Final Study Guide
Final Study Guide History 151, 22
Popular in Global History to 1500
Popular in History
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jacqueline Wiley on Monday December 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to History 151, 22 at La Salle University taught by Professor Frassetto in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Global History to 1500 in History at La Salle University.
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Date Created: 12/14/15
th Week of December 8 notes Prof. Frassetto Europe, 1000-1300 o Around the year 1000, things changed and Europe underwent a period of important growth o Dramatically changes More sophisticated More organized Ideas about nationalism Roots of modern catholic church Period of the crusades o What happened that allowed this to occur? The raids came to an end The Vikings became Christian, became less aggressive Secondly, the agricultural revolution took place And everything over the next 300 years is going to grow out of the agricultural revolution o What is the agricultural revolution? New technology (key to this) More uses of old technologies The most important of the new technologies was the plow o The traditional plow was a roman plow that was used in Italy o The soil in Italy is thin and sandy o Wasn’t effective or efficient A new plow made of metal Increasing use of iron More durable New design in the plow that allowed it to dig into the soil and allowing it to be more fertile Theyre also expensive During the period of invasions, the people of france begun to form new villages Strength in numbers Work together, pull our resources and afford a new plow Demographic transition Plow was traditionally pulled by oxen Oxen are very strong, but also slow moving Oxen to a horse Horses aren’t as strong as an ox but they are faster Widespread grain production o A lot of beer production Grew lots of vegetables o More proteins and vitamins New forms of crop rotation o Traditionally farmers divided their farms in half Half planted, the other half fallow o Went from two field to three field Led to more crops Climate change also helped this In this period, it got about a degree or two warmer o The growing season is extended More crops, more money Rained a little bit less, an inch or two less The soil in northern Europe is thick and heavy and dense and moist o Too much water = yuck! New forms of socioeconomic organization The Manor o This practice is manorialism o Population grew dramatically o Economic growth Lead to such things as wagons, dye fabric, glass blowers, weavers Increasing diversification of the economy o How does food mean more money? The surplus is traded! Where will we trade it? o Trading posts in towns Towns, Trade and Tourism o After 1000, we begin to see the growth of towns due to trade and population growth o We see a shift where towns and cities come back and grow bigger Some of the biggest cities only held 50,000 Significant difference o We begin to see the expansion of Europe Territorial and cultural sense o Urban II, the Pope, told the Europeans at Clermont to stop killing each other and get back the holy land First crusade The byzantine emperor asked for help, what he got was 100,000 people and a goose He called on them to rescue the Holy Land for the Christians o Began in 1095, was conquered in 1099 Long and difficult trip Hugely popular crusade 8 crusades The first was successful, the others were not o Invading and conquering led to counter- crusade led by Saladin o Adessa fell, another crusade o Jerusalem was taken, another crusade Every crusade after the first was to gain back what they had already lost o Gero Cross, 970 Fundamental change in attiude and the character of jesus and Christianity A new concept of who Jesus was o Focuses on Jesus as full man A dying human figure Suffering servant Emphasis on the human Jesus, his time, his friends Focus on Jesus, Mary, Peter and the Apostles His time, his place o His place was Jerusalem You’re going to save where he lived, motivating factor of the crusades The apostles also became important, especially Peter th o Gregory the 7 Associated with important reform movement Why do we need a reform movement? o Things were bad Problems with the church in this period Late 900s to mid-1000s Papal Pornocracy o Bad popes Helped establish the basic structure of the Catholic Church as it is today Represents an important moment in the History of the Church Restructured the Church and social organization with Christian society Church was established by God, but is a hierarchy Here on Earth, the chief representative of God on Earth is the Pope o Archbishops Bishops Priests Pope is descendant of Saint Peter o Papal Monarchy grows out of Gregory Innocent the 3 rd o 1198-1216 o Greatest of the Papal Monarchy o Lawmaker, great lawyer o Called the 4 Lateran Council Priestly behavior Laws for taking communion Laws of the clergy Miracle of the Mass is fully defined Bread and m=wine miraculously transform in body and blood of Christ Supporter of Crusade The 4 Crusade o The Constantinople Crusade 1054, the Great Schism Albigensian Crusade o Heretics o His dream A simple poor man would rebuild the Church Saint Francis o Sainted 2 or 3 years after his death o Beloved Known for the Canticle of Brother Sun Very in touch with nature God was all powerful and controlled nature o Expressed through song o Praises the Sun, Moon, Win, Earth, Water, Fire and Death Why is it important? Its God’s creation o Something that grew out of this time was the Notre Dame,” Our Lady, Mother of God” A Cathedral in Paris Gothic Churches th o Most were dedicated to Mary 12 Sentury Renaissance o Latin writing o Ancient Greek learning Islamic Spain, Aristotles works were imported from here Affected Christian culture o Peter Abelard great representative Brilliant teacher, brilliant thinker Innovative, provocative Greatest scholar of the day This reputation introduced him to Heloise o Brilliant woman o Abelard teachers her They had a Son named Astrolabe o Education was related to the Church, needed to be celibate Problem for Abelard He decided to get married o She says,”I’d rather be your whore than