Exam #4 Study Guide
Exam #4 Study Guide Music 170
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cynthia Bressler on Monday December 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Music 170 at Kansas State University taught by Dr. Maxwell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views.
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Date Created: 12/14/15
Exam 4 Study Guide Jazzrock fusion Iazz amp the studio musician Clapton amp Hendrix extended improvisations were a central component of their live shows 19705 progressive rock musicians used classical music as a model for technical virtuosity Iazz also provided a model for many other musicians Musical prowess of jazz players ha5 commanded respect for decades Buckinghams Formed in Chicago Hit the charts in 1967 Used horn backup5 Modeled after the Beatles Miles Davis Trumpeter Miles Davis had been at the forefront of jazz since the 19405 He noticed that Hendrix amp Clapton used extended 50105 in their shows 0 Their 50105 were not so different from jazz 50105 0 Rock audiences actually 5at amp listened to them 0 Rock audiences were huge5tadium5 and festivals Davis wanted to put music together that would work for large rock audiences He formed a band that could do the job amp recorded Bitches Brew 1970 This was the first jazzrock fusion album The Bitches Brew musicians went on to highly successful 5010 careers Chicago Also featured a horn section in the band Chicago TransitAuthority 1969 0 Band mixed jazz arrangements with Beatlesin uenced pop vocals and song elements 0 Song beings with a rhythmic ensemble instrumental introduction jazzrock fusion controversy Iazzrock fusion and progressive rock both ended up being invalidated by jazz and rock purists 0 Many jazz traditionali5t5 considered jazzrock a sellout to the popmu5ic industry 0 Rock purists thought jazzrock was too concerned with pop music Glam rock amp rock theater Shocking Characters Setting the stage for rock musicians who act out a character onstage 0 Early in uences come from Genesis amp Pink Floyd 0 During the 19705 rock shows were held in stadiums and arenas Alice Cooper A band of toughlooking harddrinking men with a front man named Alice Explored theatrical aspects of horror in their albums and shows Cooper finished his shows with often gruesome antics 0 He was hanged o Executed in an electric chair 0 Got his head chopped off in a guillotine Kiss Al 4 members of the band assumed individual character roles with makeup and costumes 0 Gene Simmons bassist Peter Criss drummer Paul Stanley amp Ace Freely guitarists 0 Their characters were based on cartoonlike comic book type figures I They appeared on stage only in costume I For years they kept their identities a secret which added to the appeal and mystique 0 Stage show incorporated elaborate effects amp spectacle I Light shows Flames Explosions 0 Smart when it came to merchandise David Bowie David Bowie was the only British glam star able to make a significant impact in the United States His first important success in the UK the single Space Oddityquot 1969 o It eventually placed on US Charts 0 Inspired by the Stanley Kubrick s film 2001 A Space Odyssey 19705 rock evolved into a big business Early 1970s rock based on the hippie aesthetic shifted to economic concerns Rock musicians began creating mass appeal music 0 Goal became how much money could be made 0 Less emphasis on sincerity amp creativity Much early 1970s effort was put into developing psychedelic era creative ideas The second half of the 1970s saw a consolidation of earlier mainstream styles Major corporations invested in the music business Music from the last half of the decade was designed specifically for radio play Realization that an unimaginable amount of money could be made 0 Goal of big albumquot came about The quest for the Big Album Peter Frampton Early in 1976 Peter Frampton s live album Frampton Comes Alive exceeded all expectations 0 Sold millions rather than thousands of copies Mainstream rock continues Bands from the 19605 returned to the forefront 0 Much of the mainstream rock in the late 1970s continued styles from the early 1970s 0 This was a new phenomenon old rockers age thirty or even forty still going strong I Rolling Stones I Paul McCartney and his new band Wings I Pink Floyd I Jefferson Airplane New bands with proven styles Blue Oyster Cult Next album Agents of Fortune 1976 o Contained Don t Fearquot Van Halen Clearly inspired by Deep Purple and