Final Exam Chem 105
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marisa Loken on Monday December 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 105 at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point taught by Dr. Riha in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see Fundamental Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point.
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Date Created: 12/14/15
Study Guide for Final Exam Determine the number of signi cant gures in the measured values and write out the values in scienti c notation a 601 kg b 0054 s c 63050 cm d 000105 L e 400 g Perform the following conversions a 500 days to s b 2998x108 ms to miles per hour c 1955 m3 to yd3 In 1983 an Air Canada ight heading from Montreal to Edmonton ran out of fuel mid ight To make the trip the plane needed 22300 kg of fuel and it already had 7700 L of fuel in it tank The maintenance crew only added an additional 4900 L of fuel which was not enough How much fuel in liters should have been added to the plane Density ofjet fuel is 80 kgL The temperature of interstellar space is 273 K What is this temperature on the Celsius scale and the Fahrenheit scale Using your knowledge of metric units write down the conversion factors needed to convert a Mm to nm b Mg to kg A bumblebee ies with a ground speed of 152 ms Calculate its speed in kmh The density of air at ordinary atmospheric pressure and 25 degrees Celsius is 119 gL What is the mass in kilograms of the air in a room that measures 145 ft x 165 ft x 205 ft Gold can be hammered into extremely thin sheets called gold leaf An architect wants to cover a 100 ft x 82 ft ceiling with gold leaf that is ve millionths of an ince thick The density of gold is 1932 gcm3 and gold costs 953 per troy ounce 1 troy ounce 311034768 g How much will it cost the architect to buy the necessary gold A popular kitchen appliance produces electromagnetic radiation with a frequency of 2450 MHz a What is the wavelength of this radiation b Would the radiation of this wavelength be visible to the human eye 10An argon ion laser emits light at 532 nm a What is the frequency of this radiation b Predict the color associated with this wavelength 11For a material to be used in a solar cell as the absorber it must be able to absorb light with energy of 13 eV and higher What is the wavelength of this radiation 12Moybdenum metal must absorb radiation with a minimum frequency of 109 x 1015 s1 before it can eject an electron via the photoelectric effect a What is the work function of M0 in J b What wavelength in nm of radiation will provide a photon of this energy c If M0 is irradiated with light of wavelength 120 nm what is the maximum possible kinetic energy in J of the emitted electrons 13Determine if the electron transition is an absorption or an emission then calculate the energy associated with the transition and determine which region of the electromagnetic spectrum the absorbed or emitted photon belongs a N 2 to n 6 b N 5 to n 3 c N 2 to n 4 d N 2 to n 1 14Archeologists and environmental scientists determine the age of materials by measuring the ratio of certain isotopes in the sample Carbon dating for example measures the amount of 14C and 12C in materials that were once part of a living object In what ways are these two isotopes different In what ways are they the same 15Each of the following isotopes are used as radio tracers in nuclear medicine Draw the correct symbol and determine the number of protons and neutrons for each example a Phosphorous 32 b Chromium 51 c Cobalt60 d Thallium201 16A chemist nds that 3082g of nitrogen will react with 1760 g 3520 g 7040 g or 8800 g of oxygen to form four different compounds a Calculate the mass of oxygen per gram of nitrogen in each compound b How do the numbers in part a support Dalton s atomic theory 17Write the correct symbol with both superscript and subscript for each of the following Use the list of elements inside the front cover as needed a The isotope of platinum that contains 118 neutrons b The isotope of krypton with mass number 84 c The isotope of arsenic with mass number 75 18Labe each of the following statements as true or false For those that are false correct the statement a Visible light is a form of electromagnetic radiation b Ultraviolet light has longer wavelengths than the visible light c Xrays travel faster than microwaves 19What is the wavelength of radiation that has a frequency of 