Psych- final exam notes
Psych- final exam notes PSY 1113
Collin County Community College District
Popular in Elements of Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by elzbietaag on Sunday December 13, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 1113 at University of Oklahoma taught by Jenel Cavazos in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Elements of Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 12/13/15
Final exam review psychology 2016 Review for final exam! Chapter 13 Social Psychology Person Perception: How do we form impressions of others? Attribution theory: we can make attributions about the behavior of others based on: Internal/external causes Stable/unstable causes Controllable/uncontrollable causes Attribution errors Fundamental attribution error: overestimating the importance of internal traits and underestimating the importance of external traits Ex: lets say I came into class and slammed my bag down on the desk – what would you think? Lessens with closer relationships Person Perception Errors False consensus effect: overestimating the degree to which everyone else thinks or acts the way we do Selfserving bias: tendency to take credit for out successes and to deny responsibility for our failures Ex: if you got a good grade on your first test, its because you studied really hard, you’re smart, and a natural in psychology But if you got a bad grade, I’m a horrible teacher, the test was unfair, and the material was really hard Beautifulisgood stereotype: positive expectations for physically attractive people Selffulfilling prophecy: expectations cause individuals to act in ways that serve to make the expectations come true Attitudes Link between attitudes and behavior Attitudes affect our behavior Behavior affects our attitudes Cognitive dissonance: the conflict that occurs when a person holds two contradictory attitudes or beliefs Ex: “I smoke, but smoking leads to cancer.” So if you genuinely believe smoking is bad for you but you do it anyways, that creates cognitive dissonance We come to like what we suffer for most Group memberships Parenting College tuition Persuasion Persuasion: How easily we change our attitudes depends on: The message source Attractive? Expertise? Trustworthy? Characteristics of the message Emotions (especially fear) Twosided messages Characteristics of the target Younger people are more likely to be persuaded People whose beliefs are weaker are more likely to be persuaded Elaboration likelihood model: Central Route Processing: thoughtful consideration of the issues and arguments Peripheral Route Processing: Consideration of the source and related general information Footinthedoor: agreement with a small request increases the likelihood of compliance with a larger request later Doorintheface: denying a large request increases the likelihood of compliance with a smaller request later Conformity and Obedience Conformity: a change in behavior or attitudes brought about by a desire to follow the beliefs or standards of other people Why do we conform? Information social influence: we conform because we want to be right, and we assume the group knows better than we do alone Normative social influence: we conform because we want people to like us, and we want to “fit in” Obedience: a change in behavior in response to the commands of others The Milgram Experiment: One “learner” one “teacher” Shock generator used to apply punishment (15 to 450 vots) Heart problem halfway into experiment How many would go all the way? Stanford Prison Experiment Stanford University, 1970s Philip Zimbardo Group Influence Deindividuation: being part of a group reduces personal identity and a sense of personal responsibility Social contagion: imitative behavior involving the spread of behavior, emotions, and ideas Social facilitation: an individuals performance improves because of the presence of others We perform better if we are being watched Social loafing: each person’s tendency to exert less effort in a group because of reduced accountability for individual effort Intergroup relations Stereotypes: generalizations about a persons characteristics based on group membership Why do we stereotype? Prejudice: unjustified evaluation of an individual based on the individuals membership in a group Explicit: conscious and openly shared attitude Implicit: attitudes that exist on a deeper, hidden level Discrimination: unjustified action toward a member of a group simply because the person belongs to that group Ways to reduce prejudice: Increasing contact between the target of stereotyping and the holder of the stereotype Taskoriented cooperation: working together on a shared goal Making values and norms against prejudice more conspicuous Providing information about the