GVNT - final notes and review
GVNT - final notes and review P SC 1113 030
Collin County Community College District
Popular in American Federal Government
P SC 1113 030
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Political Science
P SC 1113
verified elite notetaker
This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by elzbietaag on Sunday December 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to P SC 1113 030 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr. Tyler Johnson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see American Federal Government in Political Science at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 12/13/15
iew American Federal Government Final Exam Review Presidential power Accomplishing legislative goals One: building coalitions through elections Help get people into office (coattails) Coattails: being able to draw people out to get them to vote and then they could vote for others while they’re voting for one person Presidents also make efforts at the midterm Go public to mobilize voters Two: leading the party Co-partisans reluctant to embarrass president We say president has “strategic position” as party leader Constantly reinforce shared policy goals Deputize leaders in congress to keep party members in line Leadership pursuit Some leaders are loyal Michel: “servant of the president” He called himself that Baker: “President’s spear carrier” Rayburn: “haven’t served under any presidents, but I’ve served with several” Dealing with opposition strategy Constructive opposition (proposes alternatives) Obstructionism (defeat president without own ideas) How can we block anything that the president wants to do? Who would you say the leader of the Republican Party is right now? House Speaker Paul Ryan Donald Trump?? Three: using personal support Congress might respond when they fear public backlash Popular presidents may get a small boost in success rates Success: “at the margins” according to George Edwards 10 points of approval = 2% of legislative success Four: treat successful elections as mandates Mandate: authority granted by voters to act Their election is a signal and congress should stand behind them Presidents: portray elections as messages The message: voters want what winner proposed Directive: enact the winner’s ideas Using the mandate President tries to convince congress mandate exists Studies show: Congress enters “mandate state” Power of mandate dissipates though, and quickly As such: pressure of “first 100 days” (honeymoon period) Act when election outcome is still fresh in minds Mandates: claimed no matter what the outcome Famous mandates 1964: Johnson (Great Society, Civil Rights) 1968: Nixon (Vietnam, crime) 1980: Reagan (international vision) 1992: Clinton (economics and health care) Wildly unsuccessful when it came to health care What sort of signals did Obama’s election send regarding what the public wanted? Did his re-election send any signals? “He shall from time to time” Article 2, section 3 “He shall from time to time give to congress info of the state of the union and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient.” State of The State of the Union Once written, now delivered very publicly Full of ceremonial flourishes “The state if the union is strong” Use of “Lenny Skutniks” to illustrate points about America/accomplishments After its over: opposition responds Bureaucratic Power; Supreme Court Nominees Bureaucracy and Muckraking Why bureaucracy? Congress doesn’t have time, expertise, ability to do everything Agencies created with clear purposes, given authority to make policy decisions Congress gives genera; guidelines, bureaucracy works out the detail Executing these guidelines: implementation Holding bureaucrats accountable President: appoint and remove heads, reorganize Congress: abolish programs, refuse to fund, investigate, compel testimony, write legislation to limit action Court: rule if bureaucrats are acting within law, if decisions are constitutional In general: this is oversight Two Oversight Strategies Police patrols: regularly checking in on bureaucrats Think of a policeman walking a beat and hitting the same spots at regular intervals Fire alarms: only checking in when something goes wrong Think of firemen waiting in a firehouse for a fire and jumping into action when they get the call Media investigation as oversight Write stories to gain a public reaction Write stories to appeal to elites Work with elites to create awareness A history of muckraking Origins lie in early 1900s Key: shift in journalism meant independent, fact-based investigation, not sensationalized and partial Primarily in magazines (e.g. McClure’s) at the time; allowed for long form approach and made magazines stand out Major stories: exposing business conditions, corruption in government Results: breakdown of corporations, new laws to protect citizens, new strategies of campaigning Journalism in the 20 century: full of major muckrakers (Carson and pesticides, Nader and automobiles, Woodward/Bernstein and Watergate) The question What are some modern (i.e. in the last 10 years) examples of muckraking? VW stretching the truth about their cars The simple muckraking model (5 step model) Journalistic investigation Publication Public opinion Policy initiatives Policy consequences Variations Leaping impact: when we see a step skipped Truncated: when we see a breakdown in the model Supreme court nominations and knowledge Supreme Court Nominations June 27, 1992 Supreme Court issues surprising 5-4 decision in Planned Parenthood vs. Casey Result: Roe vs. Wade upheld, abortion remains a right Why the surprise? 