Span 201 SPAN 201
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Date Created: 12/14/15
Spanish 201 Final Study Guide Instructor: Lourdes Gabikagojeaskoa University of Arizona ●Vocabulario (5 points total: Each question is worth ½ point) - Lección 4 Los Parientes ancestor→el antepasado only child (m)→el hijo único cousin (m)→el primo great grandfather→el bisabuelo only child (f)→la hija única cousin (f)→la prima great grandmother→la bisabuela stepmother→la madrastra nephew→el sobrino brother-in-law→el cuñado half brother→el medio hermano niece→la sobrina sister-in-law→la cuñado half sister→la media hermana father-in-law→el suegro husband→el esposo grandson→el nieto mother-in-law→la suegra wife→la esposa granddaughter→la nieta uncle→el tío twin brother→el hermano gemelo daughter-in-law→la nuera aunt→la tía twin sister→la hermana gemela stepfather→el padrastro great uncle→el tío abuelo stepbrother→el hermanastro relative (m)→el pariente great aunt→la tía abuela stepsister→la hermanastra relative (f)→la pariente son-in-law→el yerno La Vida Familiar to thank→agradecer to become independent→ to move→mudarse to complain about→ independizarse quejarse de to support→apoyar to regret→lamentar to fight with→pelear to scold→regañar to support each other→ to spoil→malcriar to fight with one to respect→respetar apoyarse another→pelearse to raise (children)→ to pamper→mimar to complain→quejarse to overcome→superar criar La Personalidad personality→el carácter strict (f)→estricta ill-mannered (m)→ submissive (m)→ maleducado sumiso well-mannered (m)→ demanding→exigente ill-mannered (f)→ submissive (f)→sumisa bien educado maleducada well-mannered (f)→bien honest (m)→honrado bossy (m)→mandón close-knit (m)→unido educada selfish→egoísta honest (f)→honrada bossy (f)→mandona close-knit (f)→unida strict (m)→estricto unbearable→insoportable rebellious→rebelde Las Etapas De La Vida adolescence→la adolescencia adulthood→la edad adulta child (m)→el niño adolescent (m)→el adolescente youth→la juventud child (f)→la niña adolescent (f)→la adolescente death→la muerte old age→la vejez adult (m)→el adulto birth→el nacimiento adult (f)→la adulta childhood→la niñez Las Generaciones nickname→el apodo homeland→la patria to resemble/to look alike→ parecerse heritage→la ascendencia social prejudice→el prejuicio social to become true→realizarse self-esteem→la autoestima root→la raíz to survive→sobrevivir generation gap→la brecha gender→el sexo generacional understanding→la comprensión to inherit→heredar Cortometraje restaurant serving embassy→la embajada protest→la to be enough/to arepas→la arepera manifestación reach→alcanzar asylum→el asilo foreigner/alien (m)→el banner/sign→la to fire/to throw out→ extranjero pancarta botar communism→el foreigner/alien (f)→la loss→la pérdida to sign→firmar comunismo extranjera consulate→el consulado profit→la ganancia social assistance→las to distribute/to hand prestaciones out→repartir debt→la deuda Cuban exile (m)→el resident (m)→el great/fantastic→ gusano residente chévere silly remark or Cuban exile (f)→la gusana resident (f)→la residente action/nonsense→el disparate Cultura belief→la creencia historian (f)→la historiadora farming/cultivation→el cultivo language→la lengua disappearance→la desaparición recipe→la receta hope→la esperanza sacred ritual→el rito sagrado ethnic group→la etnia priest→el sacerdote faith→ la fe to cultivate/to farm→cultivar historian (m)→el historiador to pay homage to the gods→homenajear a los dioses Literatura civilization→la civilización Brother→el fray to sacrifice→sacrificar worthy (f)→digna knowledge→el conocimiento oppression→la opresión to save→salvar powerful (m)→poderoso conquest→la conquista religion→la religión isolated (m)→aislado powerful (f)→poderosa disdain→el desdén to look down on→ isolated (f)→aislada himself→sí mismo despreciar friar/monk→el fraile to surround→rodear worthy (m)→digno herself→sí misma - Lección 5 La Naturaleza tree→el árbol sea→el mar land/earth→la tierra pure/clean (m)→ puro forest→el bosque landscape/scenery→el outdoors→al aire libre pure/clean (f)→ pura paisaje mountain range→la river→el río scant/scarce (m)→ escaso dry (m)→seco cordillera coast→la costa rainforest→la selva drinkable→potable dry (f)→seca desert→el desierto tropical rainforest→la selva protected (m)→ protegido tropical moon→la luna sun→el sol protected (f)→ protegida Los Animales eagle→el águila endangered species→la wolf→el lobo snake→la serpiente especie en peligro de extinción