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Study Guide for Exam 3

by: Sydney Diekmann

Study Guide for Exam 3 Biol 2002

Marketplace > University of Minnesota > Biology > Biol 2002 > Study Guide for Exam 3
Sydney Diekmann
U of M
GPA 3.9

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Concepts include: Speciation, genetic technology, phylogenetics, genomics, and the nature of science. Review over in-class guided inquiries is added where needed. Note: This exam will include i...
Foundations of Biology
Dr. Susan Wick, Dr. David Matthes
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sydney Diekmann on Monday December 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 2002 at University of Minnesota taught by Dr. Susan Wick, Dr. David Matthes in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 106 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Biology in Biology at University of Minnesota.


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Date Created: 12/14/15
Study Guide for Exam 3 Concepts include: Speciation, genetic technology, phylogenetics, genomics, and the nature of science Speciation  defined as the splitting event that creates two+ distinct species from a single ancestral species o species are defined as evolutionarily independent population or group of populations Species identification Criteria Limits concept Biological species  no gene flow occurs between can’t be seen in fossils or concept populations that are reproductively species that reproduce isolated from each other asexually  prezygotic isolation prevents individuals of different species from mating  postzygotic isolation prevents offspring from different species from surviving/reproducing Morphospecies  evolutionarily independent lineages can lead to naming of 2+ concept differ in size, shape, or other species when there is only morphological features one polymorphic species  differences are more likely to arise if with different phenotypes, populations are independent/isolated cannot identify species from gene flow which differ in traits other  applicable to sexual, asexual, and than morphology, fossil species features used to distinguish traits are subjective Phylogenetic species  identifies species based on the concept evolutionary history of populations  monophyletic group consists of an ancestral population, all of its descendants, and only those descendants  applicable to any population – different specieshave different synapomorphies if they are isolated from gene flow and have evolved independently Type of speciation Occurs when… Cause of occurrence Which leads to… Allopatric populations become dispersal – population genetic drift and natural geographically disperses to new habitat, selection to new habitat separated colonizes it, and founds a new population vicariance – physical interruption of gene flow splitting of a habitat into -> sister species that are groups that are physically close relatives isolated Sympatric populations live in the external events – disruptive prezygotic reproductive same geographic area selection for extreme isolation as a result of or close enough to phenotypes based on natural selection for make interbreeding different ecological niches adaptions to two possible different niches internal events – polyploidy -> doubling of chromosomal mutations chromosome number Allopolyploidy reproduction between chromosomes are speciation 2 organisms of duplicated in mitosis different species following meiosis -> production of diploid gametes (nondisjunction) Autopolyploidy reproduction between chromosomes are speciation 2 organisms of the duplicated in mitosis same species following meiosis -> production of diploid gametes (nondisjunction) When species that have diverged come back into contact, several things can occur… Has divergence occurred? Will result in… Which occurs when… Reinforcement hybrid offspring have lower fitness than parents -> natural selection that reinforces differences that evolved while populations were isolated Hybrid zones hybrid offspring are capable of mating Yes and producing viable offspring that have intermediate features of parents Hybridization hybrid offspring have higher fitness due to unique combination of traits that happen to be adaptive to environment populations begin to No interbreed and fuse over time – gene flow erases any previous distinction Type of barrier Description Examples pre-zygotic reproductive isolation temporal/habitat – different habitats mechanisms that occur behavioral – different mating rituals before breeding takes mechanical – incompatible genitalia place gametic – unable to produce hybrid offspring post-zygotic reproductive isolation offspring are non-viable (reduced fitness -> death) mechanisms that occur offspring are sterile (reinforcement of speciation) after breeding takes place  fruit fly case study o pre-zygotic reproductive barriers exist  different fruit preference (behavioral)  different mating periods (temporal)  no mechanical or gametic isolation because offspring can be produced o unsure of existence of post-zygotic barriers  sterility of offspring has yet to be determined  offspring display less preference for fruit odors  increased or decreased fitness? o morphological species concept weighed less highly than biological species concept  other species within this genus look morphologically similar  genetically distinguishable  how much of genome is shared? Genetic Technology Technology type What it does General procedure Recombiant DNA inserts functional copy of  use reverse transcriptase to produce technology gene into bacteria to cDNAs increase expression  use plasmids in cDNA cloning  use restriction enzymes and DNA ligase to cut/paste DNA  cellular transformation *DNA library: collection of DNA sequences which is inserted into a vector, individual DNAs found using probe PCR replicates a specific section  DNA, primers (forward and reverse), of DNA, producing many thermally tolerant DNA polymerase, dNTPs, identical copies or a salt solution for enzymes particular region  denaturing – heating separates strands  annealing – primers bind to template DNA  extension – polymerase uses dNTPs to synthesize complementary strand starting at primers Dideoxy DNA gene sequencing – PCR +  many dNTPs, few ddNTPs, template DNA, sequencing ddNTPs that terminate primer for target sequence, DNA synthesis, fragment length polymerase correlates with