2 Reagan nominees voted to uphold Roe Nominating Supreme Court justices: an important presidential duty Takeaway: also a difficult duty Nominating Justices A way for presidents to leave a lasting legacy The dilemma: selecting a nominee that can be confirmed The fear: high profile rejection leaves its mark Tension between focusing on the legacy and the here and now Bork: an example of considering the legacy When he failed, Anthony Kennedy an example of considering the here and now The end result: Kennedy voted to uphold Roe (so too did Sandra Day O’Connor) What qualifications should we want from someone who serves on the Supreme Court? Experienced Has a philosophy Law school? Paths to the bench All modern justices have law degrees Virtually all today have judicial experience Many from federal courts of appeals Yalof’s Variables shaping who gets nominated Timing: when during a presidency? Composition of the Senate Public approval of the President Attributes of the outgoing justice Pool of viable candidates How might President’s decide? Open framework: open debate once a vacancy appears Single candidate framework: have an idea in your back pocket Criteria framework: know what you want from a potential justice An increasingly public process Hearings start in 1873, open to media by 1916 Since 1955, all nominees testify in front of the Senate Judiciary Committee Hearings televised since 1981 Result: have to consider who will play well on TV as well Creates forum for senators to make a name for themselves Outsiders Step In Bar associations offer council Interest groups lobby Media coverage increase (and scrutiny) Legal research databases offer further insight Supreme Court Knowledge Supreme Court nominations Rejections Prior to 1900: one quarter of nominees rejected Until 1968: rejections almost always or lack of qualifications Modern rejections: about ideology [Haynsworth (ruled in favor for segregation), Bork (was considered way too conservative)] or scandal [Carswell (had relationships with pro-segregation troublesome groups)] Some nominations never get off the ground [Ginsburg, Miers (didn’t have judicial experience)] Legal Knowledge What major cases has the Supreme Court worked on in the past few years? What decisions will we hear from the Supreme Court this term? 2015-2016 docket Affirmative action Voting How redistricting takes place Union dues Death penalty Abortion Contraception Americans and the Courts Little knowledge of the players, the decisions and their meanings Feeling that much of what courts do doesn’t affect their daily life Media coverage: should be especially important given this In a typical year: Supreme Court gets less than one hour of coverage on an average major network (CBS, NBC, ABC) The difficulties with the court Decisions tough to understand, tough to make relevant No cliff notes for their rulings Someone who doesn’t have the legal knowledge won’t understand it fully Court doesn’t help the media out (technical writing, no PR wing) Justices vary widely in public nature Not very public. They do their jobs in private with no cameras covering their hearings. Calendar driven nature of the Court leads to uneven stream of information, competition for coverage Start in October…start announcing in the spring…in the summer there can be multiple decisions released at a time Only hear about 80 cases a year Blame the media? Avoiding grappling with details of decisions Focusing on litigant, political, local reaction Are journalists equipped to understand courts? The effect of reality courts Late 1990s survey: 2 in 5 Americans said shows like these helped inform them about the legal system Same survey: 3 in 5 Americans said legal dramas had same effect Pros and Cons Pro: build trust and confidence in legal system Con: false advertising about what the judiciary looks like The CSI effect At its peak: CSI had around 30 million viewers in the US Judges: note increased juror knowledge, standards for making a case Citizens expect investigators to use sophisticated methods, have perfect evidence Reality: falls short Domestic and foreign policy Legal knowledge Should we allow cameras in courtrooms? Why or why not? If so, what restrictions should we place on these cameras? Why do we car? Legitimacy! We want people to comply with laws, rulings If we don’t know how courts work, will we accept them as legitimate? If we think courts are biased, will we accept them as legitimate? The policy process and domestic policy What arguments can be made in favor of shrinking the size of government (in terms of government workers or budget)? More people are aware of what’s going on Balancing the budget What arguments can be made in favor of expanding the