Chemistry 1: Test 3 Study Guide
Chemistry 1: Test 3 Study Guide ch 1213
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Greer on Saturday April 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ch 1213 at Mississippi State University taught by Erin Dornshuld in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 183 views. For similar materials see Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 04/02/16
• chemical reaction- a process that neither creates not destroys atoms, but rearranges them in chemical compounds • chemical equation- uses chemical symbols to denote what occurs in a chemical reaction • reactant- each chemical species that appears to the left of the arrow • product- each species that appears to the right of the arrow • aqueous- dissolved in water • stoichiometric coefﬁcients- used to achieve a balanced chemical equation • KNOW HOW TO BALANCE CHEMICAL EQUATIONS • The Greek letter delta denotes that heat has been added to the reaction. • combination reaction- two or more reactants combine to form a single product • decomposition reaction- two or more products form from a single reactant • double replacement reaction- two compounds react and the positive ions and the negative ions of the two reactants switch places to form two new products • acid/base reaction- an acid and a base produce water and a salt • combustion reaction- a substance hat burns in the presence of oxygen; products will ALWAYS be carbon dioxide and water • combustion analysis- the experimental determination of an empirical formula can be carried out using this method • limiting reagent— the reactant that is completely consumed • excess reagents- reactants that are still present after the limiting reagent is consumed • theoretical yield- using stoichiometry to determine the amount of product formed in a reaction • actual yield- the product that was actually obtained • percent yield- the ratio of theoretical yield and actual yield multiplied by 100% • KNOW HOW TO FIND LIMITING REAGENT AND EXCESS REAGENT • KNOW HOW TO CALCULATE THEORETICAL YIELD AND PERCENT YIELD • solution- a homogenous mixture of two or more substances; saltwater • solvent- the substance present in the largest amount; water • solute- the substance in a solution that is not the solvent; salt • electrolyte- a substance that dissolves in water to produce ions; conducts electricity • non-electrolyte- a substance that dissolves in water that does not produce ions; does NOT conduct electricity • dissociation- the process by which an ionic compound breaks apart into its constituent ions • ionization- the process by which a molecular compound forms ions when it dissolves • Acids and bases are molecules that ionize in water. • acid- a substance that produces H+ ions when dissolved in water • base- a substance that produces OH- ions when dissolved in water • strong electrolyte- a compound that dissociates completely in water • !!!MEMORIZE!!! Strong Acids Strong Bases HCl LiOH HBr NaOH HI KOH HNO 3 RbOH HClO 3 CsOH HClO 4 Ca(OH) 2 H 2O 4 Sr(OH) 2 Ba(OH) 2 • weak electrolyte- compound that does NOT completely dissociate in water • Strong acids and strong bases are strong electrolytes. • A double arrow in a chemical equation means that the dissolved parts are able to “bounce” back and forth to create the reactant even though it is dissolved in water; NOT completely dissociated/dissolved in water; also known as dynamic chemical equilibrium. • ionic compound- metal plus a nonmetal • precipitate- an insoluble solid product that separates from a solution • precipitation reaction- corresponding chemical reaction that forms a precipitate • hydration- when an ionic substance dissociates in water, the water molecules remove the individual ions from the 3D crystal lattice and surround them • insoluble- very slightly soluble • !!!MEMORIZE!!! Water- soluble Compounds Insoluble Exceptions Compounds containing an alkali metal (ﬁrst column on periodic table) cation (Li+, Na+, K+, + Rb+, Cs+) or the ammonium ion (NH ) 4 Compounds containing the nitrate ion (NO ), 3 acetate ion (C 2 O3),2or chlorate ion (ClO ) 3- Compounds containing the chloride ion (Cl-), Compounds containing Ag+, Hg 22+, or Pb2+ bromide ion (Br-), or iodide ion (I-) Compounds containing Ag+, Hg 22+, Pb , Ca ,2+ Compounds containing the sulfate ion (SO ) 4- 2+ 2+ Sr , or Ba • !!!MEMORIZE!!! Water-insoluble Compounds Soluble Exceptions Compounds containing the carbonate ion (CO ), 32- phosphate ion (PO ), chromate ion (CrO ), or 2- Compounds containing Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+, or 4 4 NH 4+ sulﬁde ion (S )- Compounds containing Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+, or Compounds containing the hydroxide ion (OH-) 2+ Ba • metathesis=double replacement reaction • molecular equations- equations not explicitly writing out the individual ions • ionic equations- represent any compound that exists completely or predominantly as ions in the solution • net ionic equations- only show the ions directly involved in the reaction • spectator ions- in an ionic equation, ions that are found on both sides of the arrow (equal sign) • Arrhenius acid- a substance that increases H+ concentration when added to water • Arrhenius base- a substance that increases OH- concentration when added to water • Brønsted acid- a proton donor • Brønsted base- a proton acceptor • monoprotic- an acid with one ionizable hydrogen • diprotic- an acid with two ionizable hydrogens • triprotic- an acid with three ionizable hydrogens • Most of the time we call acids with more than one ionizable hydrogen, polyprotic • neutralization reaction- a reaction between an acid and a base the produce water and a salt • salt- an ionic compound • oxidized- lose electrons • reduced- gain electrons • oxidizing agent- the species that accepts the electrons • reducing agent- the species that donates the electrons • oxidation number (oxidation state)- the charge an atom would have if electrons were transferred completely • Elements that show an increase in oxidation number are oxidized. • Elements that show a decrease in oxidation number are reduced. • KNOW HOW TO ASSIGN OXIDATION NUMBERS • single displacement reaction- when an element or ion moves out of one compound and into another • activity series- a list of metals (and hydrogen) arranged from bottom to top in order of increasing ease of oxidation • An element in the activity series will be oxidized by the ions of any element that appears below it. • Elements will NOT be oxidized by elements that appear above it • concentration- the amount of solute dissolved in a given quantity of a solvent or solution • molarity (M)- deﬁned as the number of moles of solute per liter of solution • dilution- make a concentrated solution less concentrated • KNOW HOW TO FIND MOLARITY • KNOW HOW TO FIND MOLARITY FROM A DILUTION • gravimetric analysis- an analytical technique based on the measurements of mass • KNOW HOW TO CALCULATE PERCENT BY MASS • titration- a standard solution is added gradually to another solution of unknown concentration until the chemical reaction between the two solutions is complete • standard solution- a solution of accurately known concentration • equivalence point- the point in the titration at which all the acid (or base) has been neutralized • endpoint- the point at which the color changes • disproportionation reaction- occur when one element undergoes both oxidation and reduction • KNOW HOW TO DO ACID/BASE NEUTRALIZATION TITRATION
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