Music: Final Exam notes and review
Music: Final Exam notes and review MUNM 1113 003
Collin County Community College District
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by elzbietaag on Sunday December 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MUNM 1113 003 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr. Armand Ambrosini in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see The Understanding of Music in Music at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 12/13/15
Final Exam Review Claude Debussy 1862 1918 The dialogue of the wind and waves from La Mer 1910 CD4 7 Impressionism realists began as a reaction against overemotional Romanticism they were concerned primarily with the effects of light color and atmosphere Symbolism unrealistic movement began as a revolt against the realism of words in poetry Poets tended to obscure the immediate subject of their poetry by crafting elaborate metaphors or symbol 0 Literary art 0 Wanted their poetry to be musical 0 Wagner inspired this movement 0 Endlessly suggestive Debussy s in uences 1 Russian Music Nadezhda Von Meck 2 Asian Music Paris World Exposition of 1889 3 Wagner though he did not wish to imitate him Debussy s themes and motives are usually fragmentary avoiding cadences and a hard outline of form Debussy was inspired by literary and pictorial ideas His titles suggest eeting moods and atmospheres His music sounds free rhythmically exible unfolding as a kaleidoscope of colors and images shapes and patterns without any conventional symphonic design Pleasure is the low Tone Color Pentatonic scale five note scale Brief but frequent solos Whole tone scale all whole steps Strings and woodwinds prominent Chromatic scale all half steps Parallel chords and extended chords Octatonic scale alternatives whole and half steps Church modes Extra notes 0 Normally choose pastel colors instead of hard colors when painting 0 Page 265 painting was from 1874 0 Monet much preferred realist 0 He didn t like the new language 0 Page 262 0 Impressionist Music after the Second World War Universities and Avant Garde advanced guard Music John Cage 1912 1992 Music of Changes 1951 CD5 2 Indeterminacy refers to works in which some important element or elements are left to chance Sometimes chance stems from simply letting things happen while other times as in our musical example indeterminacy is achieved by letting some system of choosing other than the composer s wishes dictate the outcome Here Cage s desires combine with chance making the work sound quite random but in fat it is meticulously notates in the score He consulted an ancient book of divination called the I Ching Book of changes It calls on him to cast sticks and toss coins in order to discover what pages to read in order to find wisdom concerning some problems or concern Cage made matrices of musical events cast the sticks and coins and consulted his matrices in order to know what event should happen next in his piece He also established rules for the change over time of the matrices themselves Cage feels that music is an activity rather than a thing an activity of listening Extra Notes 0 Hitler based everything off pseudoscience 0 This whole war was based on emotion 0 Banned all atonal music 0 America witnessed Britain losing the war 0 Churchill asked FDR America to join the war and help them out 0 Churchill was forced to give up his colonies in order for America to join the war 0 Hitler then declared war on America since he heard America joined forces 0 6 million Jews were killed in concentration camps 5 million other people gypsies homosexuals religious minorities the disabled etc 50 million vets 45 million civilians 0 Bomb ended the war or did it 0 Then came the Cold War 0 Stalin killed an estimated 20 million Russians on his rise to power George Crumb b 1929 Black Angels Scenes 6 and 7 from Part 2 CD 5 6 This work falls into three parts Departure fall from grace Absence spiritual annihilation and Return redemption Surrealistic Landscape a journey into the dark land of human con ict Quasi Programmatic Allusions such as God versus Devil serves his purposes as symbolic of con ict rather than a literal program for the piece although the essential polarity implies more than a purely metaphysical reality Musical Quotation to serve as talismans of opposing forces at work in this piece Crumb quotes earlier works to sound as echoes of ancient music ie Schubert s Death and the Maiden the Medieval chant from the Requiem Mass Dies Irae Bernard Hermann s score for the film psycho Other musical symbolism includes use of the triton devils interval the devils trill and the violin as the devils instrument which he uses to seduce the innocent to corruption Famous quotations can bridge the sap between traditional audiences and the advent grande Extended string techniques tone point images of swarming insects frequently encountered in jungle terrain with ob vious inferences to Biblical plaques which are divine in nature Insects may also be appreciated as a manifestation of unspoiled creation possessing the quality of being natural Strings are asked to bow their strings near the tuning pegs to stimulate an ancient consort of viols In addition to playing their instruments they are asked to vocalize and play maracas tom toms or water tuned crystal goblets that are bowed to create an ethical timbre Numerical Svmbolism numbers figure prominently in musical compositions Here Grumb uses symbolically powerful numbers for tones durations patterns of reputation and so forth hoping to draw upon their extra musical significance though these associations can be difficult to hear there are others made vivid For example the ominous number 13 is ritualistically shouted in Japanese Russian and Swahili Traditional Music Classifications Bruno Nettl 1960s Classical Traditional Popular Jazz classical the history of jazz ows out of many traditions including ragtime the blues the improvised music of African Americans in the decades following emancipation spirituals and the various music of W Africa as remembered by the men and women who came to this country from there RagTimes is a classical or concert music as it