Test #3 Study Guide
Test #3 Study Guide ComSoc 321
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Butz on Monday December 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ComSoc 321 at Washington State University taught by Alexis Tan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Intercultural Communication in Communication at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 12/14/15
ComSoc 321 COURSE EVALUATION: follow the link to Blue Course Evaluations in the email you received. Or, log on to myWSU, find the “Blue Course Evaluations” dashboard, choose ComSoc 321 from the list. Study Guide Test 3 Fall 2015; 60 items ; Chapters 6, 7, 8; Fall 2015 Chapter 6: Know Ourselves 1. Incidental encounters goals a. Incidental encounters: unplanned or loosely planned everyday interactions which are not specifically intended to achieve predesigned goals b. To be liked i. Affirmation of selfidentity, feels good c. Project a positive self and group image d. Selfpresentation or presentation of “face” 2. Shortterm encounters goals a. Project a positive selfimage b. Liked by hosts c. To inform, persuade, learn, collaborate on projects, socialize, serve, secure contracts, etc. 3. Prolonged, repeated encounter goals a. Project a positive selfimage b. Liked by hosts c. To inform, persuade, learn, collaborate, serve, socialize, etc. d. Assimilation, integration, separation, individualism, etc. 4. Intercultural communication competence a. Goal: develop interculturally effective behaviors or intercultural competence i. Intercultural competence: “an individual’s ability to achieve communication goals while effectively and appropriately utilizing communication behaviors to negotiate between the different identities present within a culturally diverse environment” ii. Competence: “behaviors or actions that lead to attaining goals while maintaining a mutually satisfying relationship with the other participant” b. Message skills i. Culturallyappropriate use of words, grammar, nonverbal signals ii. Ability to listen iii. Ability to understand the other person’s use of nonverbal and verbal language ; accurately identify explicit and implicit meanings of messages; sense when misunderstanding is occurring iv. Ability to speak and write clearly and concisely, organize and summarize messages v. Ability to take the other’s perspective in encoding and decoding messages, express feelings and opinions, learn and perform culturally appropriate rituals (greetings) c. Interaction management i. Appropriate turntaking in conversation ii. Appropriate initiation and termination of interaction iii. Appropriate use of nonverbal and verbal signals such as words, facial expressions, voice intensity to facilitate mutual understanding of the message d. Behavioral flexibility i. Ability to observe an interaction, distinguish and make use of the appropriate behaviors, and adapt to the specific situational context 1. Observe what’s happening without goals or strategy 2. Willing and capable to adjust goals and strategies to achieve goals 3. Have knowledge of other person’s culture, monitor my own behavior e. Identity management i. To choose which of my personal and group identities are salient and appropriate for a given situation ii. to adjust how strongly or weakly I will project this image iii. to recognize the other participant’s identity and his/her need to promote this identity iv. to reinforce the other’s identity during the interaction 5. Intercultural Effectiveness Scale: what does it measure? Examples of items a. High score = high effectiveness i. Stronger disagree = 1; strongly agree = 5; unless reverse scored (R) b. Examples i. Behavioral flexibility 1. I often act like a different person when interacting with people from different cultures (R) I act normal ii. Interaction relaxation 1. I find it easy to talk with people from different cultures iii. Interactant respect 1. I always show respect for mu culturally different counterparts during our interaction iv. Message skills 1. I often miss parts of what is going on when interacting with people from different cultures (R) – I don’t miss anything v. Identity maintenance 1. I find it easy to identify with my culturally different counterparts during our interaction vi. Interaction maintenance 1. I am able to express my ideas clearly when interacting with people from different cultures 6. Intercultural communication apprehension (ICA) a. Fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated interaction with people from different groups, especially different cultural or ethnic groups b. Major cause of breakdowns in communication in intercultural interactions i. Anticipated interactions ii. Real interactions c. Helps to know exactly how much anxiety we feel when interacting with people from different cultures i. Most people have moderate to high communication anxiety 1. Desensitization: engage in conversation with familiar people to get comfortable & have a friend close by for initial interactions 2. Mental imagery: imagine yourself having a good time interacting with people of different cultures 3. Learn as much as you can about other person’s culture. Accept and respect differences. Don’t expect similarities. 7. Personal Report of Intercultural Apprehension: what does it measure? Examples of items a. Most of my results were in the middle with 2s (7), 3s (7), 4s (2) = 24+21+8=53 b. High score = greater communication apprehension (#/80) 8. Identification as Americans: religion or nationality a. 46% as Americans b. 46% by religion 9. Self stereotypes: most often and least often mentioned a. Most often: Competitive – 89% b. Least often: Violent – 24% i. Top 5: competitive, modern, inventive, generous, hardworking ii. Collectivist cultures would say competitive is negative – America is collectivist 10. American exceptionalism: support for; young and old responses; presidents a. Belief, translated into actions, that as Americans we are “exceptional” and therefore have the responsibility to lead the world in accepting our values i. Indicators 1. A belief that America is the greatest country in the world 2. The U.S. stands above all other countries in the world 3. The U.S. is one of the greatest countries, along with others 4. There are other countries that are better than the U.S. a. Minority of Americans believe in American exceptionalism b. Older the respondent, more likely to endorse A.E. c. 1829 year olds less likely to endorse A.E. d. Endorsement stronger when asked if U.S. has “unique character” and “special responsibility” e. → “America is great among many other great nations” 11. Prejudice: favorability ratings of other countries; religions a. We direct biases toward people who are not like us b. Favorability ratings of other countries i. Most favorable: Canada – 81% 1. Great Britain 79% ii. Least favorable: Pakistan – 18% 1. Saudi Arabia – 27% c. Religions i. Christians 89% ii. Jews 82% iii. Muslims 57% 12. Stereotypes a. Traits we assign to individuals and groups; overgeneralizations i. Chinese 1. 