PSY 223 Textbook Notes
PSY 223 Textbook Notes PSY 223
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sharon Liang on Saturday April 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 223 at University of Kentucky taught by Jessica Van Neste in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 131 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 04/02/16
PSY 223 Exam 3 T extbook Notes Chapter 14 Puberty Begins Puberty: time between the first onrush of hormones and full adult physical development; usually lasts 3-5 years; many more years are required to achieve psychosocial maturity Menarche: girl’s first menstrual period signaling that she has begun ovulation. Pregnancy is biologically possible, but ovulation and menstruation are often irregular for years after menarche Spermache: boy’s first ejaculation of sperm. Erections can occur as early as infancy, but ejaculation signals sperm production. May occur during sleep in a “wet dream” or via direct stimulation. Hormone: organic chemical substance that’s produced by one body tissue and conveyed via the bloodstream to another to affect some physiological function Pituitary: gland in the brain that responds to a signal from the hypothalamus by producing many hormones, including those that regulate growth and that control other glands among them the adrenal and sex glands Adrenal glands: 2 glands located above the kidneys that produce hormones HPA (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal) axis: sequence of hormone production originating in the hypothalamus and moving to the pituitary and then to the adrenal glands Gonads: paired sex glands (ovaries in females, testicles in males) that produce hormones and gametes HPG (hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad) axis: sequence of hormone production originating in the hypothalamus and moving to the pituitary and then to gonads Estradiol: sex hormone considered as the chief estrogen produced by females much more than males Testosterone: sex hormone best known of the androgens (male hormones); secreted in far greater amounts by males than females Circadian rhythm: day-night cycle of biological activity that occurs approximately every 24 hours Secular trend: long term upward or downward direction of a certain set of statistical measurements as opposed to a smaller, shorter cyclical variation. As because of improved nutrition and medical care, kids have tended to reach their adult height earlier and their adult height has increased Leptin: hormone that affects appetite and is believed to affect the onset of puberty. Leptin levels increase during childhood and peak at around age 12 Growth and Nutrition Growth spurt: sudden and rapid physical growth that occurs during puberty. Each body part increases in size on a schedule Body image: person’s idea of how his/her body looks Anorexia nervosa: eating disorder characterized by self-starvation. Affected individuals voluntarily under-eat and often over-exercise, depriving their vital organs or nutrition Bulimia nervosa: eating disorder characterized by binge eating and subsequent purging, usually by induced vomiting and/or use of laxatives. Sexual Maturation Primary sex characteristics: parts of the body that are directly involved in reproduction including the vagina, uterus, ovaries, testicles, and penis Secondary sex characteristics: physical traits that aren’t directly involved in reproduction but that indicate sexual maturity such as a man’s beard and a woman’s breasts Problems with Adolescent Sex - Teen births have decreased in every nation - The use of “protection” has risen - Teen abortion rate is down Sex too soon 1) Earlier puberty and weaker social taboos mean teens have sexual experiences at younger ages. Early sex correlates with depression and drug abuse. 2) Most teen moms lack partners to help them. A century ago, teen moms were married and now in the US, 85% of them are unmarried 3) Raising a child has become more complex and expensive and most young grandmas are employed so fewer of them can help 4) STIs are more common and dangerous Child sexual abuse: any erotic activity that arouses an adult and excites, shames, or confuses a child whether or not the victim protests and whether or not genital contact is involved Sexually transmitted infection (STI): disease spread by sexual contact, including syphilis, gonorrhea, genital herpes, chlamydia, and HIV Chapter 15 Logic and Self Adolescent egocentrism: characteristic of adolescent thinking that leads young people (ages 10-13) to focus on themselves to the exclusion of others Personal fable: aspect of adolescent egocentrism characterized by an adolescent’s belief that his/her thoughts, feelings, and experiences are unique, more wonderful, or more awful than anyone else’s Invincibility fable: an adolescent’s egocentric conviction that s/he can’t be overcome or even harmed by anything that might defeat a normal mortal such as unprotected sex, drug abuse, or high speed driving Imaginary audience: other people who, in an adolescent’s egocentric belief, are watching and taking note of his/her appearance, ideas, and behavior. This belief makes many teens very self-conscious Formal operational thought: In Piaget’s theory, the 4 and final stage of cognitive development, characterized by more systematic logical thinking and by the ability to understand and systematically manipulate abstract concepts Hypothetical thought: reasoning that includes propositions and possibilities that may not reflect reality. Deductive reasoning: reasoning from a general statement, premise, or principle through logical steps to figure out specifics aka top-down reasoning Inductive reasoning: reasoning from specific experiences or facts to reach a general conclusion aka bottom-up reasoning Sunk cost fallacy: mistaken belief that if money, time, or effort that can’t be recovered Base rate neglect: common fallacy in which a person ignores the overall frequency of some behavior or characteristic in making a decision. 