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Socio 1101 (Lopez, Intro to sociology)
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This 56 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ayami Takei on Sunday December 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Anth 205 at a university taught by Dr. Suad in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 12/13/15
Anth 205 Exam 2 Bands Basic unit of social organization among foragers. Includes fewer than 100 people; often splits up seasonally Big Man figure often found among tribal horticulturalists and pastoralists. The big man occupies no office but creates his reputation through entrepreneurship and generosity to others. Neither his wealth nor his position passes to his heirs. Chiefdom Form of sociopolitical organization intermediate between the tribe and the state; kin-based with differential access to resources and a permanent political structure Chiefs high ranking and powerful person that ascribed the position through kinship descent. Unlike the big man, chiefs are exempt from ordinary work and have rights and privileges that are unavailable to the masses. Like big men, they do return much of the wealth they take in. Pantribal Society a nonkin-based group that exists throughout a tribe, spanning several villages. Polynesian Chiefdoms much of ethnographic knowledge about chiefdoms comes from Polynesia. Chiefs were full-time political specialists in charge of regulating the economy. They would use religion to help with authority. Products worked up through the social hierarchy; the chief would often redistribute stuff. Power The ability to exercise one's will over others—to do what one wants; the basis of political status. State Complex sociopolitical system that administers a territory and populace with substantial contrasts in occupation, wealth, prestige, and power. An independent, centrally organized political unit, a government. Tribe Form of sociopolitical organization usually based on horticulture or pastoralism. Socioeconomic stratification and centralized rule are absent in tribes, and there is no means of enforcing political decisions. Village Head Leadership position in a village (as among the Yanomami, where the head is always a man); has limited authority; leads by example and persuasion. Consequences of Domestication the archaeological and ethnographic record throughout the world shows that the transition from hunting and gathering to farming eventually resulted in more work, lower adult stature, worse nutritional condition and heavier disease burdens. There were changes in plants and animals as well as human behavior. Patterns of subsistence foragers, pastoralists, horticulturalists, agriculturalists Foragers (hunter-gatherers) obtain food by foraging, fishing, and hunting resources that are available in nature. -move according to changing food sources -small communities, sparsely populated territories, nomadic lifestyles, typically egalitarian, division of labor based on age and gender Pastoralists raise and manage herds of domesticated migratory grazing animals -nomadic, more territorial than horticulturalists, dependent on trade, small groups of related families, vulnerable to food shortages, communal decisions of movements Transhumance only portion of population travels with herd Saami Reindeer Herders inheritance equal regardless of age and gender -relatively egalitarian Horticulture plant cultivation using simple hand tools on land that must remain fallow after a period of us -simple farming techniques, more sedentary than foragers, leave gardening plots fallow, some social differentiation Swidden Farming (slash-and-burn) a form of horticulture in which the natural vegetation is cut, burned and crops are planted among the ashes Neolithic Revolution transition from a foraging economy to one of food production -severe and chronic nutritional stress, pathologies increase, dental decay increases, potential for overpopulation relative to resources, sanitation problems, transmission of animal diseases to humans -increase in population size, sedentary (permanent) communities form, craft specialization Domestication of Plants adaption or the modification of the genetic makeup of plants or animals so that they are of use to humans -domestication transformed Teosinte into something desirable; maize Why turn to domestication? humans were forced by environmental change or population pressures to turn to agriculture... AND/OR -humans intentionally made the decision to turn to agriculture as a subsistence pattern Beginnings of Domestication contemporary foragers have detailed knowledge of plant growth and uses -a switch does not free people from hard work -food production is not necessarily a more secure means of subsistence Wodabe nomadic herders, speak Fulbe, related to the Fulani, mobile encampments, polygamy, kinship important -social organization; patrilineal descent, age sets (male cousins of same age = close), avoidance relationships (avoidance shows respect, no eye contact with parents) Agriculture crop cultivation that involves using technologies other than hand tools; irrigation, fertilizers, plow pulled by harnessed draft animals -permanent settlements, high degree of craft specialization, complex political organization, large differences in wealth and power, work longer hours, famines and food shortages more frequent Balinese Subsistence Strategies wet rice agriculture (intensive agriculture) -centralized power -status differences -land ownership Reciprocity transaction whereby goods and services of roughly equivalent value are exchanged Generalized reciprocity someone gives to another and expects nothing immediate in return; common among foragers Balanced reciprocity applies to exchanges between people who are more distantly related than are members of same band or household -the giver expects something in return, this may not come immediately, but the social relationship will be strained if there is no reciprocation Negative Reciprocity used in dealing with people outside social systems -exchange is close to being purely economic; people want to get something back immediately -involves the attempt to get something for as little as possible, even if it means being deceitful or cheating Redistribution the movement of goods, services, or their equivalent from the local level to a center -products often move through a hierarchy of officials for storage at the center, then flow out from the center down the hierarchy back to common people Market Principle dominates in today's world capitalist economy -profit-oriented principle of exchange that dominates in states, particularly industrial states -goods and services are bought and sold, and values are determined by supply and demand Pot latching competitive feast among Injuns on the on the North Pacific Coast of North America -pot latch sponsors traditionally gave away food, blankets, pieces of cooper, or other items; in return they got prestige -atypical foragers- sedentary and had chiefs Ascribed Status social status that people have little or no choice about occupying (e.g. race, gender) Achieved status social status that comes through talents, actions, efforts, activities, and accomplishments (e.g. big man, felon) Social Differentiation the relative access individuals and groups have to wealth, power, and prestige Egalitarian Societies no individual group has more access to resources, power, or prestige than any other -no fixed number of social positions for which individuals must compete Stratified society