Final Exam Study Guide - Rural Sociology
Final Exam Study Guide - Rural Sociology RU_SOC 1000 - 03
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by SC_Kara Beemer on Monday December 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to RU_SOC 1000 - 03 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Amanda Sims in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 196 views. For similar materials see Rural Sociology in Sociology at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 12/14/15
Rural Sociology Final Exam Study Guide 1. Formal organizations a. Coordinating mechanisms created to achieve a planned outcome 2. Primary groups- what are they? Examples a. Fuse members into a common whole, characterized by face-to-face contact and strong emotional ties b. EX: families, military groups, friends 3. Secondary groups- what are they? Examples a. Impersonal associations among people who interact with a specific purpose b. EX: Walmart cashiers, registrar office at MU 4. 3 types of formal organizations a. Voluntary: give time, talent, or treasure for mutual interests i. Greek life, Young Life leaders b. Coercive: groups of people who have no choice but to participate i. Military draft, community service, rehab, prison c. Utilitarian: groups who seek material gain in the form of pay, benefits, or status i. Jobs, NHS, unions 5. Bureaucracies- what are they? Examples a. Organizational structures that strive to use the most efficient means to achieve a valued goal b. EX: DMV, passport office, Social Security office, FDA, Washington D.C. 6. Ideal Bureaucracy- what is it- list the 7 characteristics a. Clear division of labor b. Hierarchical authority c. Written rules regarding relationships & tasks d. Positions are filled based on objective criteria e. Paperwork and official records f. Authority belongs to the position, not the person g. No special treatment 7. Rationalization a. A process in which thought and action rooted in custom, emotion, or mysticism is replaced by value-rational thought 8. Who is the theorist attached to rationalization? a. Max Weber 9. What are some of the consequences of the rationalization of agriculture? (refer to the video) a. Deforestation, increased oil consumption, increased technological advances have led to job loss 10.Why do sociologists study organizations? a. Understand and appreciate their influence b. How they function c. Internal dynamics d. Evaluate societal impacts 11.Iron cage of rationality- who was the theorist? Define a. Max Weber’s metaphor to describe the cold, hard discomforts of bureaucracies b. Bureaucracies are cages that lock people into a series of rational structures 12.McDonaldization- who was the theorist? Define a. George Ritzer b. McDonaldization – the process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as the rest of the world 13.5 dimensions of McDonaldization- describe in detail and give examples a. Efficiency i. Best possible means to an end ii. Clear off own table, self checkout, pour own drink Rural Sociology Final Exam Study Guide b. Predictability i. Same product every time ii. Same Big Mac here & in other states c. Calculability i. Focus on quantity, not quality ii. How many cups in a stack d. Control i. Replacing humans with machines e. Irrational rationalities i. Inefficiency & higher costs ii. Illusion of fun, false friendliness, health & environmental hazards iii. Dehumanization 14.What are the advantages to McDonaldization? a. Wider selection & availability b. Convenient & instant c. Uniformity & better quality d. Cheaper & safer e. Greater diffusion 15.Different attitudes regarding McDonaldization – the cages a. Velvet cage – best it could be, Nirvana, comfortable, high quality b. Rubber cage – bars can be stretched, love it but want to escape c. Iron cage – no way out 16.Strategies and examples of breaking out of the cage a. Create non-McDonaldized institutions b. Fight back collectively c. Cope individually 17.What is food security? a. Stability of supply, affordability, food safety b. Access to safe & nutritious food for a healthy and productive lifestyle 18.What percentage of Missouri households is food insecure? a. 17% 19.What percentage of food-insecure households in Missouri is eligible for SNAP benefits? a. 52% 20.What factors shape our choices when it comes to food? a. Identity b. Convenience c. Responsibility 21.In what ways does food act as an expression of identity? a. Serves as a way to reveal who you are b. Cements social bonds c. Used as a way to “speak” with each other d. Used to establish social norms 22.Cuisine- define and list 4 elements a. Cuisine – food that any culture eats i. Each cuisine prioritizes a basic set of foods 1. EX: America – meat & potatoes ii. Distinct methods of preparation 1. EX: Stir-fry, deep fry, iii. Flavor principles 1. EX: spicy iv. Protocols – way a food should be eaten 1. EX: manners, etiquette 23.What year did farmers become a