Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide UGC 112LR
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nicole Tsai on Monday December 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to UGC 112LR at University at Buffalo taught by Timothy Triandos in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 196 views. For similar materials see World Civilization 2 in University Studies at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 12/14/15
World Civilization II Study Guide 12/14/15 1. Russian Revolution a. Began when the last Tsar, Nicholas II was abdicated in 1917 during ‘Bloody Sunday’ where troops opened fire on civilians during peaceful demonstration outside the winter palace in St. Petersburg 2. Vladimir Lenin a. Marxist who believed society should be ruled by the Proletariat 3. Proletariat –The Working Class 4. Bourgeoisie- The middle/upper class that holds a materialistic culture and wealth 5. Middle East a. Fertile Crescent; Mesopotamia; located between Europe/Africa/Asia b. Richness in oil sparks global interest; U.S. imports 30% of oil from middle east c. Origin of 3 main religions: Judaism, Christianity, Islam d. Muslim dominant 6. Islam (7 century) – means voluntary submission to God a. Muslim- means perndn submitting to God b. Monotheistic, 2 largest religion influencing 23% of world population c. 5 pillars i. Shahada – profession of faith one true god ii. Sala-ritual prayer 5x day iii. Sawm- fasting in day time during holy month of Ramadan iv. Zakat- giving alms 2.5% of ones to save poor v. Hajj-pilgrimage to Mecca at least once 7. Caliphate- state led by supreme religious political leader called Caliph a. Last Caliph supported by Ottoman Turks in 1453-1924 b. Modern reformer Ataturk after Ottomans abolished Caliphate c. ISIS wants to claim new Caliphate 8. Sykes-Picot Agreement- (Asia Minor Agreement) 1916 a. a secret agreement between UK, France, & Russia to divide the middle east in the case they defeat the Ottoman Empire 9. Balfour Declaration- letter from UK to Britain that supports the establishment of a Jewish homeland, Palestine, in middle east 10. Zionism- Jewish nationalist movement to establish Palestine, Jewish homeland a. Prime minister Lloyd George believed in Zionism b. Went against agreement to divide with France c. Gained Jewish support, saw Palestine as a strategic location, establishing it under British rule would benefit them d. Sparked Anti Zionism 11. Arab-Israeli Conflict- 1967 a. Those opposing Zionism/establishment of Palestine 12. Peoples Republic of China 13. Confucianism- originated in 6 century B.C. from Confucius a. Believed in possibility to perfect, discipline, and cultivate oneself. b. Holds up moral values humanist, loyalty, familial piety 14. Chairman Mao a. Communist; Marxist theorist World Civilization II Study Guide 12/14/15 b. Forms Socialist state based on the Soviet Union c. Founded Peoples Republic of China in 1949 and took control until 1979 d. Used propaganda to promote ideas of complete reformation i. Controlled education, media, & more; to educate all members in new direction ii. Create common community & new life; egalitarian rural society e. Redistributed land to work on collectively; wealthy landowners labeled enemies & killed f. 1950 marriage law reforms i. Women can divorce, choose spouse, & work with day cares established g. Promoted Great Leap Forward –bold reshape of China in rural society; small farm combined into large farm worked by 5000 families. “20 years to a day” failed from lack of expertise to manufacture, goods were bad. Producers, unable to produce demanded amount, lied about quantity and caused a shortage/famine killing 20-60 million 15. Opium Wars a. British use opium brought from India to dominate China b. Chinese opium laws become stricter, British increase import to 5 folds in return c. First Opium War 1839-1842 d. Second Opium war 1856-1860 e. Boxer Rebellion 1898 against British imperialism 16. Cultural Revolution-10-year revolution 1966-1976 a. Reinforced socialism, rid of capitalism and historical cultural artifacts b. Distribution of Mao’s Red Book- i. Aimed to inspire against cult leaders/emperors but he himself became that. Great Leap Forward had actually isolated China & set them back years 17. Hong Kong a. British colony, separate from China during Opium war 1842 b. Occupied by Japan for 4 years during WWII. British resumes colonization for 50 more years until Sino-British joint declaration (1984) Hong Kong is given back to Chinese