bird→el ave seal→la foca monkey→el mono tiger→el tigre bird→el pájaro lizard→el lagarto bear→el oso turtle→la tortuga whale→la ballena lion→el león fish→el pez sea turtle→la tortuga marina Los Fenómenos Naturales warming→el calentamiento hurricane→el huracán flood→la inundación drought→la sequía erosion→la erosión fire→el incendio rain→la lluvia earthquake→el terremoto La Ecología trash→la basura source→la fuente to infect/to be to breathe→respirar contagious→contagiar ozone layer→la capa de environment→el medio to pollute→contaminar to urbanize→ ozono ambiente urbanizar fuel→el combustible danger→el peligro to disappear→ harmful (m)→dañino desaparecer energy consumption→el oil→el petróleo to destroy→destruir harmful (f)→dañina consumo de energía pollution→la contaminación future→el porvenir to throw away→echar disposable→ desechable deforestation→la resources→los recursos to get worse→empeorar hybrid (m)→híbrido deforestación development→el desarrollo smog→el smog to become extinct→ hybrid (f)→híbrida extinguirse energy→la energía to use up→agotar to waste→malgastar renewable→renovable wind energy→la energía to put up with/to to improve→mejorar toxic (m)→tóxico eólica tolerate→aguantar nuclear energy→la energía to threaten→amenazar to prevent→prevenir toxi (f)→tóxica nuclear renewable energy→la to hunt→cazar to protect→proteger energía renovable solar energy→la energía to preserve→conservar to solve/to resolve→ solar resolver Cortometraje parking space→el aparcamiento trunk→el tronco to prune→podar car→el coche to park→aparcar to remove→quitar disappointment→la decepción to cut→cortar to saw→serrar lack of interest→el desinterés to neglect→desatender to put up with→soportar sprawl→la expansión to be necessary→hacer out of control falta (m)→descontrolado urban sprawl→la expansión urbana to plant→plantar out of control (f)→descontrolada Cultura shaman→el chamán person in charge (f)→ la challenge→el reto encargada folk healer (m)→el curandero fact→el hecho seed→la semilla folk healer (f)→la curandera wood→la madera Earth→la Tierra ailment→la dolencia medication→el usefulness→la utilidad medicamento greenhouse effect→el efecto invernadero lung→el pulmón to recycle→reciclar person in charge (m)→el encargado recycling→el reciclaje Literatura antidote→el antídoto prisoner (f)→la presa happiness→la felicidad daily routine→la rutina diaria little bottle→el frasquito symbol→el símbolo leaf→la hoja to suffocate/to drown→ahogarse rabbit’s foot→la plata de conejo to relieve/to soothe→aliviar piece→el pedazo to poison→intoxicar prisoner (m)→el preso in spoonfuls→a cucharadas ●Galería De Creadores (5 points total) - Lección 4 Gioconda Belli - PoetandNovelist - From Nicaragua - Her work is about thsociopolitical commitment and truggle for the liberation of women - Wrote a book of poemsalle línea de fuego(won the Casa de las Americas award) - Novel La mujer habitad(Award for Best Novel of the Year) - Last novelEl país de las mujeres (won the Spanish American Novel Prize "The Other Shore") Armando Morales - Painter - From Nicaragua - His artistic creations include female nudes, everyday scenesstill lifes and epictions of historical facts arising from the images of his memories - Some of his more popular pieces Desnudo sentado(1971); Bodegón, ciruela y per(1981); Bañistas en la tarde y coc(1984); diós a Sandino(1985) andSelva(1987) - ←Dos peras en un paisa(1973) Camilo Minero - Painter - From El Salvador - He began painting as a teenager - Studied in Mexico, where he met Diego Rivera - He was communist and understood art as a form of social change - ←Niña dormida is one of his famous paintings - He lived in exile in Nicaragduring the 1980s - Died in 2005, ten years of receiving theNational Prize of Culture from his country La Mola - Tribethat lives on thPanamanian islandsin theArchipelago San Blas Kuna - Known for their creative artistic expression - Almost exclusively women - Crafting - La molais atype of intricate embroidery that adorns the tops of the Kuna women and part of their traditional dressand blouses - Although the most popular motifs aregeometric designsand elements of the natural worl, they are also frequent modern designs. - The Molas are not only attractive for touristmany are true pieces of art highly prized among collectors Augusto Monterroso - Writer - Born in Honduras - Lived in Guatemala and Mexico He was practicallyelftaught: left school at age 11 and At the age of 15 heounded an association of artists and writers Considered