formal, permanent, social, and economic inequality -some people are denied access to basic resources Caste system closed, hereditary system of stratification, often dictated by religion; hierarchical social status is ascribed at birth, so that people are locked into their parents' social position Brahmin priests whose lives were devoted to worship and teaching, 1st in Indian Caste System Kshatriya soliders, politicians, and administrators, 2nd in Indian Caste System Vaishya skilled workers, merchants; 3rd in Indian Caste System Sudra at service of other castes; 4th in Indian Caste System Moka making Moka is the greatest skill required of a big man, is a ceremonial gift exchange Yanomamo the Village Head, achieved, cannot force or coerce poeple to do things, can persuade, harangue, and try to influence people to do things Inuit foragers (hunting/fishing), conflict resolution, no formal law, social sanctions, social meaning and value placed on emotions Ranked Society institutionalized differences in prestige, no restriction on access to basic resources Ownership simply means the right to distribute the meat "insulting the meat" always insult the hunter through expressing disappointment to the hunter; the hunter responds with self-demeaning words; keeps one from getting a large ego Eskimo kinship terminology kinship lands are the political units, certain areas are owned by certain family groups Tracking Ju/'hoansi can identify a person by his or her footprints in the sand; animal prints can yield information about the animal (species, sex, age, how fast traveling, health) Hunting strategies meat is valuable, but it only makes up 30% of diet, 4 ways: mobile hunt, hunting with dogs, underground hunting, snaring Subsistence strategies hunting and gathering, 70% vegetables and 30% meat; women provide a majority of the food; spend 20 hrs per person per week in food collecting actvities Water sources a very valuable resource in the desert area; aid from government for well-digging; seasonal water sources, available after 1st rain, trees, water-bearing roots AIDS the countries of southern Africa have the highest rates of HIV/AIDS, but not among the Ju/'hoansi; very low rates linked to women's high status relative to men; women's power in asking men to use condoms N/'um substance that lies in the pit of the stomach of men and women who are medicine owners; is activeated during a healing dance //gangwasi the dead, Ju/'hoansi fear the dead Environment 5 seasons: summer (Dec-Mar; heavy rains, lots of food), autumn (Apr-May; after rain stops, food still abundant), winter (May-Aug; cool and dry), early spring (Aug-Oct; increase in temp, rain almost starts, worst time of the year), spring rains (Oct-Nov; first rains, trigger plant and animal growth) Naming rules and relationships 35 male names, 32 female names; custom of naming everyone after an older person; parents do not name children after themselves; restrictions on who can marry with close names; advantages associated with names Hxaro exchange traditional exchange system; reciprocal act of giving gifts, different from barter trade, which emphasizes an emmediate exhange of equal values; translate values gained through wade work in the hxaro system (e.g. giving out clothes in hxaro system) Bride service the marriage of a boy to a girl usually results in the boy takin up residence in his in-laws village; frequently members of the boy's family may join for weeks or months Divorce only about 10% of marriages that last 5 years or longer end in divorce; initative comes from the wife far more frequently than the husband; characterized by a high degree of cordiality, may continue to joke and may even live in adjacent huts; divorce is a simple matter subject to mutal consent Joking relationships one acts in a relaxed fashion and speaks on familiar turns; grandparents + grandchildren Avoidance relationships one must show respect and reserve, and one will often use the second person plural as a form of address; one's parents and one's parents' siblings Eating Christmas in the Kalahari Richard Lee brought the Ju/'hoansi an ox to feed the tribe for Christmas feast; people complain to him about ox saying "bag of bones" could not feed camp; example of insulting the meat, Richard learned his power in the community came from being the only source of tobacco for hundreds of miles and led to fooling about ox. Kaross foremost among women carrying devices; a one- piece combination garment carrying device that also does service as a sleeping blanket Khoi people similar to Ju/'hoansi except herded animals and Ju/'hoansi did not. Herero largest group of non !Kung in Dobe area; pastoralists and also practice agriculture; bi-lineal descent; women enjoy high status and frequently own and inherit cattle; speak a southwestern Bantu language; 80,000 killed by Germans; sought refuge in Tswana chiefdoms Tswana numerically small in Dobe area; large cattle holders; until recently dominated the administrative posts at chiefdom and nation level; Tswana language, social organization, and especially legal code provide models for the Ju/'hoansi and other subject peoples to adopt Bantu Speakers others in Dobe area are: Mbukushu and Belei; both live in nearby swamps and are known collectively by the !Kung as Goba, a term applied to all non-Herero, non-Tswana blacks Mongongo nuts collected by Ju/'hoansi in groves in Dobe area Domesticated animals many agriculturalists use animals as a means of production (for transport, as cultivating machines, and for manure) Irrigation agriculturalists can schedule their plantings in advance by controlling the water; makes it possible to cultivate a plot year after year; enriches the soil Terraces agriculturalists in hilly areas use this agricultrual technique; cut into hillside and build stage after stage of fields rising about the valley floor; spring located above suppy irrigation water; walls crumble each year and must be partially rebuilt Chu/o Ju/'hoansi word for village or camp and litteraly mans "the face of huts"; symbolizes for the Ju safety, comfort and companionship of the group; contrasted with the term t'si: this is a tamed space, cultural space T'si means bush or wilderness; is untamed or natural space Residence patterns in the past, camps in a circular form; reliance on each other; changed to a line-village; mud-walled houses; each household looks at their own property in the form of herds; reliance on property Dutch treatment of the indigenous population took advantage of them for labor, called them lazy, modernized them and changed their society Dobe area where the Ju/'hoansi lives; on Botswana- Namibia boarder; has one big waterhole Location northwest Botswana; near Aha Hills Leadership each person is headman over himself; however, there are leaders who may develop considerable influence on group decisions; leaders work subtly; there is no hereditary basis for this role Gender roles among the Ju/'hoansi male-female relations are not given with stress; women have rights; men do subsistence work and tool-making while women do house work "NO THEY DO NOT F*CK OFF ALL DAY BOYS" (Skeeter jacks it all day, while Daugherty yells at him for no apparent reason) Jared Diamond development of agriculture; very few wild species were actually domesticated; 14 of 148 large terrestrail mammal; 100 of 200,000 vascular plants; food production arose independently in at most 9 areas; Mesopotamia, China, Mesoamerica, Andes/Amazonia, Eastern US, Sahel, Tropical West Africa, Ethiopia, and New Guinea; Consequences of food production; massive increase in human