PSY 110: Intro to Psychology Final Exam Study Guide
PSY 110: Intro to Psychology Final Exam Study Guide PSY110 Ray Winters Intro to Psychology
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PSY110 Ray Winters Intro to Psychology
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PSY110 Ray Winters Intro to Psychology
Barbi Della Polla
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alicia Caprio on Saturday January 31, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY110 Ray Winters Intro to Psychology at University of Miami taught by Ray Winters in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 242 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 01/31/15
Text Study Questions Final Exam 110 Chapter 4 5 7 18 17 Text Questions Chapter 4 a sensation a sensory impression the process of detecting physical energies with the sensory O Q SD 3 I b perception the mental process of organizing sensations into meaningful patterns a Most focusing is done in the front of they eye by the cornea The lens makes additional smaller adjustments b Accommodation changes in the shape of the lens in the eye Your eyes focal point changes when muscles attached to the lens alter its shape a peripheral visionnot very high is resolution but sensitive to movement and dim light Side vision b Foveal vision produces the sharpest vision because it contains only cones a Trichromatic theory theory of color vision based on three cone types red green blue b Opponent process theory theory of color vision based on three coding systems red or green yellow of blue black or white a we would feel like we are wearing blinders it enables you to see out of the corner of your ye CD a Rods are insensitive to extremely red light which you do not have to adapt to in the dark a Sound travels as a series of invisible waves of compression and rarefaction in the air a the frequency of sound waves number of waves per second corresponds to the perceived pitch higher of lower tone of a sound The amplitude physical height of a sound wave tells how much energy it contains Amplitude corresponds to loudness sound intensity a conductive hearing poor transfer of sounds from the eardrum to the inner ear b sensorineural hearing loss loss of hearing caused by damages to the inner ear hair cells or auditory nerve c noise induced hearing damage caused by exposing the hair cells to excessively loud I O C 3 Q 9 a Yes a gate control theory suggests that pain messages from the different nerve fibers pass thru the same neural gate in the spinal cord If the gate is closed by one pain message other messages may not be able to pass through Warning system pain based on large nerve fibers warns that bodily damage may be occurring Reminding system pain based on small nerve fibers reminds the brain that the body has been injured an amputation causes phantom limb pain no neuromatrix when the brain creates a body image in which the internal model of the body enerates our sense of bodily self 00 93 9 a newly sighted persons must learn to identify objects to read the clocks numbers and letters and to judge sizes and distances b Mr 88 was a cataract patient who had been blind since birth after operation restored his vision at 52 He struggled to use his own vision He learned to organize his sensations into meaningful perceptions a he was not familiar with objects to use their size to judge distance a monocular depth cues perceptual features that impart information about distance and three dimensional space which require just one eye b binocular depth cues perceptual features that impart information about distance and three dimensional space which require two eyes a pictorial depth cues monocular depth cues found in paintings drawings and photographs that impart information about space depth and distance b There is an illusion of depth on a two dimensional surface because of motion parallax really in 392 0 Fl 0 2 E O C S a We constantly use both pictorial cues and bodily cues to sense depth and judge distances a European Americans are individualistic people who tend to focus on themselves and their sense of personal control b East Asians are collectivist people who tend to focus on their personal relationships and social responsibilities a Perceptual learning has less impact on our perceptions of an upside down face When a face is inverted we are focused to perceive its individual features separately a The typical Zulu villager does not experience the illusion At most he or she sees the V shaped line as slightly linger than the other a They are skeptical because it seems to deft scientific laws Text Study Questions Chapter 5 a brief shifts in brainwave patterns to those of sleep b caused by people who have not slept for a day or two a Yes total sleep time declines throughout life SD stage 1 light sleep EEG is made up of mainly small irregular waves with some alpha waves stage 2 Sleep deepens EEG begins to include sleep spindles farther loss of consciousness Delta waves appear very large and slow deep sleep brainwaves are almost pre slowwave delta CLOC a nonREM sleep occurs during stage 1234 b REM sleep is associated with dreaming c They both help refresh the brain and store memories a REM sleep is associated with emotion and visual imagery a REM sleep high emotion heart beats irregularly females and males become sexually aroused body becomes still sleep paralysis dreams are more vivid clearer and longer b nonREM sleep 90 dream free most vivid dreams early in night helps recover from bodily fatigue calms the brain brings brain activity levels down a REM behavior disorder lack of muscle paralysis during REM sleep some people may thrash violently leap out of bed or attack their bed partners a These prescription sedatives decrease both Stage 4 and REM sleep drastically lowering sleep quality Some drugs even cause impaired judgment amnesia increased appetite decreased sex drive depression sleepwalking sleep eating and sleep driving a stimulus control insisting on a regular schedule helps establish a