objects of stereotyping Teach people to understand the attitudes and behaviors of stereotyped groups Chapter 15 Psychological Disorders Defining abnormality Abnormal behavior: deviant, maladaptive, or personally distressful over a relatively long period of time Deviant: unusual and unacceptable in a culture Maladaptive: interferes with ones ability to function effectively in the world Personal distress: the person finds their behavior troubling Classifying Abnormal Behavior Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM5) APA system to diagnose and classify abnormal behavior Problems with DSMIV Descriptive only; doesn’t discuss causes Danger of applying labels Affects staff and clinicians Affects the individual Reliance on the biological perspective Inflexible, allornone categories “Meet 5 of the 8 criteria…” Diagnoses affect insurance benefits, carry social stigma, etc. Anxiety & Related Disorders Anxiety disorder: the occurrence of anxiety that is uncontrollable, disproportionate to the actual danger, and disruptive to everyday life Fight or flight Its not the experience, it’s the severity Generalized anxiety disorder: longterm, persistent anxiety and worry Persistent anxiety for at least 6 months Unable to identify a specific reason for the anxiety Panic disorder: panic attacks that last from a few seconds to several hours No identifiable stimuli Feeling on impending doom, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, sweating, dizziness (Often develop agoraphobia because they’re afraid of getting into a situation in which they can’t escape and having a panic attack – they don’t go outside or leave their comfort zone) Phobic disorder: intense, irrational fears of specific objects or situations (Phobias) (Phobias differ from other disorders because there’s an actual, identifiable cause – you see a spider in your home and don’t go home for a week) Severity depends on the specific stimuli that triggers the anxiety It’s pretty easy to avoid heights or flying, but much more difficult to avoid electricity or strangers! Popular fears Glossophobia: fear of public speaking (74%) Necrophobia: fear of death (68%) Arachnophobia: fear of spiders (30.5%) Achluophobia: fear of darkness (11%) Acrophobia: fear of heights (10%) Sociophobia: fear of people or social situations (7.9%) Aerophobia: fear of flying (6.5%) Claustrophobia: fear of confined spaces (2.5%) Agoraphobia: fear of open spaces (2.2%) Brontophobia: fear of thunder and lightening (2%) ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder Obsessions: persistent, unwanted thoughts or ideas Compulsions: irresistible urges to repeatedly carry out some act that seems strange and unreasonable Completing compulsions leads to a shortterm reduction in anxiety Switching the lights on and off 10 times before leaving the room Into the Darkest Corner Every time you do it, you’re reinforcing the behavior and strengthening the connection between the two OCDRelated Disorders: Hoarding: compulsive collecting, poor organization skills, and difficulty discarding things They always need their stuff and always need to shop for new things Excoriation: the compulsion of picking at one’s skin, sometimes to the point of injury Kind of like when we pick at scabs…but times 100 They might think there’s something living in their skin or they think they’re dirty Trichotillomania: compulsively pulling at the hair from the scalp, eyebrows, and other body areas Might not have eyelashes, eyebrows, head hair, arm hair, leg hair, etc. Body Dysmorphic Disorder: a distressing preoccupation with imagined or slight flaws in one’s physical appearance Obsessions about looks Might be just with one body part Go to extraordinary measures to make it right Plastic surgery, bulimia, etc. PTSD Posttraumatic stress disorder: anxiety disorder that develops through exposure to a traumatic event that has overwhelmed the person’s abilities to cope Flashbacks (reliving the event) Avoiding emotions and emotional experiences Exaggerated startle response Sleep difficulties, nightmares Memory and concentration difficulties Impulsive outbursts, aggressiveness OCD and Anxiety causes Causes: Deficiencies in neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine) Genetics Tendency to experience negative thoughts Overactive autonomic nervous system Learned events from childhood (phobias) Mood disorders Mood disorders: disturbances in emotional feelings strong enough to interfere with daily lives Major depression: severe form of depression; lasts at least 2 weeks Interferes with concentration, decisionmaking, and sociability 1 out of 6 people in the US will succumb to clinical depression during their lifetime Women are twice as likely to develop major depression disorder 32 is the average age of MDD