population; creation of new technologies; social stratification, political centralization; standing armies; epidemic diseases; all led to hunter- gatherers being displaced; for: improvements in human hunting skills led to depletion of large mammalian prey, development of technology to collect and store foods, on going competition between human societies, and intensified food production was required to support larger populations CSI Effect physical evidence speaks for itself and reveals the absolute truth Rank in Jane Austen analysis of social hierarchy in 19th century England; social pragmatics; use of presupposed cultural principles to manipulate social relationships; creative transformation of those principles through interpretations and acts that reflexively comment upon them (hierarchies of choice, structural principles ((independence; dependence: servants to masters, offspring to parents, women to men, younger to elder; choice)) tension between independence and dependence is that there is no pure independence, hierarchical relationships are not "given" or set in stone, individual differences in the perception of hierarchies- not everyone buys into the same story about rank, Austen questions the naturalness of social inequalities and the class system) archaeology, biological, linguistics, cultural Four subfields of Anthropology: shared among a population, socially transmitted Defining characteristics of culture: emphasizes the importance of evolution in organizing info about different peoples Social Evolution theory emphasizes the importance of history and of the particular details of how people live Historical Particularism emphasizes that societies were indeed structured and that different elements of those societies had practical functions Structural Functionalism the change in the frequency of particular genetic variants in a population over time Evolution mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, natural selection Four mechanisms of evolution transfer of alleles from one population to another gene flow random change in the frequency of alleles genetic drift there exists variation in the population this variation is heritable some traits allow individuals to be more successful reproducers than others Theory of Natural Selection transitional or missing link fossils homology genetic similarity embryology 4 pieces of evidence for common ancestry the confusion of what is and what ought to be naturalistic fallacy participant observation, open interviews, semi- structured interviews, focus groups, informants qualitative ethnographic methodologies observation conducted during social involvement in subject population participant observation explanation that makes phenomenon meaningful thick/emic description observation, physical measures, interviews quantitative ethnographic methodologies cross species cross cultural cross individual cross contextual comparative method a taxonomic level below species, sometimes synonymous with subspecies biological definition of race much greater variance within rather than between groups there are no well defined divisions between groups major reasons humans can't be divided into races membership to a particular cultural heritage ethnicity complete or near complete reliance on hunted, fished, or gathered foods foraging small scale, mainly subsistence-level farming horticulture the ethnographic study of living cultures from an archaeological perspective ethnoarchaeology bridge between continents, neolithic founder of crops fertile crescent subsistence strategy based on tending herds of large animals pastoralism hardy, heardable, breedable, source of multiple products traits desired in pastoral animals self reliant, dependent on animals, mobile nomadic pastoralism permanent settlements, horticulture transhumance pastoralism 2 prisoners picked up, offered a reduced sentence if they implicate the other, always defect = evolutionary stable strategy prisoner's dilemma given $1, you choose how much to give to partner, they can reject your offer and you both get nothing, some societies are more generous ultimatum game sharing blood consanguineal kin related through marriage affinal kin natural selection of certain genetic variants due in part to interactions between related individuals kin selection incest avoidance, aversion to romance with those one grows up with westermarck effect assiging a non-relative a kin-term as a sign of closeness fictive kin relationship between children and maternal uncle, may be closest adult male relative with known relationship the avunculate descent traced through mother's line matrilineal descent traced through father's lien patrilineal descent traced through both parent's lines bilineal one man, one woman (most common) monogamy one man, many women polygyny sisters share a husband sororal polygyny one woman, many men (Tibet) polyandry exchange of wealth from groom's family to bride's family bridewealth exchange of wealth from bride's family to groom's family dowry practice of marrying brother of deceased husband levirate exchange of genetic material to produce offspring that share genetic ancestry with both parents sexual reproduction only one parent and often produces clones asexual reproduction larger gamete (sex cell)/ova female gametes are smaller/more mobile/sperm male socially constructed role that each sex is assigned, varies greatly cross-culturally gender gender roles function to divide labor and responsibilities efficiently functional basis for gender differences gender roles are based on the desire of one group to control resources and power conflictive basis for gender differences 3-6% frequency of homosexuality exclusively hetero to exclusively homosexual, 0-6 kinsey scale common third-gender role among native americans; fulfill roles of both genders two-spirits somoan third gender fa'afafine indian third gender hijra relationship between adult man and adolescent boy, used in Greek society pederasty system by which social power is distributed in order to deal with challenges arising from group living political system small, loosely defined groups with no formal leadership (foragers) band defined political system organized around kinship (hort & past) tribe centralized political entities separate from kinship systems, permanent political positions (hort & ag) chiefdom autonomous centralized political entities with administrative bureaucracy, defined territories state north korea's ability to defend itself and be self reliant juche supernatural beliefs held by faith moral codes ritual division of world into sacred and profane major elements of religion using supernatural techniques to accomplish specific aims magic casual magic; belief that particular objects will have effects on events without foundation in scientific/logical knowledge superstition magic to do harm on others using thought, incantation, emotion witchcraft magic to do harm on others using objects and medicines sorcery judaism, christianity, islam abrahamic religions 13.2 million, 4,000 years old, Tankah, monotheistic judaism 1.5-2 billion, based on judaism, holy trinity christianity 1.5 billion, based on Muhammed, revelations from God formed the Qu'ran islam 1 billion, ancient religion, multiple deities hinduism 300 million, siddhartha guatama, philosiphical outlook, 4 noble truths, noble eightfold path buddhism organized armed violent conflict between 2 independent social groups warfare more to gain acceptance of risk morphological and physiological adaptations why are men more violent? male dominated produces homicides rule