firm body rhythm linking a response with a specific stimuli b Sleep restriction Restricting sleep to normal bedtimes hours avoids fragmenting sleep rhythms c paradoxical intention remove all pressures of trying to go to sleep d relaxation lower arousal before sleep by using physical or mental strategies for relaxing e exercise strenuous exercise during the day promotes sleep f food intake promote sleep by eating a starchy snack g stimulant avoidance stimulants such as coffee and cigarettes impairs sleep quality a sleepwalking occurs during nonREM sleep stages 3 amp 4 and also sleeptalking a Most people dream four or five times a night but not all people remember their dreams a they can be banished by three steps 1 write down the nightmare describing in detail 2 change the dream the way you want describing in detail 3 imagery rehearsal mentally rehearse the changed dream before you fall asleep again a Sleep apnea repeated interruption of breathing during sleep b causes the brain stops sending signals to the diaphragm to maintain breathing blockage of the upper air passages a babies with risk for SIF must carefully be watched for the first 6 months of their lives a special monitor may be used that sounds an alarm when breathing or pulse becomes weak a psychodynamic theory any theory of behavior that emphasizes internal conflicts motives and unconscious forces b activationsynthesis hypothesis an attempt to explain how dream content is affected by motor commands on the brain that occur during sleep but are not carried out c neurocognitive dream theory proposal that dreams reflect everyday waking thoughts and emotions d dreams are created from memories and past experiences can also reflect a person s mental life emotions and concerns SD hypnosis causes a dissociative state or split in awareness b it encourages a person to 1 focus attention to what is being said 2 to relax and feel tired 3 to let go and accept suggestions easily 4 to use vivid imagination a Concentrative meditation mental exercise based on attending to a single object or thought b Mindfulness meditation mental exercise based on widening attention to become aware of everything experienced at any given moment a ecstasy causes brain cells to release extra amounts of serotonin as well as prolonging its CD 2quot CD 0 F39 I b physical effects dilated pupils elevated blood pressure jaw clenching elevated body temp loss of appetite c diminishes sexual performance ecstasy users are more likely to abuse alcohol and other drugs to neglect studying to party excessively and to engage in risk sex 0 a amphetamine lasts several hours cocaine is snorted and quickly metabolized so its effects only last about 15 to 30 minutes a Caffeine a symptoms from withdrawal insomnia irritability loss of appetite chills racing heart and 1 CD lt 9 Fl CD 0 039 o o lt P39 CD 3 399 a health risks anxiety depression fatigue headaches and flulike symptoms a large doses causes stomach pain diarrhea cold sweats dizziness confusion and muscle l I39 CD 3 o D b smoking harms every organ of the body leading to an increased risk of many cancers a 1 delay cigarettes each day 2 gradually reduce total number of cigarettes smoked each 3 quit completely but for just one week continually until it sticks Q Q lt a barbiturates a She combined depressants with alcohol which put her in a coma for 10 years then death SD men impairs sexual performance men get intoxicated by more alcohol than women b women metabolized more slowly but absorbed faster women get intoxicated by less alcohol then men more prone to liver disease osteoporosis and depression a losing brain power memory loss liver disease osteoporosis depression breast cancer death Text Study Questions Chapter 7 a working memory a working memory a we are most likely to remember information that is personally important or meaningful American culture emphasizes individuals American memories tend to be selfcentered c chinese remembered important social or historical events and their own interactions with family members friends and others 839 P a for a dozen seconds or so a long term memory a it is a measure of attention and shortterm memory It is a little strip with numbers written across it a 7 information bits 8 elaborative processing can lead to false memories because as new long term memories are stored older memories are often updated change lost or revised a memory jamming positive fictional memories jam or block our ability to remember actual negative memories when deciding whether to buy a product a source confusion occurs when the origins of a memory are misremembered b this can lead a witness to remember a face that they actually saw somewhere other than the crime scene a hypnosis increases false memories more than it does true ones A hypnotized person is more likely than normal to use imagination to fill in the gaps in memory L N a Cognitive interview use of various cues and strategies to improve the memory of eyewitnesses b The cognitive interview produces 35 more correct information than standard questioning a procedural memory longterm memories of conditioned responses and learned skills Ex typing driving swinging a golf club b declarative memory the part of longterm memory containing specific factual information Ex knowing that Peter Jackson directed the Lord of the Rings Trilogy whereas Randy Jackson is a judge on American Idol c Semantic memory a subpart of declarative memory that records impersonal knowledge about the world Ex name of objects days of the week d Episodic memory a subpart of declarative memory that records personal experiences that are linked with specific times and places Ex remembering fyour first date or what you did yesterday a recall is a direct retrieval of facts or information b recognition is an ability to correctly identify previously learned information c Recognition is better because it is easier for people to remember faces than names a relearning 16 If a student crams for a psychology exam and then later the same night crams for a