size of government (in terms of government workers or budget)? Some things private sectors cant solve…the government needs to step in Might not be seeking money A growing government Expansion of government = expansion of domestic policy Covers every stage of life Often times: help for citizens who need help Before the 20 century Today: we take social services for granted Most programs: product of the 20 century Before then: no expectations Transition to social policy Society becomes urban, industrial People more interdependent People reliant on system of production Depression: a signal that hard work isn’t enough Desire for hands-off approach by government diminished, approval of safety net rises New deal policies Civil Works Administration: puts 4 million to work, but not doing anything long lasting Works Progress Administration: replaces it, considers the future Absorbs 20% of unemployed, constructs playgrounds, schools, hospitals, airfields, roads Social Security: A permanent legacy Intent: provide minimum of security Established old age insurance Also: assistance for needy, children Also: unemployment insurance Health care policy Local governments establish public health departments Deal with: sanitation, water, immunization, disease National health insurance considered as part of New Deal 1960s: Medicare (elderly) and Medicaid (poor) Today: programs like CHIP (Children’s Health Insurance Program) insure children in low-income, non-Medicaid families Social Welfare Policy Programs helping poor are less generous, often come with strings attached Examples: TANF (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families), Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Section 8 housing, school lunch programs Should the United States serve as the world’s policeman? Why or why not? Are there parts of the world you believe the United States needs to be paying more attention to or less attention to? Why? More: Africa Foreign and Domestic Policy The I’s Isolationism: put American concerns first, not interfere Internationalism/Interventionism: be actively engaged in shaping the global environment In the beginning United States is weak, on margins of the world Had resources though and industrious people Philosophy was isolationist Involved in trade Fear: Europe would try to assert itself in West Monroe Doctrine: US will oppose such attempts Modifying Monroe US becomes powerful as it expands and develops Roosevelt Corollary: we will ensure stability in our hemisphere World War 1: a test Originally neutral, but drawn in Afterward: push for multinational organization for peace falls flat World War 2 as transformative US becomes leader of most powerful coalition Also: only major power not decimated Vocabulary: Action-reaction syndrome: the principle that for every government action, there will be a reaction by the public Adjudicate: to render a judicial decision. In administrative law, it is the process in which an administrative law judge hears and decides issues that arise when an agency charges a person or firm with violating a law or regulation enforced by the agency Administrative law: the body of law created by administrative agencies (in the form of rules, regulations, orders, and decisions) in order to carry out their duties and responsibilities Agenda setting: getting an issue on the political agenda to be addressed by Congress; part of the first stage of the policymaking process Appellate court: a court having appellate jurisdiction. An appellate court normally doesn’t hear evidence or testimony but reviews the transcript of the trial courts proceedings, other records relating to the case, and attorney’s arguments as to why the trial courts decision should or shouldn’t stand. Bureaucracy: a large, complex, hierarchy structured administrative organization that carries out specific functions Bureaucrat: an individual who works in a bureaucracy. As generally used, the term refers to a government employee Case law: the rules of law announced in court decisions. Case law includes the aggregate of reported cases the interpret judicial precedents, statutes, regulations, and constitutional provisions Children’s health insurance program (CHIP): a joint federal-stage program that provides health-care insurance for low-income children Civil law: the branch of law the spells out the duties that individuals in society owe to other persons or to their governments, excluding the duty not to commit crimes Civil service: nonmilitary government employees Coalition: an alliance of nations formed to undertake a foreign policy action, particularly a military action. A coalition is often a temporary alliance that dissolves after the action is concluded Cold War: the war of words, warnings, and ideologies between the Soviet Union and the U.S. that lasted from the late 1940s through the late 1980’s Colonial empire: a group of dependent nations that are under the rule of an imperial power Common law: the body of law developed from judicial decisions in English and U.S. courts, not attributable to legislature Concurring opinion: a statement written by a judge or justice who agrees (concurs) with the courts decision, but for