governed characteristics of warfare small scale discrete battles, common among band- living and tribal groups raids indigenous people are egalitarian peace-loving, good for environment noble savage view brazil and venezuela Yanomamo location 23,000 in 250 villages (40-300 per village) how many yanomamo? horticultural, gardens, plaintains, hunting, fishing yanomamo subsistence patrilocal yanomamo residence yanomamo dwellingq shabono cross-cousin yanomamo preferred marriage partners chest pounding side slapping club fight ritualized battle wrote darkness in el dorado patrick tierney accusations against chagnon and his work darnkess in el dorado sheep and goats basseri subsistence iran basseri location muslim, il-rah = property of tribe basseri characteristics cattle herders (some hort) nuer subsistence africa - sudan nuer location segmentary lineage - multiple memberships to ever expanding patrilineal lineage, leopard skin chief nuer characteristics cattle herders masaai subsistence africa - tanzania/kenya masaai location moran - warriors, male and female circumcision masaai characteristics foragers tiwi subsistence australian islans: melville, bathurst tiwi location origin of children - live in dreamland, fathers find betrothal of girls - before birth, always married pukumani - taboo activities, death ceremonies tiwi characteristics horticulture sambia subsistence new guinea (highlands) sambia location women are considered polluted by men jerungdu - masculine power received by ingesting semen sambia characteristics foragers, sweet potatoes, pigs kapauku subsistence new guinea kapauku location cowry shells = money tonowi = big man, wealthy/generous pig feast kapauku characteristics horticulture azande subsistence Africa - Sudan azande location patrilocal tse tse fly - sleeping sickness witchcraft - houses fall on people oracle - poison, termine mangu - magic, each individual has varying levels azande characteristics 3 Elements of Culture are: Ideas, values, beliefs Objects Behaviors Cultural Anthropology the study of human society and culture; describes, analyzes, interprets, and explains social and cultural similarities and differences 4 branches of Anthropology are Physical Anth Archaeology Linguistical Anth Cultural Anth The 3 Guiding Principles of Anthropology: Holistic (looks as cultures has a whole and not just at specific aspects of them) Cross-Cultural (examines cultures from multiple points of view and compares them across differing ideologies and mindsets) Scientific (is based on a testable process for revealing truths, including the proving and disproving of hypotheses) Seeing a culture from your own culture's view point is _ or a _ approach, seeing things from the lens/value systems of the culture you are studying is _ or a _ approach Ethnocentrism, Etic, Relativism, Emic _is a branch of anthropology that seeks to look at an existing culture and devise how it relates to other cultures and what characteristics define it. An _ is a written account detailing a culture produced after systematic study and fieldwork Ethnology, ethnography father of modern American anthropology; argued for cultural relativism and historical particularism (American Historicism) Franz Boas first person to suggest that the only way to do anthropological research is by doing fieldwork. Founded functualism Malinowski A psychological anthroplogist, known for fieldwork and comparative studies -maybe first Feminist Anthropologist. Did research on adolescent anxiety and sexual patterns/norms in American and Samoan teenagers. Did research on gender. Found that "feminine" and "masculine" traits aren't the same in all cultures. Margret Mead How did the Chicago World Fair bring anthropology greater attention? It included several reproductions of villages 9from the French colonies) complete with natives from those islands as an attraction Learning to look involves The constant assessment of what we perceive in an attempt to draw meaning, value, relevance, and deeper-rooted questions from our observations. Judging things not on how they appear, but on what underlying factors make them appear that way. a school of anthropology/psychology that focused on how objects, beliefs, and behaviors enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish. "Everything is done to obtain something we need/want." Functionalism Is an anthropological view (created by Levi Strauss) that visible culture is formed from the subconscious rules and values held in the minds of its participants. Further, these rules are produced as binary opposites (fat vs. thin, good vs. bad) French Structuralism culture evolves when people are able to increase the amount of energy under their control, I.E. with more free time comes a greater expanse in culture (more art, theater, detailed craft, social exchange and regulation) Neoevolutionism Neoevolutionism The theoretical perspective used by anthropologists who are particularly interested in describing the systems of organization and classification used by individual cultures Ethnoscience Headed by Franz Boas, a school of anthropology prominent in the first part of the 20th century that insisted on the collection of ethnographic data prior to making cross-cultural generalizations. American historicism An anthropological school that seeks to explore gender differences within cultures and looks for visible and invisible power structures that relate to gender -often this is expressed as the "privilege of being male." Feminist Anthropology A school of thought/anthropology that states that the Truths (with a capital T) of a culture can never really be known by an outsider and it is arrogant to believe that even with science these can be obtained Postmodernism An off-shoot of post mondernism, this branch of anthropology argues that the closest you can get to a cultural "truth" (lowercase T) is by having someone within the culture your are studying interpret it for you. Also, the value of anthropology to this school is not to be able to predict things, but rather to record and reveal the characteristics of a culture Interpretive Anthropology The 5 steps to setting up a field study are: (PResiDent CoD AnDI) 1Formulate a problem 2Do Research Design 3Collect Data 4Analyze Data 5Interpret your results This is an open ended interviews, usually recorded, with one person who describes his or her entire life. It often has therapeutic benefits for the person interviewed and creates qualitative data on the life cycle. It can be considered a subtype of oral history. life-history interview Informed Consent, an ethical principle requiring that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate Informed Consent The _ _ _ (or IRB) reviews research to make sure no abuse is going onIRB Institutional Review Board What are the 4 poitns of the AAA ethical statement -To avoid harm or wrong, understanding that the development of knowledge can lead to change which may be positive or negative for the people or animals worked with or studied -To respect the well-being of humans and nonhuman primates -To work for the long-term conservation of the archaeological, fossil, and historical records -To consult actively with the affected individuals or group(s), with the goal of establishing a working relationship that can be beneficial to all parties involved the feeling of surprise and disorientation that people experience when they encounter cultural practices that are different from their own Culture Shock _ is a biological trait while _ is a set of cultural traits based on the culture's preconceived notions. Sex, gender 