history exam his memory for the second subject studied history will be less accurate than if he had studied only history This effect is referred to as the curve of forgetting L N a disuse theory that memory traces weaken when memories are not periodically used or retrieved b Retroactive interference the tendency for new memories to interfere with the retrieval of old memories c Proactive interference the tendency for old memories to interfere with the retrieval of newer memories a repressed memory painful threatening or embarrassing memories are held out of consciousness b Suppressed memory by not thinking about something you can forget but if you choose to you can remember the test a Retrograde amnesia loss of memory for events that preceded a head injury or other amnesiacausing event b Anterograde amnesia loss of the ability to form or retrieve memories for events that occur after an injury or trauma a Hippocampus a Elaborative processing selection organization whole vs part learning serial position cues overlearning and spaced practice will all help with memory Text Study questions Chapter 18 a Theory Y leaders emphasizes human relations at work and that views people as industrious responsible and interested in challenging work b Women are gaining acceptance as leaders a A quarter of all American organizations have female CEO s b If a women practices Theory Y leadership she is seen as weak She is not tough enough or does not have the right stuff to be a leader If she acts more assertively and confidently she is scorned for trying to be a man 9 a the methods most often used for evaluating job candidates include collecting biodata conducting interviews giving standardized psychological tests and employing the assessment center approach b Generally mental ability tests P a good dressing well emphasizing your positive traits and past successes know about the company and job be on time don t smoke or chew gum b bad blowing your own horn don t smoke or chew gum don t be late avoid ques on salary and benefits unless a job offer is coming a decorations plants photos or posters a psychologists use mockjuries to probe ques ln mock juries volunteers are simply given written evidence and arguments to read before making a decision Others watch videotaped trials staged by actors Studying mock trials helps us understand what determines how real jurors vote b Jurors are rarely able to put aside their biases attitudes and values when making a decision Text Study Questions Chapter 17 a we are attracted to people we are familiar with b we tend to be closer to people in age ethnicity education and religion c goodlooking people are less lonely less socially anxious more popular more sexually experienced d people respond to each other in similar ways which may be the most important facto in influencing the development of friendships a activity based friendship most male friendships in North American culture are men tend to do things together a pattern that provides companionship without closeness b shared feelings and confidence most women friendships friendship Is a matter of talking about shared concerns and intimate matters a the comparison level is high for people with histories of satisfying and rewarding relationships It is lower for someone whose relationships have been unsatisfying The decision to continue a relationship is affected by your comparison level a social exchange theory theory stating that rewards must exceed costs for relationships to endure For a relationship to last it must be profitable Or profitable enough 6 a intimacy refers to the feelings of connectedness and affection b passion refers to deep emotional andor sexual feelings c commitment involves the determination to stay in a longterm relationship with another person Romantic love love that is associated with high levels of interpersonal attraction heightened arousal mutual absorption and sexual desire e Compassionate love form of love characterized by intimacy and commitment but not passnon Consummate love form of love characterized by intimacy passion and commitment a Secure attachment style marked by caring intimacy supportiveness and understanding in love relationships b Avoidant attachment style reflects a fear of intimacy and a tendency to resist commitment to others c Ambivalent attachment style conflicting feelings of affection anger emotional turmoil physical attraction and doubt leave them in an unsettled ambivalent state d We use early attachment experiences to build mental modes about affectionate relationships Later we use models as a sort of blueprint for forming maintaining and breaking bonds of love and affection Q h a empathetic arousal emphasize with the person in need or feel some of the person s pain fear or anguish b Empathyhelping relationship observation that we are most likely to help someone else when we feel emptions such as empathy and compassion a men more likely to be physically aggressive higher levels of hormone testosterone may be associated with aggressive behavior 10 a social learning theory combines learning principles with cognitive processes socialization and modeling to explain behavior a disinhibition the removal of inhibition results in acting out behavior that normally would be restrained b desensitization a reduction in emotional sensitivity to a stimulus a scapegoating blaming a person or a group for the actions of others or for conditions not of their making b displaced aggression redirecting aggression of a target other than the actual source of one s frustration 13 a black and white thinking a personality characterized by rigidity inhibition prejudice and an excessive concern with power authority and obedience a ethnocentrism placing one s own group or race at the center that is tending to reject all other groups but one s own b F scale scale that is made up of statements of authoritarian beliefs c Dogmatism an unwarranted positiveness or certainty in matters of belief or opinion
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