the father and teacher of Latin American In his prose Monterreso uses intelligent humor to present his vision of reality Among his works are La oveja negra y demás fábulas (1969 ) and the novel Lo demás es silencio (1978 ) He received numerous awards, including the First Prince of Asturias in 2000 - Lección 5 Carolina Herrera - Fashion designer Born in Venezuela At forty,after having her first grandchild, she began working as a designer Big influence in the fashion world then and now She was even and exclusive designer for Jacqueline Onassis and Andy Warhol Gabriel García Márquez - Born in Colombia Cien años de soledad and El amor en los tiempos de cóleraare not just titles They are part of the collective mythology of spanish speakers His world literary works marked the twentieth century Won the Nobel Prize for Literaturin 1982 In his stories and novels he set the world of agical realism, where the fantastic is true to and usually appears fantastic Oswaldo Guayasamin - Painter/Muralist - Born in cuador Painted murals at theBarajas airport in Madrid and the UNESCO in Paris He orked with two of the biggest Mexican muralists: José Clemente Orozco and David Alfaro Siqueiros Also he maintained strong friendships with Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Pablo Neruda When he died, he left his entire art collection to the town in Ecuador His home town was one of hismain sources of inspiration ←Violinista (1967) ●Cultura (10 points total) - Lección 4 →Nota Cultural: Arepa - Traditional food of Venezuela - Kind of bread made with cornmeal that is filled with various foods, such as meat, cheese or black beans →Nota Cultural: La Política Venezolana - Hugo Chávez was the president of Venezuela from 1999 until he died in 2013 - One of this century’s most relevant political figures of South America - People called him Comandante Chávez - The style of government and staff generated deep divisions in Venezuelan society - To this day Venezuela remains torn between Chávez supporters and opponents - In the past decade, many Venezuelans immigrants went to the United States because of the economic measures of the South American leader →La Panamericana - The Panamerican Highway - Connects the entire American continent from Patagonia toAlaska - Nature has destroyed and interrupts somes sections - Between Panama and Colombia, inthe Darien Gap,there are about 90 kilometers (56 miles) of dense mountainous jungle that interrupt the continuity - Some parts aren’t built yet - The anama Canal - One of the most ambitious transport projects of the twentieth century - Owned by the United States until 1999 - More than 14,000 ships pass each year from one ocean to the other through the channel - Chirripo National Park - In Costa Rica - Chirripó is an indigenous word meaning “land of eternal waters” - 3,800 meters (about 12,500 feet) high - Some animals in the area include jaguars, tapirs, and quetzales - Lake Nicaragua - Only lake that contains freshwater sharks - Islas de la Bah(The Bay Islands) - Located on the north coast of Honduras - Contains the world’s second largest coral reef - 95% of aribbeancoral species are found in this region - The three islands oRoatán,uanajaand tilaare some of the most popular tourist attractions - Pupusas - Traditional food ol Salvador - Everywhere you go there are pupuserías preparing these - They are like a thick, soft tortilla filled with cheese, chicken or pork →Nota Cultural: Nicaragua - The largest country iCentral America - Has a variety of geography - Contains lakes, rivers, volcanoes, forests, beaches, etc. - Montelimar - One of the most popular tourist attractions in Central America - Known for its sandy beaches, exotic travel, and luxury resorts →Nota Cultural: Puntarenas - One of the most important tourist areasCosta Rica - It is the country's largest province and offers visitors several national parks and biological reserves →Las Mayas - The Mayancivilization originated in Yucatanpeninsula all around 2600 BC - Over time, it spread throughouCentral America - Differenethnic groupssuch as theQuichés,Cakchiqueles,Pokonchis, Pokomanes,and Chortísemerged over time - Its development was interrupted in 1541 with the arrival ofSpanish conquistadors - The Spanish burned many of the Mayan’s books and imposed policies aimed towards the disappearance of the Mayan culture and religion - Many of itraditionshave urvivedover the centuries - Many people of Mayan origin live in citand practice modern professions - Many also live in small townespecially dedicated to thecultivation of corn and beans - Most of these people are engaged in arm work, using ethods of their ancestors for farming - The development of fabricsand ceramicshas also stood the test of centuries, which isimportant in the economy of the Mayan people - The religionpracticed by many Mayans today is based on a mixture of ancient tradition,animism and Catholicism - They believe in the influence of thcosmos in their lives and the natural phenomena attributed to thegods - According to theMayan religion - There are benevolent gods, bringing elements such as rain and corn, and malevolent godscausing hunger and natural disasters - The ritualto honor the gods of natureare the perfect expression, of the religious syncretism between Christian faith and the Mayan - This aspect is evident in some churches where you can see Mayan face their idols - In the system of Mayan belief, thsun represents Jesus Christand the Virgin Maryis reflected in thoon - The daily life and celebrations of these Mayans were all determined by a very precisecalendarmade by their ancestors - Each village has apriest in chargeto keep track of thtraditional calendarto know when to perform the sacred rituals - This calendar was created thousands of years agoand related the starsto the events of everyday life - Built using ancient Mayan’s knowledge of astronomy and mathematics - Always under the guidance of the stars - They didn’t use any metal tool, observatories, pyramids or plazas - Museums and archaeological sites show only a part of the culture because the present inhabitants of the cities and Central America continue to tell the story - Lección 5 →Nota Cultural: La vida en el campo y en la ciudad - In the second half of the twentieth centurySpainexperienced a rapid development process - It became an industrialized country - Most of the population that previously lived and worked in the countryside moved to the cities to change occupation - In some cases entire villages came to disappear - Today some values of rural life are recovering in Spain - People leave the citiesbecause of problems such as pollution,noise, insecurityorhigh prices - In return, thecountry lifeofferstranquility,clean ai,contact with nature,and increased communication among its inhabitants →La Cordillera de los Incas - The Andes Mountain range - Crosses the west of South America from its south end to the north end - This geography contributes to the distinctive character of countries likecuador, olombia, andVenezuela - After theHimalayas, the Andes are the largest and tallest mountain range in the world - Ecuador - Almost equal to the state ofNevada - Has the highest density of volcanoes in the world - There are more than thirty volcanoes - Sangay,the most active in the country, andGuagua Pichincha , are situated on the outskirts of the capitQuitoand have erupted in recent years - The Cotopaxi National Park - Near Quito - The main attraction is theCotopaxi volcano - It is the second highest volcano in the country and perhaps the most popular among tourists - It is 5.897 meters ( 19,347 ft ) high and its snowy peak can be hundreds of kilometers away - Its last confirmed eruption was in 1904 - Has produced vapor emissions and tremors which suggests that there may be more eruptions in the future - Colombia - Oriental mountain range - One of the subranges of the Andes - El Cocuy National Park - One of the largest natural reserves - Located about 200 kilometers (125 miles) northeast of the capitalBogotá - Contains a typical Andean ecosystem with over twenty snowy peaks, including thePan de Azúcarand the Púlpito del Diablo - There are also glacial lakes and high plateaus with flora and fauna characteristic of the Andean forests - Venezuela - Canaima National Park - In the mountains southeast ofaracas - The main attraction isSalto Ángel - The highest waterfall in the world - Compare its 1.000 meters ( 3.2280 feet) high with the 50 meters ( 170 feet) ofNiagarafalls - There are excursions between C aracasand the waterfall →Nota Cultural - The state ofBolívar - Located in southern enezuela - Bordered to the north by theOrinoco Riverand south to the state of Amazonas in Brazil - The state capital is calliudad Bolívar - Distinguished by its colonial style houses - Has two important museums that present the modern side of the city - Museo de Arte Moderno Jesús Soto and the Ecomuseo - In the region there are two national parks that offer an