4 gender status indicators are Particpation in the economy (ability to own/purchase material goods) Autonomy (ability to come and go and make choices as wished) Education (ability to achieve equal and high levels of schooling) Empowerment in leadership positions (ability to take commanding positions both within govenerment and business) In the !Kung the _ hunt while the _ spend days off gather food. There is a sense of _ amongst the sexes and both parties maintain _ to make choices concerning the family. _ is open among the !kung and both men and women are free to have sexual relations _ of their marriage. men, women, equality, rights, Sexuality, outside - is the push to marry someone within your own cultural group while _ is the push to marry someone outside of your cultural group. In part, Americans often practice _. Endogamy, exogamy, endogamy _ relationships are those where the husband and wife are not related, while _ relationships are marriages between people within the same family (often cousins, etc.) Affinal, consanguineal _ is a common cultural system between men and women that makes provisions for orderly mating and child rearing marriage _ is a polygamous mating system involving one male and many females, while _ is a polygamous mating system involving one female and many males (often brothers) Polygynya, Polyandry a social network of people based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption Kinship In kinship diagrams _ are males, _ are females, _ signs are marriages, _ _ signs are divorces and lines down are descendants triangles, circles, equals, not equal In _ systems importance, inheritance, and name's sakes (sir names too) are passed down through mothers, while in the _ systems it goes through the fathers. If both sides are equaly important it is called _ _. matrilineal, patrilineal, bilateral kinship _ status is the honor, power, and rewards given to someone because of their relationship to others or some other unchangeable attribute _ status is the honor, power, and rewards given to someone because of what they have accomplished in their own life. Ascribed, achieved The !Kung use a _ number of names and give them to their children to create a _ between the child and others who _ have that _ name. limited, bond,already, same in anthropology, an approach that considers culture, history, language, and biology essential to a complete understanding of human society holism A theoretical position that takes material features of life, such as the environment, natural resources, and mode of production, as the bases for explaining social organization and ideology Cultural Materialism the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between men and women Gender Stratification Childcare compatibility states that... women, as primary child-bearers and child-rearers, should perform work that is compatible Genitor is... a natural father or mother Genetrix is.. Biological mother _ is the sum total of all world cultures Ethnosphere The amount or ways (usually minimal) taken to sustain a culture's life. Subsistence _ is the obtaining food available in nature through gathering, hunting, or scavenging. _ are an example of a tribe that does this. Foraging, Ju/'hoansi _ describes people who ranged over wide areas and kept herds of livestock on which they depended for food and other items. _ are an example These people are highly _, _ up the labor, and often create _ for trade. Pastoralists, Kazaks, mobile, divide, crafts _ is a seasonal periodic movement of pastoralists and their livestock between highland and lowland pastures (Moving between _) transhumance, Pastors _ grow crops using simple technology (digging stick, hoe), examples include the _ people. These cultures exhibit more _ _ and thus often include _ who make particular crafts. Horticulturalists, Yanomamo, free time, specialtists Also called slash and burn agriculture, it is a form of cultivation in which forrested or brushy plots are cleared of vegetation burned then planted to crops only to be abandoned a few years later when soil fertility declines. Swidden Agriculture A form of subsistence agriculture most often used today in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land. This was first done by the _ Intensive Agriculture, Eygptians A form of agriculture that uses large scale mechanization and fossil fuel combustion, enabling farmers to replace horses and oxen with faster and more powerful methods of farming. Industrial Agriculture A way of life, forced by a scarcity of resources, in which groups of people continually migrate to find pastures and water. (moving _ ) Nomadism, anywhere The study of human use of biological organisms, especially ethnographic or archaeological uses of plants and animals by native peoples for food, medicine, and other uses. Ethnobiology _ live in the _ amazon, have made themselves mobile to avoid extinction, and preserve the forest (fought against a _ being built), live in _ villages and have addopted their social customs from bees, wasps, and ants, they wear _ -a body paint designated for ceremony. Kayapo, Brazilian, dam, circular, genipapo the products of human creativity; _ is an emotional, transformational and representational process created through skill Art _ refers to the body as a symbol within shared social and cultural worlds; The appearance of the body as medium of social communication in physical world Ex. You see an overweight "fat" person and automatically assume that they are lazy. Social body Art does these 4 things 1) Gratifies an individual, object, or event 2) Integrates social characteristics and perserves them for a culture 3) Acts as a form of control (ecourages adherence to certain values and behaviors) 4) Challenges and changes the status quo (art can be edgy and demand the veiwer to question the culture around them) ecological information, passed down from generation to generation, that reflects human experience with nature gained over centuries traditional ecological knowledge _ arts are created objects like sculptures and textiles while _ arts produced on flat surfaces like drawings and paintings Plastic , Graphic a strong belief in a supernatural power or powers that control human destiny Religion A repeated, patterned religious act. Rituals Religious specialists who possessed supernatural powers, communicated with the gods and nature spirits, invoked divine aid on behalf of their communities, and informed their companions of their gods' will. Shamans In anthropology, _ is associated with individuals who preform harmful magical acts because of their nature or uncontrolled passions while _ is a harmful magical act performed in a deliberate and intentional manner witchcraft, sorcery _ _ are religious cerimonies in which chlidren (often new born) or outsiders are presented with a culturally significant name Naming Rituals Sherpas are... Traditional mountain guides of the Everest region _ means "master" in India. Sign of respect especially used with outsiders ruling classes, it sends sort of master-slave mentaility between mountain climbers and their native guides. Sahibs _ can be determined by what physical traits a person shares (skin color, hair type, eyes type, dietary and disease conditions) while _ refers to what cultural group a person belongs -inclusive of non-genetic items (beliefs, parcatices, languages, etc.) Race, ethinicity _ _ describe the movement of goods, ideas, and people across the earth. current trends have movement to and from central _, the _-_, _, and the _ as the major circuits. Global