other British blues rocker Virtuosic guitar playing of Eddie Van Halen Wild man antics of singer David Lee Roth Their debut album Van Halen 1978 was a hit 0 Contains a cover version of the Kinks You Really Got Mequot 0 Runnin with the Devilquot Changes in progressive rock Albums had reached a point of maximum complexity To stay successful progressive rock had to distill their efforts Kansas Powered by the songwriting of keyboardist Kerry Livgren and the singing of Steve Walsh Less progressive rock extravagance and shorter songs Best success began with their fourth album Leftoverture 1977 o Contained the hit Carry On Wayward Sonquot Most successful album was Point of Know Return 1978 o Contained Dust in the Windquot Rush Canadian progressive rock group 0 Virtuosic playing ambitious poetic lyrics complex musical concepts Vocalistbassist Geddy Lee likened to Yes s Ion Anderson and Zeppelin s Rover Plant 0 Guitar Alex Liefson Drummer Niel Pert Cross between the glam aspects of David Bowie amp progressive rock Inspired by some eclectic aspects of some late Beatles music Featuring the singing of Freddie Mercury Sheer Heart Attack 1975 brought US chart success A Night at the Opera 1976 was an important album 0 Contained Bohemian Rhapsodyquot News of the World 1977 contained two important hits 0 quotWe Will Rock Youquot 0 quotWe Are the Championsquot An overview of black pop The popularity factor of 1970s black pop 0 Motown amp Stax artists and production teams 0 James Brown 0 Sly Stone from the San Fran hippie scene Much music of black artists was not known in white circles Sly amp The Family Stone Had an important in uence on black pop in the 1960s70s Band had a series of crossover hit singles 0 Dance to the Musicquot 1968 0 Thank You Falettinme Be Mice Elf Aginquot 1970 Became involved in the San Francisco psychedelic music scene Blended black and white music styles together Racially and sexually integrated band Early songs were upbeat danceoriented songs 0 Exemplified the Thank Youquot The band took on a more militant attitude in beginning in 1971 0 Album There s a Riot Goin 0n 0 Focus on controversial issues racial amp political K001 and the Gang Began in Jersey City as a jazzin uence band working with jazz greats originally Iazziacs o Thelonious Monk Modest success with singles on the rhythm amp blues charts 0 Let the Music Take Your Mindquot 0 Iungle Boogiequot Became an important crossover act in 1973 with the album Wild amp Peaceful Eventually became a disco band 0 Celebrate Good Timesquot Motown Continues The Jackson 5 A group of brother from Gary Indiana Lead singer was a preteen Michael Jackson They had several hits during the first half of the 19705 0 I Want you Backquot 0 quotABCquot They placed over a dozen more hits on the charts before leaving Motown Funk James Brown As with Sly Stone Brown s funk was associated with black culture After the 1968 MLK assassination Brown promoted black pride He also enjoyed some crossover success with white audiences Brown s hits continued into the first half of the 19705 0 Get Upquot 1970 Brown was a strong advocate against drug abuse George Clinton Drew from accomplishments made by James Brown and Berry Gordy Jr Leader of the New Jersey based group Parliaments o Aspired to be the next Temptations or Four Tops o Moved to Detroit basically to get signed by Motown 0 Clinton began recording under the name Funkadelic on a different label Parliament was the more commercial of the two groups 0 Parliament recorded on Casablanca Records 0 Funkadelic recorded on Westbound records then moved to Warner s Parliament Mothership Connection 1976 o Contained the hit Tear the Roof off the Suckerquot 0 Tour featured elaborate stage show that included a spaceship descending onto the stage Reggae Origins and in uences In uential on later styles 0 Punk amp rap Jamaican music was present in music of the 19405 and 19505 Americans enjoyed calypso music in the 19505 They began to talk over the records as well as play the music 0 Called toasting Evolution of Jamaican music During the 19605 New Orleans rhythm and blues died out o The style had been exemplified by Fats Domino 0 Jamaicans created their own version of it called ska o Ska was replaced by a style called rock steadyquot Reggae rhythms were more syncopated than rhythm and blues rhythmic structures Bob Marley Most important reggae musicians in the 19705 Member of a 19605 vocal trio called the Wailers Recorded using backing band the Up5etter5 