reasons different from those in the majority opinion Conference: in regard to the supreme court, a private meeting of the justices in which they present their arguments concerning a case under consideration Constitutional law: law based on the U.S. Constitution and the constitutions of the various states Containment: a U.S. policy designed to contain the spread of communism of offering military and economic aid to threatened nations Contempt of court: a ruling that a person has disobeyed a court order or has shown disrespect to the court or to a judicial proceeding Corporate average fuel economy (CAFÉ) standards: a set of federal standards under which each vehicle manufacturer (or the industry as a whole) must meet a miles-per-gallon benchmark averaged across all new cars or trucks Criminal law: the branch of law that defines and governs actions that constitute crimes. Generally, criminal law has to do with wrongful actions committed against society for which society demands redress. Cuban missile crisis: a nuclear standoff that occurred in 1962 when the U.S. learned that the Soviet Union had placed nuclear warheads in Cuba Détente: a French word meaning a “relaxation of tensions.” Détente characterized the relationship between the U.S. and the Soviet Union in the 1970’s as they attempted to pursue cooperative dealings and arms control Deterrence: a policy of building up military strengths for the purpose of discouraging (deterring) military attacks by other nations; the policy that supported the arms race between the U.S. and the Soviet Union during the Cold War Dissenting opinion a statement written by a judge or justice who disagrees with the majority opinion Diversity of citizenship: a basis for federal court jurisdiction over a lawsuit that arises when (1) the parties in the lawsuit live in different states or when one of the parties is a foreign government or a foreign citizen, and (2) the amount in controversy is more than $75,000 Domestic policy: public policy concerning issues within a national unit, such as national policy concerning health care or the economy Easy-money policy: a monetary policy that involves stimulating the economy by expanding the rate of growth of the money supply Economic policy: all actions taken by the national government to address ups and downs in the nations level of business activity Enabling Legislation: a law enacted by a legislature to establish an administrative agency. Enabling legislation normally specifies the name, purpose, composition and powers of the agency being created Entitlement program: a government program that provides benefits to all persons who meet specified requirements Federal open market committee (FOMC): the most important body within the federal reserve system; decides how monetary policy should be carried out Federal question: a question that pertains to the U.S. Constitution, acts of Congress, or treaties. A federal question provides a basis for federal court jurisdiction Fiscal policy: the use of changes in government expenditures and taxes to alter national economic variables Foreign policy: a systematic and general plan that guides a country’s attitudes and actions toward the rest of the world. Foreign policy includes all of the economic, military, commercial, and diplomatic positions and actions that a nation takes in its relationships with other countries. Fracking: technique for extracting oil or natural gas from underground rock by the high-power injection of a mixture of water, sand, and chemicals Global warming: an increase in the average temperature of the earths surface over the last half century and its projected continuation; referred to more generally as climate change Government Corporation: an agency of the government that is run as a business enterprise. Such agencies engage primarily in commercial activities, produce revenues, and require greater flexibility than most government agencies have. Greenhouse gas: a gas that, when released into the atmosphere, traps the sun’s heart and slows its release into outer space. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is a major example. Independent Executive Agency: a federal agency that is not located within a cabinet department Independent Regulatory Agency: a federal organization that is responsible for creating and implementing rules that regulate private activity and protect the public interest in a particular sector of the economy Individual mandate: in the context of health-care reform, a requirement that all persons obtain health-care insurance from one source or another. Those failing to do so must pay a penalty Inflation: a sustained rise in average prices; equivalent to a decline in the value of the dollar Interventionism: direct involvement by one country in another country’s affairs Iron curtain: a phrase coined by Winston Churchill to describe to describe the political boundaries between the democratic countries in Western Europe and the Soviet-controlled Communist countries in Eastern Europe Iron triangle: a three-way alliance among legislators, bureaucrats, and interest groups to make or preserve policies that benefit their respective interests ISIS: the