benefitted from the participation and contributions of several composers with excellent classical timing It was notated and published leading to widespread performance and real popularity Many jazz musicians used them as a framework for their improvisatory performances Scott Toplin 1868 1917 Maple Leaf Rag Characteristics use of syncopation he calls for accented notes on the off beats a jaunty march tempo usually tonal plan homophonic texture and a striding bass line The form of this piece is basically binary form A B Aabba ccdd The Advent of Jazz on Record Louis Armstrong 1901 1971 and his hot five Lilian Hardin composer of this work pianist in the group and Louis second wife Hotter than that These recording features four renditions of the song each called a chorus each a distinct texture Big Band Jazz an ensemble of fairly large scale including several trumpets trombones saxophones clarinets a pianist a drummer and a bass player needed in order for the music to be heard in the fair reaches of the dance oor It also required an arranger to keep things together Duke Ellington 1899 1974 Ko Ko 1940 CD5 9 Pianistcomposerarranger Avant Garde Jazz after WW2 Be Bop has been called a warrior culture was a form of jazz meant for connoisseurs who wanted to compare the intricate details of complex solos played at blistering tempos and within a super sophisticated harmonic language Thelanious Monk 1917 1982 Misterioso recorded 1948 CD5 11 This pianistcomposer became the model for the Beatnik look with his goatee and beanie and his hip way of talking Be bop musicians preferred to keep be bop an outsider and almost exclusively African American art form Monk s approach to composition is radical He had a magical gift for saying more with less with his use of dissonance and the whole tone scale the listener doesn t have a clear sense of the tune and never will Free Jazz or Out Jazz As the Civil Rights movement in the country was meeting stiff opposition for some while Americans entrenched in old patterns of thought and behavior radical African American musicians were looking for an even more liberated and combative form of jazz Because large numbers of white Americans were embracing be bop for free jazz players it signaled the need to move in another direction one that would create a still more perfect outsider art Cecil Tavlor b 1929 Air from the World of Cecil TaVlor 1960 CD5 121 Pianistcomposer Listeners may find the absence of a recurring motive and no preconceived material around which to improvise difficult to follow but radical enthusiasts of jazz in the 1960s became passionate about free jazz precisely because of this radical freedom achieved within the music itself Postmodernism the term comes from the field of architecture form following function was giving way to a play of forms drawn from history Plav and process over purpose and outcome Characteristic procedures used by postmodernists must be one of two sensibilities 1 Resistance it combatively seeks to draw distinctions between postmodern work and the work of modernists It is characterized by the active distancing of present practices but artistic and social from the practices of the past that no longer gets to dictate the terms of its meaning or value can be used in playful combinations without respect for original context or function 2 Reaction this attitude accepts the generic procedures of the past and turns these procedures into the service of a game of forms John Adams b 1947 News has a kind of mvsterv from Nixon in China 1987 CD5 18 Postmodern Opera Adams doesn t quote any specific work from the past but his pieces are full of styles common in earlier music Here he uses fairly steady pulses and small scale repetition in the manner of the minimalists but he limits this to a chromatic harmonic language comparable to Wagner Adams achieves a form of musical ju jitsu as he manages to keep simultaneously two mutually exclusive sets of past musical procedures in balance Written about President Nixon s famous visit to China in 1972 However Adams nor his liberalist Alice Goodman b 1958 appears the least bit interested in making any political statements in this opera Adams engages the genre in all its complexities it needs extremely skillful professional singers needs a large professional symphony orchestra it has a French style ballet women into the story and each major character gets to ding a stupendous aria All the conventions are in place but none serve their original functions It is a fine example of reaction Review Terms 0 Modernist movement ends justify the means 0 Expressionism inspired by Freud 0 Berg end justifies the means 0 Atonality no tonal center 0 Unifying motif reoccurs in every measure of the piece 0 Retrograde motion backward motion 0 Inversion ip the intervals upside down 0 Retrograde inversion backwards and upside down 0 Transposition take an element and move the pitches up and down 0 Speak sing every pitch and every rhythm is notated 0 Impressionism modernist movement investigates how we see the outer world 0 Symbolist 0 Pentatonic scale 5 note scale with the black notes on the piano 0 Whole tone scale scale with no half steps only whole 0 Chromatic scale half steps 0 Octatonic scale WHWHWHWH 0 Debussy 0 Fauvism wild beast style 0 Primitivism 0 Rite of spring ballet 0 Rhythm drum like sounds 0 Polymeters two or more meters going on at the same time 0 Polyrhythms two or more rhythms going on at the same time 0 Ostinato 0 Cold War 0 Musicians were hired at universities 0 Ava Garde John Cage O Indeterminacy 0 George Chrome 0 Traditional audiences 0 Musical quotation 0 Extended techniques 0 Symbolism 0 Ragtime emphasizes on the upbeats march tempo 0 2 part form binary form 0 Jazz 0 Louis Armstrong Musician strike Be bop Ava Garde 0 Musicians looked with disdain at anyone who couldn t keep up with them or understand them Free jazz exclusively black 0 Or out jazz Postmodernism 0 Resistance combative against any modernist notion I Scavenge from the past but the past doesn t really matter 0 Reaction present day politics 9 Page 362 0 Closed form 0 Anarchy O Permanence 0 Linear progress
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