Chris Blackwell established Island Records in the UK 0 Released records recorded in Jamaica for the British market 0 Substantial subculture of Jamaicans living in England 0 Reggae in the UK during the early 19705 in uenced many of the English musicians First album Catch a Fire released in the spring of 1973 Followed by Burnin later in 19705 Rise of disco Rock was for listening in the 19705 The hippie aesthetic dominated the overall approach to rock music 0 Live bands were preferred to diskjockeys in clubs and bars Clubs featuring DJs playing records appeared in the gay community 0 Records provided an alternative to live music for gay clubs Breakthrough of disco into the mainstream The disco scene was the backdrop for the 1977 film Saturday Night Fever 0 Starring John Travolta 0 Soundtrack songs by the Bee Gees became disco staples o Stayin Alivequot amp Night Feverquot 1978 Major rock artists released disco avored tracks 0 Stones Rod Stewart Kiss even did a track Quincy Jones produced Michael Jackson s 1979 album O the Wall The album contained Don t stop till you get Enoughquot Return of the producers Disco returned the authority to producers o Brill Building or Motown models were used to make disco records Emergence of Rap Hiphop culture Origins in New York Two elements of hiphop culture drew public s attention before rap 0 Graffiti amp break dancing First hiphop DJs Employed the Jamaican approach to providing sound systems for parties 0 Parties were often in city parks o MCs master of ceremonies commented on the music 0 Also encouraged partygoers to dance and join in the festivities The mix concept Radio stations and dance clubs used two record turntables 0 One for the record being played 0 The other for the next record to be cued up to play Early Dls used this approach to transition from one song to the next 0 Kool Herc o Grandmaster Flash Break spinning Scratching o Popularized by Grandmaster Flash Afrika Bambaataa Incorporated obscure or unlikely tacks into his mixes Founded Zulu Nation in 1974 o Focused on deemphasizing crime in NY First rap records Sugar Hill Records 0 Based in Englewood New Jersey 0 Run by Joe amp Sylvia Robinson 0 Sylvia heard party guests chanting rhymes with instrumental sections of disco records 0 Though it might sell so assembled some young men who rapped over a rhythm track for Chic s Good Timesquot 0 Released Rapper s Delightquot 1979 Focus became the rapping 0 Instrumental mixing became the backdrop to the rapping o Dls switched roles from leaders of live hiphop entertainment ot background accompanists Def Jam Records Formed by Russell Simmons and Rick Rubin Released records by top rappers 0 LL Cool I o Beastie Boys 0 Public Enemy Simmons formed Rush Entertainment management company LL Cool I had better crossover success in 1987 o I Need Lovequot 0 Possibly the 1St rap ballad o The album Bigger and De er crossed over successful on album charts RunDMC quotRunquot Ioseph Simmons RunDMC liked the openin drum beat from Aerosmith s Walk This Wayquot 0 Rick Rubin rerecorded the song s tracks with Aerosmith s Steven Tyler and Joe Perry 0 The RunDMC version featured both the rappers and the rockers 0 Walk This Wayquot 1986 brought rap into the pop mainstream Beastie Boys Single You Gotta Fight for your Right to Partyquot was a successful crossover in 1987 First band to truly take digital samples and use them Sampling became the mainstay of rappers to create backing tracks 0 Lawsuits arose over obligations to pay for use of other artists tracks 0 They are require to pay for use of tracks Tracy Morrow Moved to LA as a child Became one of the most important west coast rappers His single I m Your Pusherquot 1988 focused on urban problems 0 More angry and aggressive than earlier artists in the 1970s Greater crossover success in the 1990s 0 06 Original Gangster 1991 Public Enemy Combined elements of other groups 0 Led by Chuck D and Flavor Flav 0 One of the most in uential groups in rap 0 Rhythmic style of RunDMC Chart success began in 1988 o It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back 0 Band s singles Fight the Powerquot 1989 was popularized on film 0 Apocalypse 91 NWA Niggaz with Attitude Los Angeles Even angrier approach to rap 0 Band s 1989 album Straight Outta Compton notable for negative reaction 0 Record company Ruthless received a warning letter from the FBI Penchant for depicting dangerous urban life appealed strongly to white kids Next album EFIL4ZAGGIN hit number one on