550 x 10145391 20f human height were quantinized in one foot increments what would happen to the height of a child as she grows up 210ne type of sunburn occurs on exposure to UV lights of wavelength in the vicinity of 325 nm a What is the energy of a photon of this wavelength b What is the energy of a mole of these photons c How many photons are in a 100 m burst of this radiation 22ndicate whether the following compounds for covalent bonds ionic bonds or metallic bonds a N02 b MgC2 C Csz 23A tanker truck carrying 50x103 kg of concentrated sulfuric acid was involved in an accient and spilled its load If the sulfuric acid is 95 H2504 by mass and has a density of 184 gmL how many kilograms of Na2CO3 must be added to neutralize the acid 24How many grams of CaOH2 is needed to neutralize 250 mL of 0100 M HNO3 250ne commercial method used to peel potatoes is to soak them in NaOH solution for a short time then remove them and spray off the peel The NaOH concentration is normally 36 M and the solution must be analyzed periodically In one analysis 457 mL of 0500 M H2504 was required to neutralize 200 mL of the NaOH solution What is the concentration of the NaOH solution 26ldentify the following compounds as a salt molecule acid or base For salt compounds label them as soluble or insoluble a CaOH2 b HBr C C3H803 d PBSO4 27Determine the oxidation numbers for each atom in the following compounds a CaOH2 b HBr C PbSO4 28For each of the reactions below indicate the reaction products and their chemical state a HClaq CaOH2aq D b Bl392 KS I 29Label the following reactions as precipitation neutralization or redox reaction More than one label may describe each reaction a 3FeNO32aq 2Als l 3Fes 2AlNO33aq b 2HBraq CaOH2aq l 2H20 CaBr2aq c ZnC2aq 2NaOHaq l ZnOH2s 2NaClaq 30For each of the following elements write its chemical symbol determine the name of the group to which it belongs and indicate whether it is a metal metalloid or nonmetal a Potassium b Iodine c Magnesium 31Write the empirical formula corresponding to each of the following molecular formulas a AlzBrs b CsHlo C C4H802 32Each of the following elements is capable of forming an ion in chemical reactions By referring to the periodic table predict the charge of the most stable ion of each a Mg b AI c K 33Using the periodic table predict the chemical formula and name of the compound formed by the following elements a Ga and F b Li and H c Al and 34Predict the chemical formula for the ionic compound formed by a Ca2 and Br b K and C03239 35Predict whether each of the following compounds is molecular or ionic a Bsz b CH3OH C LiNO3 36Explain how the existence of line spectra is consistent with Bohr39s theory of quantized energies for the electron in the hydrogen atom 37s energy emitted or absorbed when the following electronic transitions occur in hydrogen a Fromn4ton2 b From an orbit of radius 212 38Use the de Broglie relationship to determine the wavelengths of the following objects a An 85kg person skiing at 50kmhr b A 100 g buet red at 250 ms 39Why does the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom violate the uncertainty principle 40For a given value of the principal quantum number n how do the energies of the s p d and fsubshes vary for a Hydrogen b A manyelectron atom 41What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy each of the following subshells a 3p b 5d c 25 42Which of the quantum numbers governs the a Shape of the orbital b The energy of an orbital c The spin properties of the electron d The spatial orientation of the orbital 43What is meant by the term effective nuclear charge 44Which will experience the greater effective nuclear charge the electrons in n 3 shell in Ar or the n 3 shell in Kr Which will be closer to the nucleus 45Because an exact outer boundary cannot be measured or even calculated for an atom how are atomic radii determine 46Tungsten has the highest melting point of any metal in the periodic table 3422 degrees C The distance between W atoms in tungsten metal is 274 A What is the atomic radius of a tungsten atom in this environment 47How do the sizes of atoms change as we move A from left to right across a row in the periodic table B from top to bottom in a group in the periodic table C Arrange the following atoms in order of increasing atomic radius 0 Si l Ge 48Using only the periodic table arrange each set of atoms in order from largest to smallest a K Li Cs b Pb Sn Si c F O N 49True or False a Cations are larger