minority in the global food system? a. 1970 24.What is the main product of the modern industrial food chain? Rural Sociology Final Exam Study Guide a. Convenience 25.Decommodification a. Turning cheap ingredients into a more expensive meal 26.8 F’s of fast food- identify, define and give an example a. Family: substitute for the family dining room, clean & wholesome, served by women b. Fast: food prepared and served quickly, customers work, hurried environment c. Fried: prepared quickly, eaten with fingers, boosts taste d. Filling: perception of value, carbs, salad bars e. Fresh: bright colors, crisp, temperature, sanitary environment f. Fantasy: form of tourism, escape, highly technical g. Fordism: division of labor, automated equipment, substitutions to increase offerings h. Franchising: allows for rapid expansion 27.4 principles of convenience cuisine a. Everything is natural b. Nature is a poor provider c. Cornucopia of chemicals d. Trust the experts 28.What factors contributed to the decrease of farms in America between 1940-1960 a. Suburbanization b. Mechanization c. Increased consolidation 29.Agrarian myth a. (False) idea that family farmers live on the land, work on the land, and make a lot of money 30.The 3 types of farmer power- identify, define, examples a. Economic privilege b. Political influence – agribusiness c. Symbolic power 31.Is the number of farms increasing or decreasing in America? a. Decreasing 32.Which minority category is farming the most in America? a. Hispanics b. Identify the top 5 states in which these folks are farming i. Texas, California, New Mexico, Florida, Colorado 33.What is the average age of farmers in America? Is this a problem? Why or why not? a. 55 b. Yes, because those people are getting older and one day will be unable to farm 34.According to the video- Choice Cuts: Meat in America what are some of the main challenges that food production will face by 2050? [List all that you took notes on- watch the video if you need a refresher (YouTube clip in the Farming in the US lecture)] How are farmers addressing these challenges? a. Challenges - Increasing global population and demand for beef b. Using more grass-fed animals, more diversity in the animals, improved genetics 35.Social Change- define and list the 4 characteristics a. Bringing change to society i. Occurs at all levels of society ii. Abrupt or gradual iii. May or may not be predictable iv. May or may not be good to greater society 36.What precipitates a social change? (identify and describe) a. Demographic transition b. New Ideas c. New government policies – legalization of gay marriage d. New technology e. Natural environment – natural disasters Rural Sociology Final Exam Study Guide 37.Demographic transitions a. Birth rates, death rates 38.Examples of basic innovations & improved innovations a. Basic innovations – rudimentary invention, changed society at the time i. 1 airplane (Wright Brothers), 1 telephone b. Improved innovations – way more technically advanced versions of the basic innovation i. Boeing Jets, iPhone 6s plus 39.Tipping points a. A situation where a previously rare event becomes more common 40.Social movements a. An intention to cause social change 41.3 conditions required for social movements- identify and describe a. An actual or imagined condition that enough people find objectionable b. A shared belief that something needs to be done c. An organized effort aimed at gaining supporters, articulating the problem and defining a strategy for affecting change 42.4 types of social movements- identify and define a. Reformist – seeking to change some aspect of society a. EX: gay rights movement, environmental movement, civil rights movement b. Revolutionary – seek broad, sweeping, or radical social movements a. EX: French Revolution c. Counter-Revolutionary – seek to maintain social order that a reform or revolutionary movement seeks to change a. EX: #alllivesmatter d. Regressive/Reactionary – seek to go back to how it was before 43.Environmental justice a. Fair treatment of all people, regardless of their social location with respect to the exposure to environmental harms and to the development, implementation, and enforcement of laws, regulations, and policies 44.2 dimensions of environmental justice a. Distributive justice b. Participatory justice 45.Sustainability-define a. Earth’s carrying capacity 46.3 legs of sustainability- identify and describe a. Ecological – recycling, viability of the planet, maintain earth for future generations b. Economic – maintaining our communities on an economic front, with businesses and jobs c. Social – maintaining cultural and social practices 47.Identify the book and author which discussed the effects of DDT on nature a. Silent Spring by Rachel Carson 48.Where were children exposed to toxic chemicals leading to stillborn births, birth defects and illness? a. Love Canal
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