the pop album charts in 1991 The Police Well known for strong reggae in uence on their style 0 Complex drumming of Stuart Copeland 0 Literary lyrics of Sting 0 Tons of atmospheric guitar from Andy Summers I Want my MTV 19801990 Beatles made the first promotional videos 0 They were tiring of the strain of touring and live performances 0 Videos could be sent to TV stations rather than making a live appearance Promotional Videos Short onesong films to promote a song Cable TV as a necessity o In areas where antenna transmission was unsatisfactory Hilly or mountainous area Cable television developed during the 1970s Specialty channels appeared Customers were required to pay for the service I Critics believed no one would pay for TV I Home Box Office HBO proved critics wrong 0 O O O 2 approaches MTV would hsow only promotional videos made by record labels MTV would show videos that explored the creative aspects of the medium MTV premiered on August 1 1981 First video shown the Buggles video Video killed the Radio Starquot The growth of MTV MTV had its biggest audience wherever HBO channels succeeded o Mainly in Midwest 0 MTV played videos by white mainstream rock artists MTV did sell advertising 0 Their programming was directed at advertisers target audience MTV amp Michael Jackson In early 1983 Michael Jackson s Billie Jeanquot was climbing the pop charts MTV refused to play Iackson s video 0 They believed viewers would not watch because Jackson is black Record companies soon considered videos to be crucial promotional tools 0 MTV began to rival FM radio as the place to make or break hit records Michael Jackson Began with his brothers on Motown records Also released solo singles Ben 1972 Michael Jackson in video age 0 Immense success with the album Thriller 1983 0 Thriller contained 3 crossover singles I Billy Ieanquot Beat Itquot The Girl is Minequot 0 Bad 1987 contained four hit singles Iackson produced an extended video for Thriller 0 Directed by Hollywood s Iohn Landis 0 Stateoftheart special effects 0 Voiceover by horror movie icon Vincent Prince Became King of Popquot Madonna Depended as much on the visual aspect of her music as the sound Worked as a dancer in NY with professional dance troupes First recording were successful in the NY dance club scene 1984 debut Madonna contained two hit singles o quotBorderlinequot Lucky Starquot Like a Virgin was her big hit album Madonna s music Often driven by a dance beat Madonna has played an active creative role on many of her albums 0 Songwriter credits 0 Production credits Prince Was 2nd to Michael Jackson amp never had a 1 album in the 1980s Used blatant sexual images Musical roots are in the black pop and funk of the 1970s One of the most prolific artists of the 1980s Frequently played all the instruments reminiscent of Stevie Wonder Controlled his projects like George Clinton did The album 1999 Critically acclaimed feature film and soundtrack in 1984 Purple Rain British pop on MTV MTV marketing power quickly grew 0 MTV generated success for new British artists I Bow Wow Wow I A Flock of Seagulls I Duran Duran The continuing development of New Wave U2 Formed in Ireland 0 Simple songs 0 Poetic quality in singer Bono s lyrics 0 Lead Guitarist The Edge creates rich guitar textures College rock underground University of Georgia College rock started in Athens Georgia 0 Home of university of Georgia 0 REM formed in Athens Georgia 0 The band was involved in the origin of the college rock scene REM Led by guitarist Peter Buck and vocalist Michael Stipe Inspiration from late 1970s new wave The rise of heavy metal Origin of the name is unclear 0 Steppenwolf song lyric Born to be wildHeavy metal thunderquot o Became a very good selling genre also ironically at the same time rap was In uenced by the British blues revival Powerful guitar playing by Angus Young High raspy vocals by Bon Scott replaced by Brian Johnson Formed in Australia in 1973 and built their popularity there Heavy metal image Headbanger was a nickname for fans 0 Allusion to unsophisticated character 0 Bluecollar white audience Parodies of the heavy metal fan and music style 0 Wayne s World skits on SNL 0 Spinal Tap film 0 Bevis and Butthead animated MTV series British heavy metal General characteristics of all British Heavy Metal bands in 1980s 0 Guitar driven o Emphasis on ashy songs Motorhead 1970s band that in uenced 1980s metal LA heavy metal LA had established itself as a place that succeeded in the heavy metal