abundant flora and fauna →Nota Cultural - The Parque Natural Chicaque - Located inColombia - A nature reserve of 300 hectares (about 741 acres) of mountainous forest that remains covered with fog most of the time →La Selva Amazónica: Biodiversidad Curativa - Only a fraction of the millions of known species of plants and animals on Earth are living in rainforest - The Amazon rainforest - Area of 5,500,000 km squared - Habitat of millions of organisms - This forest is the most diverse ecosystem on the planet, a fact that is reflected especially in the trees of which more than 60,000 different species are recognized - The wealth of vegetationhas for centuries been very useful for the people of the Amazon basin - They feed on fruits that aren’t known in Western culture, such astúpiro,opoazú or emare - The trees, some of which measure 100 meters, provide them with high quality wood - And besides being the natural abode of the spirits of their religions, they also provide a huge assortment medicinal plants - The use of plants as medicine dates back to pre-Columbian timesthe indigenous cultures discovered thehealing propertiesof the surrounding vegetation - Shamans and healers were, and still are responsible for collecting samples of plants and trees - Tradition states that they had to go remote areasand impenetrable jungleto look for them, because it was believed that themore difficult remedies had more powerful healing effects - Plants are the source of more than 25% of the medicines found in pharmacies in the world today - Many of them come from the jungle in the Amazon River basin - The increased presence in the market for such drugs is due to the growing interest of the pharmaceutical industry for healing methods that have been used successfully for thousands of years - In the northwest of the Amazon rainforest uses more than 1,300 indigenous medicinal plants - One is theurare, a substance that South American Indians put on the tip of their arrows to aralyze animalsthey want to eat - Currently,tubocurarine which derived from curare is used worldwide as an anesthesia - Another patch that is becoming very popular is theguarana seed, which benefits the heart and memory , and is more powerful than Ginseng - Unfortunately, deforestation is rapidly reducing its area - This affects all beings that live there and endangers hundreds of animal and plant species - Both local governments and organizations around the world are struggling to protect their extraordinary natural resources and preserve the cultures of their inhabitants ●Las Lecturas (5 points total: Each question is worth ½ point) →Read and review stories fromA Leer! - Yo y el ladrón (pg. 51-54) - Las boticas (pg. 100-101) ●Gramática (40 points total) - Lección 4 ○ El Subjuntivo En Cláusulas Adjetivales (10 points) →When an adjective clause describes an antecedent that is known to exist, use the indicative →When the antecedent is unknown or uncertain, use the subjunctive →When the antecedent of an adjective clause is a negative pronoun (nadie,ninguno/a), the subjunctive is used →Do not use the personal a with direct objects that represent hypothetical persons →Use the personal a before nadie and alguien, even when their existence is uncertain →The subjunctive is commonly used in questions with adjective clauses when the speaker is trying to find out information about which he or she is uncertain →If the person who responds knows the information, the indicative is used ○ Verbos Reflexivos (10 points) →In a reflexive construction, the subject of the verb both performs and receives the action →Reflexive verbs always use reflexive pronouns (me, te, se, nos, se) Yo me Tú te Usted/Él/Ella se Nosotros/Nosotras nos Ustedes/Ellos/Ellas se →Many of the verbs used to describe daily routines and personal care are reflexive to go to bed → acostarse to brush(one’s to wash (oneself)→ to put on (clothing)→ hair/teeth)→cepillarse lavarse ponerse to shave→afeitarse to wake up→despertarse to get up→levantarse to dry off→secarse to dress up/to get to fall asleep→dormirse to put on makeup→ to take off (clothing)→ ready→arreglarse maquillarse quitarse to take a bath→ bañarse to take a to comb (one’s hair)→ to get dressed→vestirse shower→ducharse peinarse →In Spanish, most transitive verbs can also be used as reflexive verbs to indicate that the subject performs the action to or for himself or herself →Many verbs change meaning when they are used reflexively to bore→aburrir to become bored→burrirse