the location  DNA synthesis occurs – each strand ends of each base with a labeled ddNTP (corresponding to a base on the template strand)  collect DNA strands that are produced, electrophoresis to separate fragments  read output on automated seq. machine Gene mapping genetic map shows relative look for certain marker that is inherited along with positions of genes on the a disease -> suggests that marker gene and disease same chromosome, gene are physically close to each other physical map shows the absolute position useful for understanding the phenotype correlated with a gene and for genetic testing and gene therapy Gene therapy replacement/augmentation  can occur using retroviruses packed with of defective copies of the foreign genes gene with normal alleles *need to know: sequence of the allele associated with the healthy phenotype, method for introducing allele into affected individuals with correct expression in the correct amount at the correct time Phylogenetics  evolution by natural selection -> changes in rRNA sequence -> speciation -> tree of life o species that are part of the same evolutionary lineage should share certain changes in rRNA that no other species have  ancestral traits are characteristics that existed in an ancestor and derived traits are the modified forms of ancestral traits found in the descendant (originates from evolutionary processes) Evolutionary event Can occur And is caused by… Which results in... through… Homology – traits shared ancestry shared ancestry monophyletic groups (includes are similar due to an ancestral population and all shared ancestry its descendants but no others) similar traits convergent evolution – polyphyletic groups (do not evolved when natural selection include the most recent independently favors similar solution common ancestor) from different to problems posed by a Homoplasy - lineages similar way of making a similarity in living in different organisms due to species reasons other than a reversal in paraphyletic group (includes an common ancestry change of ancestral population and some nucleotide bases of its descendants, but not all) can occur – makes it look like there was never a change  evolutionary relationships determined using the principle of parsimony o tree that implies the least amount of change is advantageous  guided inquiry key points o some characters are more meaningful than others  characters with genetic basis are better able to predict phylogenetic relationships  coat color may not have genetic bases – selection for or against a vertain coat color due to habitat may result in different coat colors for the same species  diet may have a genetic base – influenced by teeth shape and size (composition) o assigning phylogenetic relationships is susceptible to bias  i.e. grouping ‘rodent’ type organisms together (mole, opossum, tree shrew, etc.) Genomics Sequencing How it sequences General procedure Sequenced type using Shotgun genome is broken  break DNA at random locations into bioinformatics sequencing up into a set of fragments (160 kb) overlapping  clone using BACs to grow large fragments that are numbers of each fragment small enough to be  break into 1 kb fragments after sequenced purification completely and  close fragments using plasmids regions of overlap  sequence each fragment are used for putting  assemble sequences from the 1 kb -> sequenced 160 kb by finding regions of overlap fragments back in  assemble full sequence from 160 kb by the correct order finding regions of overlap Next- measures change in  bead captures one fragment of DNA -> generation pH/voltage and PCR amplifies that fragment sequencing determines which  beads flow across a chip and deposited nucleotide is into a well associated with that  well flooded with dNTP, change in pH is change recorded and dNTP is associated with that change  overlap in fragment sequences ued to determine complete sequence How to find genes in an organism Organism Characteristics of genome Procedure Accompanied by… type Bacterial/ compact, size and metabolic find ‘gene-sized’ finding sequences of archaeal capabilities are correlated stretches of sequence typical promoters, (parasites), genes in one species that lack internal stop ribosome binding sites, are not widely shared with others, codon and are flaked by other regulatory sites, contents vary across species, stop and start codon open reading frames exhibit lateral gene transfer Eukaryotic size varies, # of genes is more mRNA converted to similar and dominated by cDNA using reverse repeated DNA sequence transcriptase, which is (transposable elements)that do sequenced to produce not code for products used by an expressed sequence organism, exhibit alternative tag (used to represent splicing protein-coding genes)  metagenomics is the sequencing of all genes present in a community of bacteria or archaea  functional genomics involved large-scale analysis of gene expression (how genes work together to produce a phenotype) o common tool = microarray: different single-stranded DNA segments attached at one end to a glass slide  proteomics is the large-scale study of all the proteins in a cell/organism o common tool = microarray  systems biology is understanding how interactions between individual parts of a biological system create new properties o -> emergent properties Nature of Science  Dover case - sets precedent, reduces credibility of what is taught, reduces quality control over what is taught, expands scientific inquiry to untestable questions with no alternative hypothesis, spreading of social issues can have a greater effect  intelligent design is not a science o cannot be falsified because it cannot be proven right or wrong  ends the revivalism of questions because ‘that’s just the way it is’ o contrived dualism states that either evolution or creationism occurred  if evolution can’t explain something, then creationism does -> WEAK LOGIC o ID is essentially creationism, which was addressed in the courts and failed o irreducible complexity (too complex to have evolved and therefore needed to be ‘created’) can be a result of natural selection  especially if trait provides high fitness advantage (i.e. eye)  intelligent design is not constitutional o violates separation of church and state  favors one creation story over another  political agenda to replace science with theistic and Christian science


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