Flows, Europe, Asian, Middle-East, US Globalization The increasing interconnectivity of cultures and coutries throughout the world as movement of items, ideas, and people between geographic areas becomes easier and faster _ _ is a _ anthropologist and a humanitarian concentrating on global health issues who wrote a book about aids in Haiti that explained that initially Americans made it seem like the Haitians were the root _ of aids (by describing them as a high-risk population without evidence), the Haitians believed AIDS might have been _ by the US to thin out their lower-class populations, and the lower class Haitians believed it was a curse brought about by those who were gain wealth not _ it. Paul Farmer, medical, cause, created, sharing Activisim the term used to discribe the view that coruts should be law making policies body. This theory suggests that ethnic groups are biologically self perpertuating. Shares fundamental cultural values, realized in over unity in cultural forms. Makes up a field of communication and interaction. Has a membership which identifies itself, and is identified by other , as constituting a category distinguishable from other categories of the same order . Barth's Constrative Category The Sherpa Zhindak Relationship is about... Patron or protector who facilitates or bestows success. Sahibs misinterpret zhindak relationship and see it as a paternalistic relationship because sherpas are childlike and dependent. _ _ is a society in which different cultural groupls keep their own identity, beliefs, and traditions Plural Society _ is the attempt by a dominant ethnic group to destroy and erase the culture of another ethnic group while _ is the attempt by a dominant ethnic group to kill off another ethnic group Ethnocide, genocide The use of anthropological knowledge and methods to solve practical problems, often for a specific client. Applied Anthropology Applied Anthropologist work in _, _, disaster research, policy making, peace and conflict _, and _ Management criminology, architecture, resolution, Wildlife An _refers to a physical response (symptoms/effects) to _ which is an alteration of the mental and/or physical structure of the human body or mind.. illness, disease Medical diagnosis includes observing that patient's _, taking their _, taking their medical _, comparing their symptoms to known diseases and using observations and testing to _ the possibilities down to a final diagnosis symptoms, vitals, history, eliminate The _ _ _ _(UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 December 1948 that represents the first global expression of rights to which all human beings are inherently entitled. It speaks agianst racism, sexism, torture, and the usuary of less developed nations. Universal Declaration of Human Rights Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording. Having trouble? Click here for help. Monogamy a marriage form in which a person is allowed only one spouse at a time Polyandry a form of polygamy in which a woman has two or more husbands at one time Polygamy a marriage form in which a person has two or more spouses at one time. Polygyny and Polyandry are two forms of this term. Polygyny a form of polygamy in which a man is married to two or more women at one time Endogamy marriage within a designated social unit Exogamy marriage outside any designated group Extended Family a family that includes two or more married couples Family a residential group composed of at least one married couple and their children Descent a rule of relationship that ties people together on the basis of reputed common ancestry Descent Groups groups based on a rule of descent Division of Labor the rules that govern the assignment of jobs to people (age, gender, etc.) Kinship the complex system of social relationships based on marriage (affinity) and birth (consanguinity) Lineage a kinship group based on a unilineal descent rule that is localized, has some corporate powers, and whose members can trace their actual relationships to each other Marriage the socially recognized union between two people that accords legitimate birth status rights to their children Matrilineal Descent a rule of descent relating a person to a group of consanguine kin on the bases of descent through females only Incest Taboo the cultural rule that prohibits sexual intercourse and marriage between specified classes of relatives Agriculture a subsistence strategy involving intensive farming of permanent fields through the use of such means as the plow, irrigation, and fertilizer Allocation of Resources the knowledge people use to assign rights to the ownership and use of resources Bilateral (cognatic) Descent a rule of descent relating someone to a group of consanguine kin through both males and females Clan a kinship group normally comprising several lineages; its members are related by a unilineal descent rule, but it is too large to enable members to trace actual biological links to all other members Consanguinity the principle of relationship linking individuals by shared ancestry (blood) Egalitarian Societies societies that, with the exception of ranked differences between men and women and adults and children, provide all people an equal chance at economic resources and prestige Horticulture a kind of subsistence strategy involving semi- intensive, usually shifting, agricultural practices. Slash-and-burn farming is a common example. Hunting and Gathering a subsistence strategy involving the foraging of wild, naturally occurring foods Industrialism a subsistence strategy marked by intensive, mechanized food production and elaborate distribution networks Nuclear Family a family composed of a manned couple and their children Pastoralism a subsistence strategy based on the maintenance and use of large herds of animals Patrilineal Descent a rule of descent relating consanguine kin on the basis of descent through males only Redistribution the transfer of goods and services between a group of people and a central collecting service based on role obligation. Ex U.S. taxes Subsistence Economies economies that are local and that depend largely on the non-market mechanisms, reciprocity, and redistribution to motivate the production and exchange Subsistence Strategies strategies used by groups of people to exploit their environment for material necessities. Parallel Cousin offspring of your parent's same sex sibling Cross Cousin offspring of your parent's opposite sex sibling Patrilocal couple resides with groom's patrilineage Matrilocal couple resides with bride's matrilineage Neolocal couple establishes their own residence Avunculocal couple resides with groom's maternal uncle Ego point of reference on a kinship chart Market Exchange buying and selling of commodities based off supply and demand Emic people's perspective "going natural" Etic researcher's perspective Ethnocentrism belief and feeling that one's own culture is best Cultural Relativism understanding a group's beliefs and practices with in their own cultural context, with out making judgement Ethnography systematically describe a particular culture based on first hand observation Ethnology analysis and comparison of ethnographic data across culture; culture in terms of the universe Illness culturally specific perception of some kind of health problem Disease refers to biological problem that is objective and universal such as a bacteria or viral infection or broken arm Dowry a payment that the bride's side of the family offers the groom's side of the family Bridewealth payment of the groom's side of the family offers to the