than their corresponding neutral atoms 50Write the electron con gurations for the following ions a Fe2 b Hg2 c Mn2 51How are metallic character and rst ionization energy related 52What is meant by the term eectronegativity 53Using only the periodic table as your guide select the most electronegative atom in each of the following sets a Na Mg K Ca b P S As Se 54Draw a Lewis structure for SiH4 55What is meant by the word formal charge in a Lewis Structure 56An A82 molecule is described as linear and the A B bond length is known a does this information completely describe the geometry of the molecule 57How does a trigonal pyramid differ from a tetrahedron so far as molecular geometry is concerned 58What is meant by the term electron domain 59ln which of these molecules or ions does the presence of nonbonding electron pairs produce an effect on molecular shape assuming they are all in the gaseous state a b PF3 c HBr 60How many nonbonding electron pairs are there in each of the following molecules a CH32S b HCN C H2C2 61ln which of the following AFn molecules or ions is there more than one F A F bond angle SiF4 PF5 SF4 AsF3 62lndicate the hybridization of the central atom in a U Amh C C52 63What is the difference between hybrid orbitals and molecular orbitals 64What does the term diamagnetism mean How does a diamagnetic substance respond to a magnetic eld 65What scienti c principle or law is used in the process of balancing chemical equanns 66Write balanced chemical equations to correspond to each of the following descriptions a Solid calcium carbide CaC2 reacts with water to form an aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide and acetylene gas C2H2 b When solid potassium chlorate is heated it decomposes to form solid potassium chloride and oxygen gas 67Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction that occurs when a Mgs reacts with C2 b Barium carbonate decomposes into barium oxide and carbon dioxide gas when heated 68Balance the following equations and indicate whether they are combination decomposition or combustion reactions a C3H6g I H20 b NH4NO3S I N20g H20g C C5H6O 029 I C02g H20g 69Determine the formula weights of each of the following compounds a Nitric acid HNO3 U KMnO4 C Ca3PO42 70Calculate the percentage by mass of oxygen in the following compounds a Morphine C17H19NO3 b Codeine C18H21NO3 c Cocaine C17H21NO4 71What is Avogadro39s number and how is it related to the mole 72Calculate the following quantites a Mass in grams of 0105 mole in sucrose C12H22011 b Moles of ZnNO32 in 14350 g of this substance 73Give the empirical formula of each of the following compounds if a sample contains a 00130 mol C 00390 mol H and 00065 mol 0 b 1166 g iron and 501 g oxygen 74Determine the empirical formulas of the compounds with the following compositions by mass a 104 C 278 S and 617 CI b 217 C 96 O 687 F 75What is the molecular formula of each of the following compounds a Empirical formula CH2 molar mass 84gmol b Empirical formula NH2CI molar mass 88gmol 76Determine the empirical and molecular formulas of the following substance a Monosodium glutamate MSG a avor enhancer in certain foods contains 3551 C 477 H 3785 0 829 N and 1360 Na and has a molar mass of 169 gmol 77Define the term quotlimiting reactantquot and quotexcess reactantquot 78A manufacturer of bicycles has 4815 wheels 2305 frames and 2255 handlebars a How many bicycles can be manufactured using these parts b How many parts of each kind are left over c Which part limits the production of bicycles 79When benzene C6H6 reacts with bromine Br2 bromobenzene C6H5Br is obtained C6H6 Br2 D C6H5Br HBr a When 300 g of benzene reacts with 650 g of bromine what is the theoretical yield of bromobenzene b If the actual yield of bromobenzene is 423 g what is the percentage yield 80Specify what ions are present in solution upon dissolving each of the following substances in water a ZhCIz b HNO3 C NH42SO4 81Cassify each of the following substances as a nonelectrolyte weak electrolyte or strong electrolyte in water a H2503 b C2H50H ethanol 82Caculate the molarity of a solution that contains 0175 mol ZnC2 in exactly 150 mL of solution 83Calculate a the number of grams of solute in 0250 L of 0175 M KBr b the molar concentration of a solution containing 1475 g of CaNO32 in 1375 L 84Pure acetic acid known as glacial acetic acid is a liquid with a density of 1049 gmL at 25 degrees C Calculate the Molarity of a solution of acetic acid made by