to agreeacordar to remember→acordarse (de) to eatcomer to eat up→comerse to sleepdormir to fall asleeormirse to go→ir to leave→rse (de) to carryllevar to carry away→levarse to change→udar to move (change residence)→ mudarse to seem→parecer to resemble/to look alike→ parecerse (a) to put→poner to put on (clothingponerse to take awayuitar to take off (clothiguitarse →Some Spanish verbs and expressions are reflexive even though their English equivalents may not be →Many of these are followed by the prepositions a, de, and en to approach→acercarse (a) to realize→darse cuenta (de) to forget (about)→olvidarse (de) to regret→arrepentirse (de) to find out (about)→enterarse (dto worry (about)→preocuparse (por) to dare (to)→atreverse (a) to take notice (of)→fijarse (en)to complain (about)→quejarse (de) to become→convertirse (en) to die (of)→morirse (de) to be surprised (about)→ sorprenderse (de) →To get or become is frequently expressed in Spanish by the reflexive verb ponerse + [adjective] Mi hijse pone felicuando nos visitan los abuelos.My son gets happy when our grandparents visit us. Si no duermo bieme pongo insoportable. If I don’t sleep well, I become unbearable. →In the plural, reflexive verbs can express reciprocal actions done to one another ¡Mi esposa y ynos peleamos demasiado! My wife and I fight too much! ¿Será porque ustedes nose respetan? Could it be because you don’t respect each other? →The reflexive pronoun precedes the direct object pronoun when they are used together in a sentence ¿Te comiste el pastel? Did you eat the whole cake? Sí,me locomí todo. Yes, I ate it all up. ○ Por and Para → Por and para are both translated as for,but they are not interchangeable Uses of Para Destination La familia saaraEstados Unidos (towards, in the direction of) pronto. The family is leaving soon for the US. Deadline or a specific time in the Las arepas deben estar hechapara future(by, for) las 12. The arepas have to be made by 12. Goal(para+ [infinitive]) (in orderParaatraer clientes vegetarianos, to) Gloria prepara arepas de tofu. In order to attract vegetarian customers, Gloria makes tofu arepas. Purpose (para+ [noun]) (for, used Alberto compró la comidaparala for) semana. Alberto bought food for the week. Recipient(for) Gloria ahorró dinerparaChela. Gloria saved money for Chela. Comparison with others or Paraser tan joven, Mingo ha opinion(for, considering) trabajado mucho. For being so young, Mingo has worked a lot. ParaAlberto, volver a Caracas es una tontería. For Alberto, returning to Caracas is foolish. Employment (for) Mingo trabajaaraAlberto y Gloria. Mingo works for Alberto and Gloria. Expressions With Para to be in no mood for jokes→no estar to not be so important→no ser to top it all off→para colmo para bromas para tanto just so you know→para que sepas forever→para siempre →Note that the expression para que is followed by the subjunctive Gloria distribuye panfletpara que los Gloria distributes flyers so that Venezuelans will come to the venezolanos engan al restaurante. restaurant. Uses of Por Motion or general location(along, through, El cliente entrporla puerta y lo saludó. around, by) The customer came in through the door and greeted him. Duration of an action(for, during, in) Gloria quiere quedarseporun año. Gloria wants to stay for a year. Reason or motive for an action(because of, on Vinieron a Estados Unidosporrazones políticas. account of, on behalf of) They came to the US for political reasons. Object of a search(for, in search of) Mingo fue a la cocinporla ensalada. Mingo went to the kitchen for the salad. Means by which (by, by way of, by means of) Su prima los llamóporteléfono. Her cousin called them by phone. Exchange or substitution(for, in exchange for) Cambió las arepas de carneporlas de tofu. She switched the meat arepas for the tofu ones. Unit of measure (per, by) El metro puede ir a 50 kmporhora. The subway can go 50 km per hour. Agent (passive voice)(by) El dinero fue gastadporChela. The money was spent by Chela. ○ Futuro (10 points) →The future tense takes the same endings for all -ar, -er, and -ir verbs. For regular verbs, the endings are added to the infinitive hablar deber abrir hablaé debeé abrié hablas debeás abris hablaá debeá abriá hablaemos debeemos abriemos hablaéis debeéis abriéis hablan debeán abrin →For verbs with irregular future stems, the same endings are added to the irregular stem infinitive stem future caber cabr- cabré, caás, caá, cabemos, caéis, caán haber