closer together Having your water break can also indicate labor 0 The amniotic sac breaks and the water comes out o Kind of like a slow trickle After the sac breaks labor is sped up The other thing that can happen that is an indication of labor is the loss of a mucus plug 0 The cervix has a little opening into the womb and there is mucus thick coating that protects the womb and keeps stuff from going in and contaminating When it separates and comes out it s a thick and bloody mask 0 That the cervix is starting to thin and efface Birthing options are natural and cesarean Sometimes a Csection has to be performed for medical reasons There are bene ts to having a natural birth 0 Once the baby is born they need to take their rst breaths 0 When they take their rst breath the lungs are lled with air instead of uid One of the most common reason for a Csection is placenta previa which is that the placenta is in the way of the cervix keeping the baby from being born Lying down is not the best position 0 Lot of women sit and squat and use gravity to help the baby be born Water birth is somewhat debatable as to whether or not it is bene cial to give birth in a pool or a tub It s suppose to be less traumatic for the baby 0 Go into the water breathe in water and then take their rst breath o The argument is that breathing in water that isn t amniotic uid can introduce germs that will affect the baby s birth 0 Women who have water births are more likely to birth at home 0 If there are any medical complications you can t be rushed off to the OR 0 Higher risk There are assistances to help out with birth 0 A midwife someone who has experience with births or a doula similar to a midwife but more of a coach they re there for support throughout the labor process The use of anesthesia in he form of an epidural Some women chose to not have any anesthesia Labor Stage 1 Labor is divided into three stages The rst stage has three phases Latent phase the contractions are increasing and gaining regularity o The cervix effaces and opens up dilate o It can last from a couple of hours to days 0 Active phase 0 The cervix does most of the dilation 8 9 cm 0 Baby is delivered at 10cm 0 Lasts a few hours 0 Transition phase is full dilation 0 Baby moves into the birth canal Delivery The second stage is when the baby crowns and is delivered o It can take several cycles of push and rest before the baby is born The third stage is the passage or the expulsion of the placenta o The placenta is still inside and the umbilical cord is still attached 0 The placenta gets passed around half an hour later The vernix caseosa acts as a moisturizer and protects the baby Fontanelles is the soft spot on the head of the baby 0 The skull is made up of ve bony plates 0 These plates are not fused together yet and part of the reason is that the head needs to t through the canal o The head gets smushed 0 There are spaces between the plates to allow for the pushing o The brain grows rapidly after the baby is born and the fontanelles allows the brain to grow rapidly without reaching the limit of the skull Around 18 months the plates have fused together and there is no more soft spot 0 The largest soft spot is in the front and is shaped like a diamond o If there is a depression it could mean that the baby is sick or dehydrated o Encephalitis swelling of the brain and meningitis will cause the fontanelles to protrude
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