dissolving 2000 mL of glacial acetic acid at 25 degrees C in enough water to make 2500 mL of solution 85Which element is oxidized and which is reduced in the following reactions a N2g 3H2g I 2NH3g b 3FEN032aq 2Als D 3Fes 2AlN033aq 86Using solubility guidelines predict whether each of the following compounds is soluble or insoluble in water a MgBr2 b Pb2 C NH42CO3 87The complete combustion of ethanol C2H5OH to form H20 g and C02 g at constant pressure releases 1235 k of heat per mole of C2H50H a Write a balanced thermochemical equation for this reaction 880zone 03 g is a form of elemental oxygen that is important in the absorption of ultraviolet radiation in the stratosphere lt decomposes to 02g at room temperature and pressure according to the following reaction 2039 I 3029 H of reaction 2846kJ a What is the enthalpy change for this reaction per mole of 03g 89The speci c heat of octane C8H18 is 222 JgK a How many of heat are needed to raise the temperature of 800 g of octane from 100 degrees Celsius to 250 Celsius b Which will require more heat increasing the temperature of 1 mol of C8H18 by a certain amount or increasing the temperature of 1 mol of H20l by the same amount 90Cacuate the enthalpy change for the reaction P406s 202g D P4010s givent the following enthalpies of reaction P4s 302g l P406 H 16401kJ P4s 502g D P4010 H 29401 KI 91Ethanol C2H50H is currently blended with gasoline as an automobile fuel a Write a balanced equation for the combustion of liquid ethanol in air b Calculate the standard enthalpy change for the reaction assuming H20g as a product c Calculate the heat produced per liter of ethanol by combustion of ethanol under constant pressure Ethanol has a density of 0789 gmL 92You have a gas con ned to a cylinder with a movable piston What would happen to the gas pressure inside the cylinder if you do the following a Decrease the volume to onfourth the original volume while holding the temperature constant b Reduce the temperature in kelvins to half its original value while holding the volume constant 93Suppose you are given two 1L asks and told that one contains a gas of molar mass 30 the other a gas of molar mass 60 both at the same temperature The pressure in ask A is X atm and the mass of gas in the ask is 12 g The pressure in ask B is 05X atm and the mass of that ask is 12 g Which ask contains the gas of molar mass 30 and which contains the gas of molar mass 60 94Calculate the number of molecules in a deep breath of air whose volume is 225 L at body temperature 37 degrees Celsius and a pressure of 735 torr 95The metabolic oxidation of glucose C6H1206 in our bodies produces C02 which is expelled from our lungs as a gas C6H1206aq 602g D 6C02g 6H20 a Calculate the volume of dry C02 produced at body temperature 37 degrees Celsius and 0970 atm when 245 g of glucose is consumed in this reaction b Calculate the volume of oxygen you would need at 100 atm and 298 K to completely oxidize 500 g of glucose 96A mixture containing 0765 mol Heg 0330 mol Neg and 0110 mol Arg is con ned in a 1000 L vessel at 25 degrees Celsius a Calculate the partial pressure of each of the gases in the mixture b Calculate the total pressure of the mixture Answer Key 1 A Number of sig gs 3 601 x 102 BNumber of sig gs 2 54 x 10392 C Number of sig gs 5 63050 x 100 D Number of sig gs 105 x 10393 E Number of sig gs 1 40 x 102 2 A 432 x 105 sec 6706 x 108 mih C 2557 yds3 3 20 X 104 L 4 Celsius 27042 Fahrenheit 455 5 A 1 x 10393 m 1mm x 1nm1 x 10399m B 1 x 10393g1 mg x 1kg1000g 6 547 kmhr 7 64 kg air 8 6 x 104 9 A 0122 m B No it is not visible 10A 564 x 1014 5391 B the color is green 11950 nm 12A 722 X 1019 B 275 nm C9345 X 1019 13A 41 X 10397m B 128 X 10396m C486 X 10397m D 121 X 10397 m 14Different number of electrons different mass same type of atom 15A 32P protons 15 Neutrons 17 B 51Cr Protons 24 Neutrons 27 C 60Co Protons 27 Neutrons 33 D 201Tl Protons 81 Neutrons 120 16A 05711 g O1g N 1142 g O1g N 2284 g O1g N 2855 g O1g N B the numbers in part a obey the law of multiple proportions 19778Pt 8436Kr 7533AS 18A True B False CFase 19545 x 10397 m 545 nm 20Quantization means that energy changes can happen only in certain allowed increments If the human growth quantum is one foot growth occurs instantaneously in one foot increments 21A 447 x 10le B 617 x 1019 C692 nm 22A 2 nonmetal atoms so covalent B a metal and a nonmetal atom relatively big difference in electronegativity between Mg and Cl so IONIC C 2 nonmetals