onset Bipolar disorder: extreme mood swings with one or more episodes of mania Mania: extended state of intense, wild elation Little sleep, tremendous energy, impulsive behavior Swings can last a few months to years Depressive period usually last longer Causes: Genetics Neurotransmitters (serotonin) Oversensitivity to negative environmental feedback Learned helplessness: powerlessness and a perceived lack of control Rumination, negative thoughts and beliefs Dissociative Disorders Dissociative disorders: separation of critical parts of the personality that normally work together Dissociative identity disorder: two or more distinct personalities within the same person Very rare disorder Different allergies, eyeglass prescriptions, accents, etc. Severe childhood trauma and sexual abuse is common Sufferers are sometimes aware of the other personalities, sometimes not Schizophrenia Schizophrenia: Disturbances of thought and language Typically diagnosed in early adulthood (1825) Positive symptoms: Hallucinations Delusions Agitation Disorganized and referential thinking Negative symptoms Social withdrawal Flat affect/lack of emotional response Catatonia or unusual movement patterns Causes: Biological factors: Genetics Brain abnormalities Less use of frontal lobes Enlarged ventricles (deterioration of brain tissue) Excess dopamine Environmental factors: Diathesisstress model: inborn predisposition + environmental stressors Personality Disorders Personality disorders: a set of inflexible, maladaptive personality traits that keep a person from functioning properly in society Roots in childhood Disorder must span several years to be diagnosed Difficult to treat Antisocial: individuals show no regard for the moral and ethical rules of society 5% of adults in the U.S. (primarily men) Often appears intelligent and likeable Manipulative, deceptive, an lack remorse Can be violent, but not necessarily Genetic predisposition may interact with testosterone Early childhood abuse may act as a trigger Low levels of autonomic nervous system response Borderline: pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, selfimage, and emotions, and marked impulsivity Frantic efforts to avoid being abandoned Selfdamaging impulsive behavior (reckless sex, drugs, drinking, spending, et.) Often related to selfharm (cutting, selfmutilating) Causes include genetics, childhood abuse Chapter 16: Therapies Biological Therapy Drug therapy: control of psychological disorders through the use of drugs Drug therapy is used mainly in three diagnostic categories: Anxiety disorders Mood disorders Schizophrenia Anti-anxiety drugs (tranquilizers): drugs that lower levels of anxiety by reducing excitability and increasing feelings of calmness Benxodiazepines (Xanax, valium) Addictive, potentially serious side effects, especially if taken with alcohol Antidepressants: medications that regulate mood Tricylics, MAOIs, SSRIs All work on serotonin and norepinephrine Also useful for a number of anxiety Lithium is used for bipolar disorder (manic phases) Research supports the key influence of the neurochemical serotonin in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) SSRIs work in the synaptic gap between neurons to combat depressive symptoms SSRIs: Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft, Lexapro Antipsychotics: drugs that diminish agitated behavior, reduce tension, decrease hallucinations, improve social behavior, and produce better sleep patterns in individuals who have a severe psychotic psychological disorder Most block dopamine receptors Covers up symptoms; not a cure Side effects and client adherence ECT (electroconvulsive shock therapy): a procedure in which an electrical current is briefly administered in order to cause a seizure in the brain Disorientation, confusion, memory loss, and headaches Used when all other treatments have failed (used most often with MDD, Severe) Psychotherapy: Psychotherapy: a nonmedical process that helps individuals with psychological disorders recognize and overcome their problems AKA “Talk therapy” or “counseling” Can be given alone or in conjunction with biological therapy Psychodynamic therapy: stresses the importance of the unconscious mind, extensive interpretation by the therapist, and the role of early childhood experiences in the development of an individuals problems Psychoanalysis: classic Freudian therapy that involves the analysis of an individuals unconscious thoughts Free association: patient is instructed to say whatever comes to mind Therapist recognizes connections and patterns Dream interpretation: discovers the symbolic meaning of the patients dreams Manifest content: overt storyline Latent content: hidden, symbolic meaning Transference: the transfer to a psychoanalyst feelings