Islamic state in Iraq and greater Syria; a terrorist organization that by 2014 had taken over substantial portions of Iraq and Syria. Also known as ISIL or the Islamic State Isolationism: a political policy of noninvolvement in world affairs Issue networks: groups of individuals or organizations – which consist of legislators and legislative staff members, interest group leaders, bureaucrats, the media, scholars, and other experts – that support particular policy positions on a given issue. Judiciary: the courts; one of the three branches of government in the U.S. Jurisdiction: the authority of a court to hear and decide a particular case Justiciable controversy: a controversy that is not hypothetical or academic but real and substantial; a requirement that must be satisfied before a court will hear a case. Keynesian economics: an economic theory proposed by British economist John Maynard Keynes that is typically associated with the use of fiscal policy to alter national economic variables Legislative rule: an administrative agency rule that carries the same weight as a statute enacted by a legislature. Marshall plan: a plan providing for U.S. economic assistant to European nations following WW2 to help those nations recover from the war. The plan was named after George C. Marshall, secretary of state from 1947 to 1949 Medicaid: a joint federal-state program that pays for health-care services for low-income persons Medicare: a federal government program that pays for health-care insurance for Americans aged sixty-five years and over. Monetary policy: actions taken by the federal reserve board to change the amount of money in circulation to affect interest rates, credit markets, the rate of inflation, the rate of economic growth, and the rate of unemployment Monroe Doctrine: A U.S. policy, announced in 1823 by President James Monroe, that the U.S. would not tolerate foreign intervention in the Western Hemisphere, and in return, the U.S. would stay out of European affairs Moral idealism: in foreign policy, the belief that the most important goal is to do what is right. Moral idealists think that it is possible for nations to cooperate as part of a rile-based community Mutually assured destruction (MAD): a phrase referring to the assumption that if the forces of two nations are cap able of destroying each other, neither nation will take a chance on war. National health insurance: a program, found in many of the world’s economically advanced nations, under which the central government provides basic health-care insurance coverage to everyone in the country Neutral competency: the application of technical skills to jobs without regard to political issues Neutrality: the position of not being aligned with either side in a dispute or conflict, such as war Normal trade relations (NTR) status: a trade status granted through an international treaty by which each member nation must treat other members at least as well as it treats the country that receives its most favorable treatment. This status was formerly known as most-favored-nation-status. Opinion: a written statement by a court expressing the reasons for its decision in a case Oral argument: a spoken argument presented to a judge in person by an attorney on behalf of her or his client Oslo accords: the first agreement signed between Israel and the PLO; led to the establishment of the Palestinian Authority in the occupied territories Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO): an organization formed in1964 to represent the Palestinian people. The PLO has a long history of terrorism but some years has functioned primarily as a political party Partisan politics: political actions or decisions that benefit a particular party Policymaking process: the procedures involved in getting an issues on the political agenda; formulating, adopting, and implementing a policy with regard to the issue; and then evaluating the results. Political realism: in foreign policy, the belief that nations are inevitably selfish and that we should to protect our national security, regardless of moral arguments Precedent: a court decision that furnishes an example of authority for deciding subsequent cases involving identical or similar facts and legal issues Primary source of law: a source of law that establishes the law. Primary sources of law include constituents, statutes, administrative agency rules and regulations, and decisions rendered by the courts Privatization: the transfer of the task of providing services traditionally provided by government to the private sector Public debt: the total amount of money that the national government owes as a result of borrowing; also called the national debt Recession: a period in which the level of economic activity falls; usually defined as two or more quarters of economic decline Renewable energy: energy from technologies that do not rely on extracted resources, such as oil and coal, that can run out Rulemaking: the process undertaken by an administrative agency when formally proposing, evaluating, and adopting a new regulation Soviet bloc: the group of eastern European nations that fell under the control of the soviet union following