rule th c. Major financial & trade center; 45 largest economy, 10 in GDE; severe income equality d. Mix of British & Chinese culture e. Umbrella Revolution- protestors occupied central financial district with umbrellas to use against gas and pepper spray f. Wanted freedom on speech and democracy and each vote to count 18. Tokugawa Shogunate a. Last Japanese military government; led by Shoguns military rulers who unified japan b. Moved capital, Kyoto, to Edo (modern Tokyo); c. Xenophobia - closed japan to western world; aware of opium issues in China & feared western influence 19. Commodore Mathew Perry 1854 a. US. Commodore who was sent to open up Japanese ports World Civilization II Study Guide 12/14/15 b. Western desire to establish market was influenced by Manifest destiny and their misconception that Asia territories were ‘backwards’ c. Took two visit half a year apart, both with full intention to intimidate and pressure the Japanese d. “Treaty of Amity & Commerce”- opened up Japan 1858 i. Japanese was not protected, Cholera hits Japan, Civil War all leads to end of Tokugawa Shogunate 20. Meiji Era- Established during the rule of Emperor Meiji who came to power at 14 a. Period where Japan changed from traditional isolation to Modern day Japan b. Begins to open up and colonize neighbors c. 5 provisions i. Establish deliberative assemblies ii. Involve all classes in state affairs iii. Revoked sumptuary laws and class restriction on employment iv. Replaced evil customs with just laws v. International search for knowledge to strengthen foundation 1. Sent students to be educated in western universities 21. Zen Buddhism a. Emphasize experience of insight, meditation, focusing on one idea/problem i. Deep thinking/ distancing from world now b. Koan- a Zen riddle. Nonsensical question and statements used to in meditation to help student achieve enlightenment by breaking through barrier of dualistic thought. Example (Hakuin Ekaku “the sound of one hand clapping” c. Rashomon –Ryunosuke Akutagawa 22. Latin America a. Spanish, Portuguese, & French b. 23 countries of 60 million people 23. Simon Bolivar a. Noble birth in Venezuela but orphaned and raised mainly by slave women “The only mother I have ever known”-Bolivar b. Egalitarian-believed in rights for all despite noble birth c. Education in Spain included Military education; returned at age 24 in 1807 d. Context i. 1808 Napoleon, self-proclaimed emperor of France after revolution ii. Invades Spain & place brother Joseph in power, throws Spain & colonies, Venezuela in disarray iii. 1810 uprising & Venezuela became independent after long and complex struggle e. Bolivar is president of Grand Colombia (Venezuela, Ecuador, Panama, & North Western Brazil) f. Nicknamed the liberator after retake of capital in 1813, fighting continues & Bolivar flees to Jamaica in 1815 where he writes the Jamaican Letters i. Explains causes & reason to justify Spanish American want independence ii. Calls Europe to help, Latin Americans indigenous & European (hybrids) g. Flees to Haiti who was newly freed & want to aid i. Bolivar leads Haitian soldiers to Venezuela and frees slaves World Civilization II Study Guide 12/14/15 ii. Bolivia is created in 1825 24. Gracias Al Sacar – granted to someone to make them “Legally White” a. Post-independence Latin America becomes transcultural i. Peninsulares- Whites born in Spain, Creoles- Whites born in America, Native Americans, & African Slaves 25. Post World War a. World War II i. 17 million died in war, 8 million civilians died; resulted in devastated economies in Europe & Asia ii. American economy was good 1. Need for machinery, technology mad production jobs, unemployment dipped down to 1.2% 2. Today’s unemployment rate is 5.5%/ great depression 13% 26. G.I. Bill 1944 a. Allowed veterans to go to college & buy homes b. More education meant more qualified men for higher paying jobs i. Emergence of suburbs caused by extension of transportation going out c. Baby boom –caused by return of men & encouragement of domestic life i. Birth rate increased 222-339 thous, 4 outta 10 people were under 20 27. Red Scare a. Fear of communism infiltration, cultural hysteria b. Fear heightened by Peoples Republic of China (communist) c. Led to federal employees analyzed for loyalty i. House of Un-American Activities 1. Previously to root out Nazis 2. Now they focused on Reds (communist) 28. Joseph McCarthy a. Led hysteria and attempt to root out communist b. Prosecuted a few Soviet Union spies while conducted