industry Van Halen o personality clashes in the band btw Eddie Van Halen amp singer David Lee Roth 0 Last album ft Roth was 1 984 o Sammy Hagar replaced Roth in 1985 Motley Criie Featuring singer Vince Neil Drummer Tommy Lee Several successful albums throughout the decade 0 First successful album Shout at the Devil 1983 Speed metal thrash metal and the hippie aesthetic Metallica More serious minded Focus on musicianship Their music referred to as speed metalquot Formed in LA moved to San Fran The album Metallica 1991 0 Est them as one of the most important heavy metal bands 0 Includes Enter Sandmanquot Nirvana Most important band in Seattle s grunge scene Played their first shows in Olympia Washington Led by singer songwriter guitarist Kurt Cobain Their music rejected the entire rock star apparatus Debut album Nevermind was released late 1991 0 Single Smells like Teen Spiritquot 1991 was hugely successful 0 Began the movement called alternative rock Next two albums went to number one in the states and UK 0 In Utero 1993 o Unplugged in New York 1994 Nirvana s career ended with Cobain s suicide in April 1994 History repeats itself 1990s rock amp it s relationship to the past 0 Dance music 0 Teen idols o Singersongwriters 0 Roots rock 0 Rhythm amp blues Rise of classic rock Teens and collegeage interest in rock from previous decade 0 Discovery of styles through availability of older recordings I Parents record collections I Radio stations playing classic rockquot formatted programming TheCD Lasted longer than Records More reliable sound Classic rock on FM Radio Drawback new artists had difficulty competing with classic rock VH1 and the rise of the rockumentary Debuted in 1985 0 Focus was on baby boomers tastes in music styles 0 Struggled for the first decades The popup videoquot 0 Introduced in 1966 New artists appeared who embraced classic rock styles and sounds Sheryl Crow Based in LA Vocal style derived from Roger McGuinn and Tom Petty Countryrock accompaniment 1993 album Tuesday Nigh Music Club Jamming Bands Reputations developed out of live shows 0 Large underground culture in the US supported by various factions I Clubs usually located in college towns Dave Mathews Band Instrumental prowess of Phish and Widespread panic Had album success Divas Performed songs written by professional songwriters Albums were also among the bestselling of the decade Whitney Houston Mariah Carey Return of the Made for preteen girls stars Teen Idols Backstreet Boys Early success in Europe Heavy investment into marketing them in the US N Sync Direct competitors with Backstreet Boys Two members were alumni of TV show the New Mickey Mouse Club Britney Spears Also worked on Mickey Mouse Inspired by Madonna s control over her image Christina Aguilera Also worked on Mickey Mouse Early hits began in 1988 Fusion of rap with rock Rage Against the Machine 0 Blend of punk rock rap heavy metal amp funk 0 Political lyrics Nine Inch Nails San Fran based composer Trent Reznor Writes amp performs the music himself Style often called quotindustrialquot 0 Rhythmic grooves sound like they re made by large factory machines 0 Lyrics explore the grotesque darker side of the psyche Beck First release quotLoserquot was on indie label Bongload in 1993 Singed with Geffen Recordsa major label Negotiated a special deal allowing him to also release records on indie labels Napster amp the Mp3 Napster started in 1999 0 Shut down in 2001 0 Legal actions from bands including Metallica o Bought out and reformed as payfor company iTunes Started by Apple in 2001 Next generation of Portable music listening Entire library of music with you Moving back to the single format Technology in digital age Technology allows elaborate enhancement of the indie artist DoItYourself Attitude 0 XM Radio American Idol Brought back the Teen Idol again Similar popularity to American Band Stand Numerous contestants went on to have big careers Artists are now able to produce and distribute their own music Can bypass record labels entirely o Colbie Caillat Disadvantage Internet is too vast to find anything Guitar Hero Brought young audiences to classic rock music 0 Brought many styles back Hip hop turns Pop What now How bands use Technology 0 Radiohead In Rainbows 0 Coldplay single New takes on old themes Teen idols AGAINl Bubble gum music of today Always a place in the industry One Direction Iustin Bieber Streaming Spotify Pandora iTunes
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