WW2 Standing to use: the requirement that an individual must have sufficient stake in a controversy before he or she can bring a lawsuit. The party bringing the suit must demonstrate the he or she has either been harmed or been threatened with harm Stare decisis: a common law doctrine under which judges normally are obligated to follow the precedents established by prior court decisions. Statutory law: the body of law enacted by legislatures (as opposed to constitutional, administrative, or civil law) Trial Court: a court in which trials are held and testimony is taken Unemployment: the state of not having a job even actively seeking one Weapons of mass destruction: chemical, biological, or nuclear weapons that can inflict massive casualties Whistleblower: in the context of government employment, someone who “blows the whistle” (reports to the authorities or the press) on gross governmental inefficiency, illegal action, or other wrongdoing Writ of certiorari: an order from a higher court asking a lower court for the record of a case. Review: What is deficit? What is debt? How has domestic and foreign policy evolved? What is an entitlement program? o Medicaid (poor) or Medicare (old) Nomination process o President nomination o Senate judiciary hearing o Vote goes to senate Climate policy o Global warming vs. climate change GW: average temp per year that the temp has risen CC: change in climate as a result of the rise of temps Greenhouse gas: CO 2 Monetary policy: going out and getting bonds Physical policy: how the government adjust things o Taxes o Cut spending Foreign policy o America sees itself as the super power o Review Questions: (answers at the end) 1. The power that a federal administrative agency has to make rules is conferred on it by ______ in the agency’s enabling legislation. a. The vice president b. Congress c. American Nationals d. Jurisdiction e. The president 2. Which of the following is the final stage of the policymaking process? a. Policy evaluation b. Policy implementation c. Policy adoption d. Policy formulation e. Policy execution 3. _____________ is now the federal government’s second-largest domestic spending program, after Social Security. 4. ________ is the second highest component of federal government spending after social spending. a. Economic foreign aid b. Defense c. Disability support d. Education and training e. Transportation 5. ________ are systematic and general plans that guide a country’s attitudes and actions toward the rest of the world. a. Comparative politics b. Foreign policies c. Civil affairs d. Public laws e. International strategies 6. A ___________opinion is a statement written by a justice who agrees with the Court’s decision, but for reasons different from those outlined by the majority. 7. Agenda setting is also called_________. a. Agenda evaluating b. Agenda processing c. Agenda implementing d. Agenda formulating e. Agenda building 8. The ____________ is a subagency of the Department of Energy. a. Office of Postsecondary Education b. Government National Mortgage Association c. Federal Bureau of Investigation d. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management e. Food and Drug Administration 9. _________ refers to the rules of law announced in court decisions. a. Civil law b. Statutory law c. Administrative law d. Constitutional law e. Case law 10. According to ______, for every actively undertaken by the government, there will be a response by the public. a. The action-reaction syndrome b. Keynesian economics c. The public debt theory d. The tight-money policy e. The easy-money policy 11. In the federal government, the head of the bureaucracy is ___________. a. Congress b. The Supreme Court c. The Secretary of State of the United States d. The Senate e. The President of the United States 12. __________ refers to a trade position granted through an international treaty by which each member nation must treat other members at least as well as it treats the country that receives its most favorable treatment. a. People’s Trade Treaty b. North American Free Trade Agreement c. Bilateral Investment Treaty d. Normal trade relations status e. Trade and Investment Framework Agreement 13. For a writ of certiorari to be issued, at least ________ of the nine justices must approve. a. Five b. Eight c. Four d. One e. Six 14. Which of the following is most likely to happen when a government corporation runs at a loss? a. Taxpayers are forced to foot the bill b. A private corporation is forced to buy it c. It is forced to sell shares d. Employees of the corporation are all laid off e. It is forcibly shut down and replaced by a private corporation 15. __________ is the application of technical skills to a job without regard to political issues. a. Adjuducation b. Rulemaking c. Cost-benefit analysis d. Neutral competency e. Enabling legislation 16. In regards to the Supreme Court, ______ refers to a private meeting of the justices in which they present their arguments concerning a case under consideration. a. Caucus b. Stare decisis c. Ruling d. Certiorari e. Conference 17. The attorneys involved with a case will present __________ to the Supreme Court, after which the justices discuss the case in conference. 