bride's side of the family Naive Realism the notion that reality is much the same for all people everywhere Culture Shock a form of anxiety that results from an inability to predict the behavior of others or to act appropriately in cross-cultural situations What are the Four fields of anthropology? Biological/Physical, Archaeology, Linguistics, Socio- Cultural Biological Anthropology Study of humans' biological variations from evolution to contemporary times Human Variation human genetics, adaptations Human Evolution primatology Archaeology Reconstructs, describes and interprets human behavior and cultural pattern through material remains Is Historical anthropology limited to the distant past? No Linguistic Anthropolgy The study of human communication in its social and cultural context, across space and overtime Social-Cultural Anthropology The Study of living people and their cultures What are the 5 characteristics of culture? learned, shared, symbolic, integrated, adaptive and changes Learned (nature v.s. nurture) how we are influenced by life Shared something large group of individuals have in common Symbolic list of words that all mean thank you Integrated Then: back in Australia people traded and had effect on gender races Now: smart phones, how communication works and use of technology Adaptive and Changes culture is always changing and is different from tradition Franz Boaz father of american anthropology, created 4 fields, counteracted scientific rascism What is the problem that Gmelch is highlighting in the reading Nice Girls Do Not Talk to Rastas? Well-meaning assumptions that everyone views the world like you creates social tension In the reading about the Dou Donggo, what did the anthropologist learn by being present for the dispute? Dou Donggo consider accusations of personal harm as serious as carrying out the acts What did Bronislaw Malinowski start? Participant observation-join in on daily activities of individuals in order to better understand cultural practice Before Malinowski what kind of method was used? Arm Share veranda anthropology Name the methods of anthropology participant observation, interview, focus groups, surveys, collecting data, life histories, archival research Does cultural relativism protect a violation of human rights? No- method not a moral What are the three causes of health imbalances? naturalistic, personalistic, emotionalistic Naturalistic impersonal cause, exist in nature (ex. diabetes with too much sugar) Personalistic due to acts/wishes of other people, supernatural beings, and forces that exist in universe (ex. god) Emotionalistic emotional experiences causes/trigger illness (ex. case study of hmong refugess in Cali) Health subjective but based on cultural context; relative state of well being of an individual group and/or community What prompted the 1970's law on research ethics in applied anthropology? milgram study In Dancing Skeletons what is Dettwyler's main research question? the growth pattern among the children Observers/ Hawthorn Effect overtime people will start to relax and have normal behavior instead of "show" behavior (at the beginning) which effects the validity of the data in participant observation True or False: Dr. D doesn't believe that going native is the best way to study a particular cultural group True Menopause is an illness that is either cultural, psychological or biological in nature? cultural and biological Artic hysteria is cultural, psychological or biological in nature? All three The trembling or laughing sickness of the Kuru is cultural, psychological, or biological in nature? cultural and biological Malians refer to kwashiorkor (illness caused by lack of protein in the diet) as swelling sickness and believe it's transmitted via touch. The explanation is best described as what? Naturalistic How have anthropology methods changed since malonowski? research teams, multi cited research, and reflexive approach Community Healing healing that emphasizes social context as a key component and which is carried out with in public domain Humoral Healing healing that emphasizes balance among natural elements with in the body (found in southeast Asia and Vietnam) What are the three anthropological approaches to studying health? Ecological/Environmental Approach, Interpretive Approach, Critical Medical Approach Ecological/ Environmental Approach focus on environmental factors: hygiene, food distribution, analyze elements Interpretive Approach Illness and healing has a symbol, meaning, rituals and their performances (psychological component) ex. placebo effect Critical Medical Approach political and economic structures ex. area of brazil thats very poor and the people suffered from insomnia and anxiety What are some functions of lineages and clans among the Bhil? arranged marriage, redistribute land inheritance for childless men, political and economic support Name the functions of marriage: political arrangement via alliances, symbol of long term commitment, social identity of kids (who they belong to) defines sexual relations, defines right to property and labor Most common form of marriage in the world polygyny- multiple wives Least common form of marriage in the world polyandry In the case study about sauces in Niger, what message does the daugther-in-law convey by her cooking? She is upset with her social position Mary Douglas understanding food taboos- the body is a symbol of society (ex. Jewish people not eating pork) boundaries of society= vulnerability; not fit categories= potentially dangerous Two types of reciprocity: generalized and balanced Generalized Reciprocity form of exchange whereby the value of the goods is not calculated and there is not set time period for repayment ex. hunters look for game and then catch it to share Balanced Reciprocity form of exchange whereby the value of the goods is kept track of and there is a specific time frame for repayment ex. taking turns buying dinner for friends/ but rotate Pierre Bourdieu's forms of capital economic, cultural and social Economic Capital money in pocket, bank, network, stocks and money=influence Cultural Capital training knowledge practices that elevate an individual or group's social standing with particular context (what you know) ex. knowing how to opparate a machine etc Social Capital sum total of capital based off who you know that will give you social prestige (who you know) Globalization worldwide intensification of interactions and the increased movement of money, people, goods, ideas, across national borders Localization process by which local cultural groups turn globally expanding culture into something of its own Sex biologically determined based largely on anatomical characteristics Gender cultural construct Sexual orientation who you are attracted to Transgender those who identify with a gender that differs from the social expectations for their sex assigned at birth Transsexual those who undergo medical treatment to change their body to match their gender identity through hormone treatments and/or surgery. Not all desire or can have surgery. Transvesti Used for people who utilize clothing associated with the opposite gender Race social construct based on arbitrary phenotypic variation Anthropology Exam1 the study of the human species and its immediate ancestors Biological (physical) anthropology the branch of anthropology that studies human biological diversity in time and space; example: hominid evolution, human genetics, human biological adaptation, primatology Archaeology reconstructs, describes and interprets human behavior