habr- habré, habá, habá, haemos, haéis, haán poder podr- podré, podá, podá, podemos, podéi, podán querer querr- querré, queás, queá, queremos, queéis, queán saber sabr- sabré, saás, saá, sabemos, saéi, sabán poner pondr- pondré, pondás, poná, pondemos, pondéi, pondán salir saldr- saldé, salás, salá, salemos, saléi, salán tener tendr- tendré, tenás, tená, tenemos, tendéi, tenán valer valdr- valdé, valás, valá, valemos, valéi, valán venir vendr- vendré, venás, vendá, venemos, venéis, venán decir dir- dirédirsdirá, demos,diéi, din hacer har- haré,has,hará, hemos,haréi, hná →In Spanish, as in English, the future tense is one of many ways to express actions or conditions that will happen in the future →The English wordillcan refer either to future time or to someone’s willingness to do something →To express willingness, Spanish uses the verb querer + [infinitive], not the future tense ¿Quieres contribua la protección del medio Will you contribute to the protection of the environment? ambiente? Quiero ayuda, pero no sé por dónde empezar. I’ll help, but I don’t know where to begin. →In Spanish, the future tense may be used to express conjecture or probability, even about present events →English expresses this in various ways, using words and expressions such aswonder,be,must be,may,ight, androbably ¿Qué horerá I wonder what time it is. Yaeránlas dos de la mañana. It must be 2 a.m. by now. ¿Estarálloviendo en Medellín? Do you think it’s raining iín?edell Haráun poco de sol y un poco de viento. It’s probably a bit sunny and windy. →When the present subjunctive follows a conjunction of time like cuando,después (de) que,en cuanto,hasta que, andtan pronto como, the future tense is often used in the main clause of the sentence Nos quedaremos lejos de la coshasta que paseel We’ll stay far from the coast until the hurricane passes. huracán. En cuanto terminede lloverregresaremosa casa. As soon as it stops raining, we’ll go back home. Tan pronto como salgael soliréa la playa a tomar As soon as the sun comes up, I’ll go to the beach to take fotos. photos. ○ Condicional (10 points) →The conditional tense takes the same endings for all -ar, -er, and -ir verbs dar ser vivir daría sería viviía darías serías viviías daría sería viviía daramos seríamos viviíamos darais seríais viviíais darían serían viviían →Verbs with irregular future stems have the same irregular stem in the conditional infinitive stem conditional caber cabr- cabrí, cabía, cabía, cabíamos, cabíai, cabían haber habr- habrí, habías, había, habíamos, habíai, habían poder podr- podrí, podría, podía, podíamos, podíais, podían querer querr- querrí, querías, queía, queríamos, queríai, querían saber sabr- sabía, sabía, sabía, sabíamos, sabíai, saían poner pondr- pondría, pondía, pondrí, pondríamos, pondíai, pondían salir saldr- saldía, salías, salí, saldíamos, salíai, saldían tener tendr- tendrí, tendía, tendía, teníamos, teníai, tendían valer valdr- valdía, valías, valía, valíamos, valíai, valdían venir vendr- vendría, vendía, vendía, vendíamos, vendíai, vendían decir dir- dia,diías,diía, díamos,diríai, dían hacer har- haa, haías,harí, haíamos,haríai, haían →The conditional is used to express what would occur under certain circumstances ¿Qué ciudad de Ecuadovisitaríaprimero? Which city in Ecuador would you visit first? Iríprimero a Quito y después a Guayaquil. First I would go to Quito and then to Guayaquil. →The conditional is also used to make polite requests ¿Podríaspasarme ese mapa, por favor? Could you pass me that map, please? ¿Le importaría(a usted) cuidar mis plantas? Would you mind taking care of my plants? →Just as the future tense is one of several ways of expressing a future action, the conditional is one of several ways of expressing a future action as perceived in the past →In this case, the conditional expresses what someone said or thought would happen Dicenque mañana haráviento. They say it will be windy tomorrow. Creíaque hoy haríaviento. I thought it would be windy today. Dicenque mañana va a hacerviento. They say it’s going to be windy tomorrow. Creíaque hoy iba a hacerviento. I thought it was going to be windy today. →In Spanish, the conditional may be used to express conjecture or probability about a past event →English expresses this in various ways using words and expressions such aswondered,must have beenand as probably ¿A qué horegresarí? I wonder what time he returned. Seríanlas ocho. It must have been eight o’clock.
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