covalent 2351372 kg Na2C03 2400926 g CaOH2 25229 M NaOH 26A base also a salt soluble B acid C molecule D salt not soluble 27A Ca2 O2 H1 B H1 Br1 C Pb2 S6 O2 28A 2HClaq CaOH2aq I 2H20 CaC2aq B Br2l 2Ks l 2KBraq 29A redox B neutralization C precipitation 30A K alkali metals metalB I halogens nonmetal CMg alkaline earth metals metal 31A AlBr3 B C4H5 C C2H4O 32AMg2 B Al3 C K 33A GaF3 galliumlll uoride B LiH lithium hydiride C All3 aluminum iodide 34A CaBr2 B K2CO3 35A Bsz B CH3OH C LiNO3 36When applied to atoms the notion of quantized energies means that only certain values of energy are allowed These are represented by the lines in the emission spectra of excited atoms 37A Emitted B absorbed 38A56 x 103937m B 265 x 103934 m 39The uncertainty principle states that there is a limit to how precisely we can simultaneously know the position and momentum of an electron 40A In the hydrogen atom orbitals with the same principal quantum number n have the same energy B In a many electron atom for a given n value orbital energy increases with increasing I value 5ltpltdltf 41A 6 B 10 C 2 42A B n and C ms D m 43Effective nuclear charge Ze is a representation of the average electrical feel experienced by a single electron It is the average environment created by the positive charge at the nucleus 44The n 3 electrons in Kr experience a greater effective nuclear charge and thus have a greater probability of being closer to the nucleus 45Atomic radii are determined by measuring distances between atoms in various situations 46137 47A Decrease B Increase C O lt Si lt Ge lt I 48ACsgtKgtLi BPbgtSngtSi CNgtOgtF 49Fase 50A Fe Ar3a6 B Hg Xe41 145d10 C Mn Ar3a6 51The smaller the rst ionization energy of an element the greater the metallic character of that element 52Eectronegativity is the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself 53A Mg B S 54l am unable to draw it so I will explain Si is the central atom There are four single bonds connected to the Si atom all with an H at the other end 55Formal charge is the charge on each atom in a molecule assuming all atoms have the same electronegativity 56Yes The stated shape de nes the bond angle and the bond length tells the size 57A molecule with tetrahedral molecular geometry has an atom at each vertex of the tetrahedron A trigonalpyramidal molecule has one vertex of the tetrahedron occupied by a nonbonding electron pair rather than an atom 58An electron domain is a region in a molecule where electrons are most likely to be found 59A No effect on molecular shape B 1 nonbonding pair on P in uences molecular shape C No effect 60A 2 B 1 C none 61The two molecules with trigonal bipyramidal electron domain geometry PF5 and SF4 have more than one F A F bond angle 62A 5p2 B 5p3 C 5p 6318 valence electrons 64AB substances with no unpaired electrons are weakly repelled by a magnetic eld 65Conservation of mass 66ACaC2s 2H20 D CaOH2 aq C2H2g B2KCO3s D 2KCs 30 g 67A Mgs C2g D MgC2s B BaCO3s D BaOs C02g 68A 2C3H6g 902g D 6C02g 6H20g combustion BNH4NO3s l N20g 2H20g Decomposition C C5H6O 6029 D 5C02g 3H20g combustion 69A 630 amu B 1580 amu C 3103 amu 70A 168 B 161 C211 716022 X 1023 g C12H22011 mol ZnNO32 73A C2H60 B F8203 74A CSC2 B C3OF5 75C5H12 76Empirical formula and molecularformula NaC5H804N 77The limiting reactant determines the maximum number of product moles resulting from a chemical reaction any other reactant is an excess reactant 78A 2255 bicycles B 50 frames 305 wheels C handlebars 79A The theoretical yield is 603 g C6H5Br B 701 yield 80ZnC2aq l Zn2aq 2Claq 81A H2SO3 weak electrolyte B C2H5OH nonelectrolyte 82117 M Zan 83A 521 g KBr B 006537 M CaNO32 841398 M CH3COOH 85A N22NH3 N is reduced 3H2 l 2NH3 H is oxidized B Fe2Fe Fe is reduced Al Al Al is oxidized 86A Soluble B Insoluble C Soluble 87C2H5OH 3029 D 3H20 2C02g H 1235 k 88H 1423 kJmol 03g 89A 266 x 103 B It will require more heat to increase the temperatura of one mole of octane by a certain amount than to increase the temperature of one mole of water by the same amount 90H 13000 kJ 91A C2H5OH 3029 D 2cozg 3H20g B Hrxn 12348kJ C 211 x 104kJL heat produced 92A If V decreases by a factor of 4 P increases by a factor of 4 B IfT decreases by a factor of 2 P decreases by a factor of 2 93Fask A contains the gas with M30 gmol and Flask B contains the gas with M 60 gmol 94515 x 1022 molecules 95A 214 L C02 B 407 L 02 96A PHe 187 atm PNe 0807 atm PAr 0269 atm B Pt 295 atm
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