communist ‘witch hunts’ c. Claims existence of over 200 communists in government, smeared opponents, used propaganda to spread fear and ensue power d. Accused civilians as well, accusations were aired for public view where he used words like impotency, extremely dangerous, & vague lang + rhetoric to raise fear e. Loses influence when public sees the ridiculousness he spews 29. Lavender Scare- Persecution of gays and lesbians linked to persecution to communism a. List of 200 communists also labeled as sexual deviants b. Claimed homosexuals were easier to persuade into communism c. Used words like infiltrate, and claimed homosexuality was an unseen disease d. Medical professionals supported these claims e. Senator given ability to fire those who she suspects of sexual deviance without evidence led to institutionalized homophobia f. Banned the governmental employment and immigration of homosexuals 30. Homophile Movement a. Movement to fight for homosexual rights, to reform and change the persecution of homosexual b. “sexual preference is irrelevant to governmental employment World Civilization II Study Guide 12/14/15 31. The Stonewall Inn a. A gay bar frequently raided by police, one particular on raised a massive riot The Stone Wall Riot b. Marked star of gay rights movement 32. Feminism /Feminism Movement a. Late 60s-70s movement that questioned governments right to intervene in personal and civil matters b. People realize and feel the effect of public policies on the private life c. NOW (National Org for Women) th i. Organized gaththing of 2000 women on 5 Ave (1970) ii. Celebrated 50 amendment for women’s right to vote d. Objectives i. Equal opportunity, political rights, equality in social & private life (marriage), reproductive freedom, & free childcare e. ADHOC (1985) i. Women’s group that questioned the Whitney Museums inclusion of women ii. Wanted 50% rep of women and artist of color, claimed they were white men dominated iii. Threw eggs and tampons (symbolic of women’s reproductive system) f. Guerilla girls – sat in on public lectures protesting in mask 33. Feminism Art & Movement a. Judy Chicago- i. Reinvented male minimalist art with female references (pastel colors & feminine geometry like circles and ovals) ii. Pasadena Life Savors 1970 & Rainbow Pickett 1966 b. Miriam Schapiro- i. Merged male art with female frames of reference ii. Big Ox 1968 c. Women House i. Chicago & Schapiro created a feminist program in arts & was given an abandoned house for their student to remake artisticly 1. Menstruation bathroom a. Chicago put used and unused sanitary pads all over the bathroom to represent societies ignorance towards menstruation 2. Nurturing Kitchen a. Sculptures of eggs on the wall that gradually became breast the closer they were to the floor b. Questioned women’s ‘place’ in the kitchen and their role in the household 3. Bridal Staircase a. Presents a mannequin in wedding dress descending down stairs towards a wall b. Portrays bride as a product approaching her new marriage life World Civilization II Study Guide 12/14/15 34. Cold war a. Propagandistic war based on fear of communist influence b. Secretary of state devised a plan to help rebuild Europe that would let U.S. set up market there. c. George C. Marshall- gave speech to Harvard to call for rebuilding Europe d. Soviet Union may attempt to expand during European devastation e. Marshall Plan 1946-1947 i. Passed by congress motivated by fear of communism 35. Postmodernism a. A break, pulling away from, a deconstruction of idea and principle and structure of thought of both modernism and historical period of modernity b. The theory that there are Master Narratives, Centers/ Structured c. Feminism is a post modern thought d. Binary opposition happens between two opposing groups with social hierarchal difference e. Jean Francois Lyotard i. Questioned large theories, master narratives, that render overly simple ways of understanding history and the world f. Jacques Derrida i. Investigated structuralism and how it limits thinking ii. Centers-abstract ideas that form core for various discourses & limits the way of thinking in a time or place. Tied to opposing hierarchal relationships 1. Ex. Male dominance is a core that than causes all the discourses, female abuse, feminine movement etc.etc. g. Michel Foucalt i. Nature of discourses ii. Explored when and how man became the object of knowledge (Renaissance) how man is production of discourse
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