of love or anger that had been originally directed to a patient’s parents or other authority figures If the patient remind us of someone we love, then we’ll treat them nicely and wont really challenge them If the patient reminds us of someone we hate, then we’ll resent them really badly Resistance: inability or unwillingness to discuss certain memories, thoughts, or motivations Client will come in, pay you to help them, but won’t want to change Signals “problem areas” Most clients have already been to therapy so they won’t do stuff they’ve already done Humanistic approach: people are encouraged to understand themselves and grow personally Optimistic views Person-centered therapy: goal is to eliminate conditions of worth and to reach one’s potential for self-actualization Therapists are facilitators who provide a warm and caring atmosphere Reflective speech: a technique in which the therapist mirrors the clients own feelings back to the client “You sound very angry” Three required elements: Unconditional positive regard Empathy Genuineness Behavioral treatment approaches: build on the basic principles of learning Abnormal behavior is learned and can be unlearned Uses classical and operant conditioning techniques Aversive conditioning: pairing a pleasant and unpleasant stimuli to reduce the likelihood of the behavior occurring again Systematic desensitization: gradual exposure to an anxiety-producing stimulus is paired with relaxation to extinguish the anxiety response Applied behavioral analysis: establishing connections between behaviors and rewards so that individuals engage in appropriate behavior and extinguish inappropriate behavior Understand actual vs. imagined outcomes Cognitive approach: emphasize that cognitions, or thoughts, are the main source of psychological problems Cognitive restructuring: changing a pattern of thought that is presumed to be causing maladaptive behavior or emotion Rational-emotional behavior therapy: attempt to restructure a person’s belief system into a more realistic, rational, and logical set of views Three basic demands people create: I must perform well and win the approval of others Other people must treat me kindly and fairly My life conditions must not be frustrating, but rather should be enjoyable Cognitive-behavior therapy: a combination of cognitive therapy and behavior therapy A- activating B- belief system C- consequences D- dispute Goal is to reduce self-defeating thoughts and modifying behavior Self-efficacy: the belief that the individual can master the situation and produce positive outcomes Group therapy: uses group therapy sessions to bring together individuals who share a particular psychological disorder Family and couple therapy: group therapy among family members; focuses on the entire family system rather than one specific individual More on relational therapy AKA “Couples and family therapy” and “Systematic therapy” performed by “marital and family therapists”, or “MFTs” (in OK) MFTs look through a systemic lens They see the client (identified patient) as not living in a vacuum; the client is influenced by and influences those in his-her family and environment Another way to visualize how MFTs view clients Does therapy work? Psychotherapy: Is effective for most people Does not work for everyone Certain types of treatments are somewhat better for specific types of problems No single form of therapy works best fro every problem Most therapies share several basic similar elements Approximately 10% of clients experience a worsening of symptoms as a result of taking part in therapy Does a worsening of symptoms mean that the client is not benefiting from treatments? For example, the adage “It gets worse before it gets better” is often very true for therapy One specific approach to treating couples, Emotionally Focused Couple Therapy, or EFT, has shown in the research to be very effective 70-73% recovery rate from marital distress in 10-12 sessions of therapy 90% rate of significant improvement Alliance with therapists Female partner’s faith in her partner’s caring Across therapy models Substantial research supports “4 common factors” across therapy models, which are indicative of successful treatment outcomes: 40% - Client and Extra-therapeutic factors 30% - Client/Therapist relationship factors 15% - Client’s expectancy 15% - Therapist’s model/techniques Empirically-supported treatments (ESTs) Research studies have supported specific treatment approached/models in treating specific disorders/problems For example: CT is an EST for treating Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Also, CBT + Psychotropic Medication Management (PMM) is more effective than CBT or PMM alone (found in research)
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