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Biology Final Exam Review

by: Cierra Schoen

Biology Final Exam Review BIOLOGY 105 - C09C Lecture

Cierra Schoen
Biology 105
Thomas Lammers

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About this Document

These are the notes from the last few weeks to help prepare for the final exam.
Biology 105
Thomas Lammers
Study Guide
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cierra Schoen on Monday December 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOLOGY 105 - C09C Lecture at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by Thomas Lammers in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Biology 105 in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.


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Date Created: 12/14/15
Evolution Evolution the process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to have developed and diversi ed from earlier forms during the history of the earth Population a summation of all the organisms of the same group or species which live in a particular geographical area and have the capability of interbreeding 4 Ma39or n uence on Charles Dar i 39s thinkin that helped cIevelope his theory of evo utIon g 1 His service as ship s naturalist on a veyear cruise by HMS Beagle which gave him enormous experience with the world s biological diversity 2 Charles Lyell s theory of geological uniformitarianism which indicated a very ancient age for the earth 3 Thomas Malthus essay on population which pointed out that birth rate always exceeds available resources 4 His knowledge of crop breeding and animal husbandry he raised fancy pigeons which showed him how farmers ARTIFICIAL selection preserving individuals with desirable traits while culling those that lack them can result in major changes to a species appearance and i esty e HARDYWEINBERG EQUILIBRIUM when allelic frequencies do not change over time 5 conditions must all be met to acheive HardyWeinberg Eduilibrium 1 All members must be eduallv successful at matind 2 Mating must be totally random prevented by females being choosv about potential mates 3 Population must be very large when it s not GENETIC DRIFT hgfppens random changes due to Bottleneck Effect and Founder E ect 4 No migration gene ow into or out of the population takes alleles out of the gene pool or brings new ones in 5 No mutations new alleles occur a point mutations insertion deletion or substitution of a single nucleotide b chromosomal repatterning insertion deletion inversion or reciprocal translocation of few to many nucleotides c changes in chromosome number either doubling of the number polyploidy or gain or loss of a single chromosome via repackaging aneuploidy speciation The creation of new species from an existing species species the largest group of organisms where two hybrids are capable of reproducing fertile offspring typically using sexual reproduction To understand speciation we rst had to de ne species SPECIES our fundamental unit of biological classi cation is a group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed but which is reproductively isolated from other speciesquot In light of this de nition it is easy to see that for a new species to be created from an existing one reproduction gene ow must be CUTOFF between them The simplest way for this to happen is for the ancestral species and its derivative species to be ALLOPATRIC occupying different geographic territories If they don t live in the same place their potential to interbreed is nil In different places the two sets of bObulations will face different environmental pressures different geology and climates different competitors and predators different diseases different food sources etc As mutations randomly appear over time new ways of dealing with these challenges may arise This is the sort of speciation illustrated by the Panglossius halseyensis exercise in Lab 10 last week But if the two are wholly or partly SYMPATRIC their territories overlap to some degree other mechanisms are required to cut off gene ow We saw that there are many such isolating mechanisms Some are PREZYGOTIC preventing mating or at least fertilization of an egg temporal isolation habitat isolation etc Some are POSTZYGOTIC preventing a fertilized egg from becoming a fertile adult hybrid sterility eg the mule We even saw that in plants at least such as wheat or TraQODoqon hvbrids between two species can be the source of a new third species IF reproduction with the two ancestral species is cut off by spontaneous doubling of chromosome number in the hybrid allopolyploidy


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