and cultural patterns through material remains; best known for study of prehistory Linguistic anthropology studies linguistic variation in time and space, including interrelations between language and culture Cultural anthropology study of human society and culture; describes, analyzes, interprets, and explains social and cultural similarities and differences Applied anthropology the application of anthropological data, perspectives, theory and methods to identify, assess, and solve contemporary social problems Cultural resource management aimed at preserving sites threatened by dams, highways, and other projects; branch of applied archaeology Anthropology and education anthropological research in classrooms, homes, and neighborhoods, viewing students as total cultural creatures whose enculturation and attitudes toward education belong to a context that includes family, peers, and society Urban anthropology study of life in and around world cities, including the study of urban social problems, differences between urban and other environments, and adaptation to city life Medical anthropology unites biological and cultural anthropologists in the study of disease, health problems, health care systems, and theories about illness in different cultures and ethnic groups Holistic interested in the whole of the human condition past, present and future; biology, society, language, and culture Ethnocentrism the tendency to view one's culture as best and to judge the behavior and beliefs of culturally different people by one's own standard Culture traditions and customs that govern behaviors and beliefs; distinctly human; transmitted through learning Cultural relativism the position that the values and standards of cultures differ and deserve respect. Anthropology is characterized by methodological rather than moral relativism: In order to understand another culture fully, anthropologists try to understand its members' beliefs and motivations. Methodological relativism does not preclude making moral judgments or taking action Symbol something, verbal or nonverbal, that arbitrarily and by convention stands for something else, with which it has no necessary or natural convention Ethnography fieldwork in a particular culture Participant observation a characteristic ethnographic technique; taking part in the events one is observing, describing, and analyzing Genealogical method procedures by which ethnographers discover and record connections of kinship, descent, and marriage, using diagrams and symbols Life history of a cultural consultant; provides a personal cultural portrait of existence or change in a culture Informed consent an agreement sought by ethnographers from community members to take part in research Kinesics the study of communication through body movements, stances, gestures, and facial expressions Descriptive linguistics scientific study of a spoken language, including its phonology, morphology, lexicon, and syntax Morphology the study of form; used in linguistics and for form in general Phonology the study of sounds used in speech Phoneme significant sound contrast in a language that serves to distinguish meaning, as in minimal pairs Lexicon vocabulary; a dictionary containing all the morphemes in a language and their meaning Syntax the arrangement and order of words in phrases and sentences Sapir-Whorf hypothesis theory that different languages produce different ways of thinking Sociolinguistics study of relationships between social and linguistic variation; study of language in its social context Historical linguistics subdivision of linguistics that studies languages over time Protolanguage language ancestral to several daughter languages Four fields of anthropology 1. Biological/Physical 2. Archaeology 3. Linguistic 4. Cultural Anthropological perspective broad comprehensive view of humans and relatives; holistic science Characteristics of culture every culture is: learned, shared, based on symbols, integrated, dynamic. Although a culture involves sharing similar values, ideas, and behavior, uniformity is not necessary or possible History of anthropology product of 3 historical movements 1. Age of Exploration 15-17th centuries 2. Enlightenment 18th century 3. Evolutionism 19th century Edward Burnett Tylor (1832 - 1917) -1st professor of anthropology, University of Oxford -evolutionist: explored evolution of culture -Tylor's sequence of Religious Beliefs = phantoms > ghosts > spirits > guardians > deities > supreme beings Lewis Henry Morgan (1818 - 1881) -lawyer, evolutionist -conducted field research among the Iroquois -studied kinship and political systems of Native Americans -Morgan's Evolutionary Stages Armchair anthropology information from secondhand sources Verandah anthropology informants come to them with translator Bronislaw Malinowski (1884 - 1942) -Polish mathematician turned anthropologist -first to conduct participant observation Functionalism individuals have psychological needs and social institutions are created to meet those needs Franz Boas (1858 - 1942) -father of American anthropology Historical particularism each culture has its own specific history and must be understood on its unique past and current culture Salvage anthropology record native culture before it's wiped out Kula Ring system of exchange -shell armbands (counter clockwise) -necklaces (clockwise) -gift giving to solidify social relationships -symbols of power and prestige Margaret Mead (1901 - 1978) -most famous anthropologist in 20th century -first American woman to conduct field research a great distance away -Samoa -questioned the universality of gender roles and personality types Material culture of classrooms article that talked about how materials in classrooms, clocks and calendars are standardized, American flag emphasizes national identity Symbolic anthropology culture originated when our ancestors acquired the ability to use symbols, that is to originated and bestow meaning on a thing or event, and to grasp and appreciate such meanings Academic anthropology after WWII anthropology became part of the standard college curriculum; most anthropologists were college professors Forensic Anthropology work with police, medical examiners, the courts, and international organizations to identify victims of crimes, accidents, wars and terrorism Anthropology and business anthropologists have been hired to observe business settings, such as in a factory (views workers, managers, and executives); key features include ethnography and observation to gather data, cross- cultural expertise, and focus on cultural diversity Disease theory some cultures that don't know about germs believe that illnesses are explained by various causes such as witches or spirits of ancestors. 3 disease theory systems: personalistic (spirits), naturalistic(impersonal) and emotionalistic Systems of Classification people organize phenomena into systems of classification; fog dew ice snow; different cultures view different items as edible/non-edible Cliff Geertz symbolic anthropology; defined culture as ideas based on cultural learning and symbols; said cultures are characterized as sets of "control mechanisms - plans, recipes, rules, instructions, or programs for the governing of behavior" Interviews first have to ask simple questions and progress with more complex ones; some researchers ask general questions to each household Field research includes, participant observation, conversation/interviews, genealogical method, work with informants, discovery of local b
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