18. Terrorist acts that are orchestrated and funded by governments are described as _______. a. Regional terrorism b. Narcoterrorism c. Foreign-aided cyberterrorism d. Political realism e. State-sponsored terrorism 19. The state of not having a job even when actively seeking one is known as ________. a. Reemployment b. Misemployment c. Underemployment d. Employment e. Unemployment 20. Because of a practice known as ___________, home-state senators of the president’s political party may be able to influence the choice of a nominee for the U.S. district court in theat state. 21. A nominee for the Supreme Court must be confirmed by a a. Majority vote in the Senate b. Two-thirds vote in the Senate c. Majority vote in the House Judiciary Committee 22. ______ was one of the framers of the Constitution who believed that it is a very dangerous doctrine to consider the judges as the ultimate arbiters of all constitutional questions. a. Alexander Hamilton b. Thomas Jefferson c. John Adams d. Benjamin Franklin e. John Marshall 23. The Department of __________ is an executive department of the federal government that grants patents and trademarks, conducts national census, and monitors the weather. a. State b. Treasury c. Interior d. Energy e. Commerce 24. To bring a case before the Supreme Court, a party may request a _________, which is an order that the Court issues to a lower court requesting that court to send it the record of the case in question. 25. Today, about half of the U.S. net public debt is owned by foreign individuals, foreign businesses, and foreign central banks. The largest debt holder is _____________. 26. The United States Supreme Court consists of ______ justices. a. Three b. Thirteen c. Nine d. Five e. Six 27. All-in-one, the three levels of government employ about _____ % of the civilian labor force. 28. Which of the following is an independent executive agency of the federal government? a. Social Security Administration b. Department of Veterans Affairs c. Department of Homeland Security d. National Labor Relations Board e. Federal Trade Commission 29. The ________ of national policies necessarily requires the cooperation of the federal government and the various state and local governments. a. Identification b. Building c. Evaluation d. Implantation e. Adoption 30. A period in which the economy stops growing altogether and undergoes a contraction is called a ____________. 31. Which among the following entities has the sole power to declare war? a. The Armed Forces b. Congress c. Judiciary d. The National Security Council e. The Department of Homeland Security 32. A discussion in the media about a problem that might have a political solution is an example of a. Policy adoption b. Policy implementation c. Issue identification 33. The danger exists of a possible future crisis in U.S. – Chinese relations over the status of ________. 34. About ____ % of national spending in the United States goes to health care. a. 4 b. 18 c. 29.5 35. Primary sources of American law include ____________. 36. The independent executive agencies a. Are businesses owned by the government b. Create and implement rules that regulate private activity and protect the public interest in a particular sector of the economy c. Are federal bureaucrats organizations that have a single function 37. ___________ is a common law doctrine under which judges normally are obligated to follow the precedents established by prior court decisions. a. Judicial restraint b. Stare decisis c. Curiae regis d. Certiorari e. Judicial review 38. The ________ was a war of words, warnings, and ideologies between the Soviet Union and the United States that lasted from the late 1940s through the late 1980s. 39. One immediate change brought about by the health-care reform bills that passed in 2010 was that young people can remain covered by their parents’ insurance until they turn a. 26 b. 21 c. 18 40. Direct involvement by one country in another country’s affairs best describes a. Political realism b. Collective security c. Interventionism Answers: 1. B. Congress 2. A. Policy evaluation 3. Medicare 4. B. Defense 5. B. Foreign Policies 6. Concurring 7. E. Agenda building 8. D. Office of civilian radioactive waste management 9. E. Case law 10. A. Action-reaction syndrome 11. E. President of the U.S. 12. B. Normal trade relations status 13. C. Four 14. A. Taxpayers are forced to foot the bill 15. D. Neutral Competency 16. E. Conference 17. Oral arguments 18. E. State-sponsored terrorism 19. E. Unemployment 20. Senatorial courtesy 21. A. Majority vote in the Senate 22. B. Thomas Jefferson 23. E. Commerce 24. Writ of Certiorari 25. The peoples republic of China 26. C. Nine 27. 16% 28. A. Social Security Administration 29. D. Implementation 30. Recession 31. B. Congress 32. C. Issue identification 33. Taiwan 34. 18% 35. Constitutions, statutes, administrative agency rules and regulations, and decisions by courts 36. C. Are federal bureaucratic organizations that have a single function 37. B. Stare Decisis 38. Cold War 39. A. 26 40. C. Interventionism
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