2 Models of Thinking Dual-process model: notion that 2 networks exist within the human brain, one for emotional and one for analytical processing of stimuli Intuitive thought: arises from an emotion or a hunch, beyond rational explanation, and is influenced by past experiences and cultural assumptions Analytic thought: results from analysis such as a systematic ranking of pros and cons, risks and consequences, possibilities and facts; fully depends on logic and rationality Digital Natives Cyberbullying: occurs when one spreads insults or rumors about another by means of emails, texts, or cell phone videos Teaching and Learning Secondary education: literally the period after primary education (elementary or grade school) and before tertiary education (college). Usually occurs from ages 12-18 (middle and high school) though it varies by school and nation. Middle school: school for kids in the grades between elementary and high school. Usually begins with grade 6-8 Entity theory of intelligence: approach to understanding intelligence that sees ability as innate, a fixed quantity present at birth; those who hold this view don’t believe that effort enhances achievement Incremental theory of intelligence: approach to understanding intelligence that holds that intelligence can be directly increased by effort; those who subscribe to this view believe they can master whatever they seek to learn if they pay attention, participate in class, study, complete homework, etc. High-stakes test: evaluation that’s critical in determining success or failure. If a single test determines whether a student will graduate or be promoted, it’s a high-stakes test PISA (Program for Internal Student Assessment): an international test taken by 15-year-olds in 50 nations that’s designed to measure problem solving and cognition in daily life Chapter 16 Identity Identity vs role confusion: Erikson’s term for the 5 stage of development to which the person tries to figure who they are but is confused as to which of many possible roles to adopt Identity achievement: Erikson’s term for the attainment of identity or the point at which a person understands who he or she is as a unique individual in accord with past experiences and future plans Role confusion: situation in which an adolescent doesn’t seem to know or care what his/her identity is aka identity/role diffusion Foreclosure: Erikson’s term for premature identity formation, which occurs when an adolescent adopts parents’ or society’s roles and values wholesale, w/o questioning or analysis Moratorium: adolescent’s choice of a socially acceptable way to postpone making identity-achievement decisions such as going to college 4 arenas of identity formation 1) Religious 2) Political 3) Vocational 4) Sexual Relationships with Adults Closeness within the family 1) Communication 2) Support 3) Connectedness 4) Control Parental monitoring: parents’ ongoing awareness of what their kids are doing, where, and with whom Peer Power Peer pressure: encouragement to conform to one’s friends or contemporaries in behavior, dress, and attitude, usually considered a negative force, as when adolescent peers encourage one another to defy adult authority Deviancy training: destructive peer support in which one person shows another how to rebel against authority or social norms Sexual orientation: refers to whether a person is sexually and romantically attracted to others of the same, opposite, or both sexes Sadness and Anger Familism: belief that family members should support each other sacrificing individual freedom and success if necessary in order to preserve family unity and protect the family from outside sources Clinical depression: feelings of hopelessness, lethargy, and worthlessness that last 2 weeks or more Rumination: repeatedly thinking and talking about past experiences can contribute to depression Suicidal ideation: thinking about suicides usually with some serious emotional and intellectual or cognitive overtones Parasuicide: any potentially lethal action against oneself that doesn’t result in death aka attempted/failed suicide Cluster suicides: several suicides committed by members of a group within a brief time period Adolescence-limited offender: person whose criminal activity stops by age 21 Life-course-persistent offender: person whose criminal activity begins in early adolescence and continues throughout life; a career criminal Drug Use and Abuse Generational forgetting: idea that each new generation forgets what the previous generation learned. As used here, the term refers to knowledge about the harm drugs can do Chapter 17 Growth and Strength Organ reserve: capacity of organs to allow the body to cope with stress via extra, unused functioning ability Homeostasis: the adjustment of all the body’s systems to keep physiological functions in a state of equilibrium. As the body ages, it takes longer for these homeostatic adjustments to occur, so it becomes harder for older bodies to adapt to stress Allostasis: dynamic body adjustment, related to homeostasis affecting overall physiology over time. The main difference is that hemostasis requires an immediate response whereas allostasis requires longer- term adjustment Set point: particular body weight that an individual’s homeostatic processes strive to maintain Body mass index (BMI): ratio of a person’s weight in kilograms or pounds divided by height in meters or inches squared respectively Sexual Activity Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) Emotional stress 1) Reproduction 2) Relationship 3) Recreation Psychopathology Diathesis-stress model: view that psychological disorders such as schizophrenia are produced by the interaction of a genetic vulnerability (diathesis) and stressful environmental factors and life events Hikikomori: Japanese word literally meaning to pull away. It’s an anxiety disorder common among young adults in Japan. Sufferers isolate themselves from the outside world by staying inside their homes for months or even years at a time Taking Risks Extreme sports: forms of recreation