33% of Americans rated Chinese favorably 2. Traits most often associated with Chinese: a. Positive i. Hardworking 93% ii. Competitive 89% iii. Inventive 73% b. Negative i. Generous 28% ii. Rude 28% iii. Violent 24% ii. Muslim – mix of both positive and negative (nothing over 50%) 1. Positive a. Honest 49% b. Generous 33% c. Tolerant 33% d. Respectful of women 19% 2. Negative a. Prone to violence 45% i. 70% Islam ii. 16% Hinduism iii. 9% Christianity iv. 2% Judaism b. Fanatical 41% c. Arrogant 34% d. Selfish 29% e. Immoral 24% f. Greedy 20% 13. Trust in other countries a. Great Britain 78% b. Japan 62% c. France 59% d. Israel 56% e. India 50% f. Russia 33% g. China 26% h. Saudi Arabia 25% i. Pakistan 10% 14. Stereotypes of cocultures a. Cocultures in America i. African Americans ii. Hispanics or Latinos iii. Asian Americans iv. Native Americans v. Arab Americans b. Whites i. Friendly, determined to succeed, lawabiding, intelligent at school, smarter at everyday things, likely to be good neighbors, dependable, likely to keep up property ii. Complaining, boastful c. Blacks i. Less friendly, less determined to succeed, less hardworking, less intelligent at school, less smart at everyday things, less likely to be good neighbors, less dependable, etc., violent, boastful, complaining, lazy, irresponsible d. Hispanics i. Hardworking, less boastful, less complaining, not lazy ii. Less friendly, less lawabiding, less intelligent at school, less likely smart at everyday things, less likely to be good neighbors, less likely to keep up property e. Muslims i. Hardworking, intelligent ii. Violent, untrustworthy f. NonLatinos about Latinos/Hispanics i. Family oriented, hardworking, religious/churchgoing, honest ii. Welfare recipients, less educated, refuse to learn English, too many children, take jobs from Americans, don’t keep up homes 15. Controlling stereotypes and biases: personal and vicarious contact, mental imagery a. Personal contact principle i. Persontoperson interactions between groups can reduce negative stereotyping by allowing us to “individuate” (see others as individuals rather than part of a group) 1. Conditions: equal status of interacting individuals, cooperation to achieve common goals, shared goals, absence of competition ii. Vicarious contact 1. Observing contact in the media: tv and movies 2. When observed contact is among equals, cooperative rather than competitive, and leads to attainment of mutually desired goals 3. Observation of positive exemplars in media reduces prejudice and negative stereotyping (members of outgroup who demonstrate desirable traits and behaviors) b. Mental imagery i. Elicits similar neurological, emotional, and behavior responses as direct experience 1. Imagined interpersonal contact can reduce negative stereotyping 2. Stimulated contact such as conversation rather than just thinking about an outgroup Chapter 7: Know Others 16. National and religious identities: highest nationality (top 5) and religion (top 5) ratings a. Highest nationality i. France 90% ii. Germany 70% iii. Russia 68% iv. Britain 63% v. Spain 53% b. Highest religion i. US 46% ii. Germany 23% iii. Spain 22% iv. Britain 21% v. Russia 19% 17. Cultural dimensions a. Know each participant as individual first, group member second b. Continuous rather than categorical concepts c. Geert Hofstede 1984 18. Individualism and collectivism; definitions; highest (5) and lowest (5) ratings 19. Individualism/Collectivism Communication behaviors 20. High and low context communication; definitions; country ratings 21. High/low context and communication behaviors 22. Uncertainty avoidance: definition; communication behaviors; country ratings 23. Power distance: definition; communication decisions; country ratings 24. Favorability ratings of the U.S.: country ratings (top 5; lowest 5); by age 25. Stereotypes of Americans: DeFleur and DeFleur; Tan et al. (2010); Tan et al. (2009) (See back page) 26. Pew Global Attitudes Project (2005); positive and negative traits; top 5 and lowest 5 ratings 27. Glick et al. (2006): Dimensions of perceptions; country ratings 28. The Stereotype Content Model Chapter 8: Developing Intercultural Communication Competency 29. ILR levels of competence definitions: no competence, elementary competence, limited working competence, professional competence; advanced professional competence; superior professional competence 30. Self assessment 31. Anticipated Interactions 32. Seeking Knowledge 33. Managing the interaction 34. Outcomes How Total Points for Test 3 will be computed: Inclass multiple choice test: 60 points Class Exercises : 52 points Extra Credit: 3 points MAXIMUM TOTAL SCORE: 115 (60 + 52 + 3); grading scale in syllabus, based on 100 point total Class Exercise points: Nov 3 (CLEX 11, 6 pts.); Nov.5 (CLEX 12. 6 points); Nov 10 (CLEX 13, 6 points); Nov 12 (CLEX 14, 6 points); Nov 17 (CLEX 15, 6 points); Nov 19 (CLEX 16, 6 points); Dec 1 (CLEX 17, 6 points); Dec 3 (CLEX 18, 5 points); Dec 8 (CLEX 19, 5 points). TOTAL POINTS: 52 Deadlines: 1. Term paper: Dec 10 in class; 2. Makeups: note from official required; class period after I approve the makeup. Test 3 (Chapters 6, 7, 8):Dec 17, 8 to 10 am. Final Grades to registrar: Dec 22
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