that include apparent risk of injury or death and that are attractive and thrilling as a result. An example would be motocross Drug abuse: occurs whenever a person uses a drug that’s harmful to physical, cognitive, or psychosocial well-being Drug addiction: condition of drug dependence in which the absence of the given drug in the individual’s system produces a drive (physiological, psychological, or both) to ingest more of the drug. Social norms approach: method of reeducating risky behavior that uses emerging adults’ desire to follow social norms by making them aware, through the use of surveys, of the prevalence of various behaviors within their peer group Chapter 18 Postformal Thought Postformal thought: originated because several developmentalists th agreed that Piaget’s 4 stage (formal operational thought) was inadequate to describe adult thinking. Delay discounting: tendency to undervalue or downright ignore future consequences and rewards in favor of more immediate gratification Subjective thought: thinking that’s strongly influenced by persona qualities of the individual thinker, such as past experiences, cultural assumptions, and future goals Objective thought: thinking that’s not influenced by the thinker’s personal qualities but instead involves facts and numbers are universally considered true and valid Stereotype threat: though in a person’s mind that one’s appearance or behavior will be misread to confirm another person’s oversimplified prejudiced attitudes Dialectical thought: most advanced cognitive process characterized by the ability to consider a thesis and its antithesis simultaneously and thus to arrive at a synthesis. Dialectical thought makes possible an ongoing awareness of pros/cons, advantages/disadvantages, possibilities/limits composed of 3 stages in order 1) Thesis: proposition or statement of belief 2) Antithesis: proposition or statement of belief that opposes the thesis 3) Synthesis: new idea that integrates the thesis and its antithesis thus representing a new and more comprehensive level of truth Morals and Religion Morality of care: in Gilligan’s view, moral principles that reflect the tendency of females to be reluctant to judge right and wrong in absolute terms because they’re socialized to be nurturing, compassionate, and nonjudgmental Morality of justice: in Gilligan’s view, moral principles that reflect the tendency of males to emphasize justice over compassion judging right and wrong in absolute terms Defining Issues Test (DIT): series of questions developed by James Rest and designed to assess respondents’ level of moral development by having them rank possible solutions to moral dilemmas. Stages of Faith 1) Intuitive-projective faith 2) Mythic-literal faith 3) Synthetic-conventional faith 4) Individual-reflective faith 5) Conjunctive faith 6) Universalizing faith Cognitive Growth and Higher Education Massification: idea that establishing institutions of higher learning and encouraging college enrollment can benefit everyone (the masses) Massive open online courses (MOOCs): course that’s offered solely online for college credit. Typically, tuition is very low plus thousands of students enroll Chapter 19 Continuity and Change Social clock: timetable based on social norms for accomplishing certain life events such as when to finish school, marry, start a career, have kids, and retire Plasticity genes: genes and alleles that make people more susceptible to environmental influences for better or worse. This is part of differential sensitivity Intimacy Intimacy vs isolation: 6 of Erikson’s 8 stages of development. Adults seek someone with whom to share their lives in an enduring and self- sacrificing commitment. Without such commitment, they risk profound aloneness and isolation Forms of Love Passion Intimacy Commitment Liking No Yes No Infatuation Yes No No Empty love No No Yes Romantic love Yes Yes No Fatuous love Yes No Yes Companionate No Yes Yes love Consummate love Yes Yes Yes Hookup: sexual encounter between 2 people who aren’t in a romantic relationship therefore, neither intimacy nor commitment is expected Choice overload: having so many possibilities that a thoughtful choice becomes difficult. This is particularly apparent when social networking and other technology make many potential romantic partners available. Cohabitation: arrangement in which a couple live together in a committed relationship but aren’t formally married Homogamy: defined by developmentalists as marriage between individuals who tend to be similar with respect to such variables as attitudes, interests, goals, SES, religion, ethnic, background, and local origin Heterogamy: defined by developmentalists as marriage between individuals who tend to be dissimilar with respect to such variables as attitudes, interests, goals, SES, religion, ethnic background, and local origin Demand/withdraw interaction: situation in a romantic relationship wherein one partner wants to address an issue and the other refuses resulting in opposite reactions (one insistent on talk while the other cuts short the conversation) Forms of partner abuse 1) Situational couple violence: fighting between romantic partners brought on more by the situation than by the deep personality problems of the individuals. Both partners are typically abusers and victims 2) Intimate terrorism: violent and demanding form of abuse in a romantic relationship in which the victim is frightened to fight back, seek help, or withdraw. In this case, the victim is in danger of physical as well as psychological harm Emerging Adults and Their Parents Linked lives: lives in which the success, health, and well-being of each family member are connected to those of other members, including those of another generation, as in the relationship between parents and kids. Helicopter parents: label used for parents who hover (like a helicopter) over their emerging adult children. The term is pejorative, but parental involvement is sometimes helpful.
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