the emperors wife.” She said no o HE also wrote a book,” Sic et Non” Yes and no o Study Guide: History Final ID Sunni Ali o Muslim o Knew he needed to keep the country folk happy Protect farmers Recruited leaders from countryside and made them administrators, ruled the courts Priests served and performed religious ceremonies Respect and honor the country folk Allowed rituals and sacrifices of those African traditions o Obviously not Muslim Saw a way to maintain the order Mansa Musa o Ruled Mali from 1207-1237 Greatest ruler of Mali, Sudan Successful conquering king Great theme of Mali and kingdoms of Sudan o Build up army, conquer, gain access to salt, gold Brought great wealth and resources Brought power Gained control of towns like Timbuktu, which gave them a fantastic trade route o Made the pilgrimage to Mecca Stopped in Cairo He participates in Cairo Gave out A LOT of gold, money o So much gold that he wrecked the economy for an entire generation in Cairo Reveals two things Devotion to his faith Mali was phenomenally wealthly kingdom in order to do this Zara Yakob o (died in 1468) o Absolute monarchy that was centered in and around the King, he was the absolute power Rule of law Sought to impose uniformity of belief o Everyone was a good Christian, if you weren’t, you were persecuted o Unify the kingdom as a whole o But in a way, we can see the fear of Muslims because Ethiopia was surrounded by Muslims o The army is use to expand the land of Ethiopia, establish a huge Christian kingdom once again Black Death Fatimid Dynasty Heloise Abelard (Full Story) o In twelfth century Paris, the intellectually gifted young Heloise, the niece of Notre Dame’s Canon Fulbert, strives for knowledge, truth and the answer to the question of human existence. It soon becomes apparent that only one teacher in Paris can provide the education that she seeks. Though twenty years her senior, Abelard quickly becomes intrigued by Heloise’s uncommon wit and intelligence, for Heloise is on par intellectually with Abelard. o They soon find themselves so entwined that neither can resist the spiritual and physical desires of their bodies, yet they both know that the laws of the time forbid such a relationship. But their physical love and the strength of their passion proved to be a power impossible to resist. o When Heloise becomes pregnant, they realize it is not safe for her to remain in Paris. They flee for Brittany, Abelard’s place of birth. In a scheme to protect the dignity of his fallen niece, and return Heloise to his home, Canon Fulbert arranges a secret marriage between Heloise and Abelard. But shortly after the two lovers are wed, they discover Fulbert’s true plot is to ruin Abelard and keep Heloise for himself. For her safety, Heloise escapes to the convent at Argenteuil, but it is too late for Abelard and he is brutally attacked in Paris. o As a result of his humiliating punishment, Abelard no longer considers himself capable of continuing as a teacher at Notre Dame, and he and Heloise understand what they must do. Canon Bedell pleads with Abelard to not force such a fate upon Heloise, but both Heloise and Abelard agree that they must take Holy Orders as Monk and Nun. In a heartbreaking moment, Heloise must give up her child, knowing that she will never see him again. o Through their famous correspondence of twenty years, their love continues to flourish, in spite of their separation. After many years pass, in a chance meeting, Heloise and Abelard are briefly reunited at a ceremony in Paris. Though they have been physically apart all these years, at last in the sight of the other, the former lovers realize that the love they share is the reason for human existence. As the glorious ceremony begins, they triumphantly promise to remain “Forever One”. o They never met again, yet through their famous letters, their love endures. o Six hundred years later, it was Josephine Bonaparte, so moved by their story, the she ordered that the remains of Abelard and Heloise be entombed together at Pére Lachaise cemetery in Paris. To this day, lovers from all over the world visit the tomb where the remains of Heloise and Abelard rest eternally together. Urban II o the Pope, told the Europeans at Clermont to stop killing each other and get back the holy land First crusade o The byzantine emperor asked for help, what he got was 100,000 people and a goose He called on them to rescue the Holy Land for the Christians Began in 1095, was conquered in 1099 Long and difficult trip Hugely popular crusade Agricultural Revolution of 1000 o New technology (key to this) o More uses of old technologies o The most important of the new technologies was the plow o The traditional plow was a roman plow that was used in Italy o The soil in Italy is thin and sandy o Wasn’t effective or efficient o A new plow made of metal o Increasing use of iron o More durable o New design in the plow that allowed it to dig into the soil and allowing it to be more fertile o Theyre also expensive o During the period of invasions, the people of france begun to form new villages o Strength in numbers o Work together, pull our resources and afford a new plow o Demographic transition o Plow was traditionally pulled by oxen o Oxen are very strong, but also slow moving o Oxen to a horse o Horses aren’t as strong as an ox but they are faster o Widespread grain production o A lot of beer production o Grew lots of vegetables o More proteins and vitamins o New forms of crop rotation o Traditionally farmers divided their farms in half o Half planted, the other half fallow o Went from two field to three field o Led to more crops o Climate change also helped this o In this period, it got about a degree or two warmer o The growing season is extended o More crops, more money o Rained a little bit less, an inch or two less o The soil in northern Europe is thick and heavy and dense and moist o Too much water = yuck! o New forms of socioeconomic organization o The Manor o This practice is manorialism o Population grew dramatically o Economic growth o Lead to such things as wagons, dye fabric, glass blowers, weavers o Increasing diversification of the economy o How does food mean more money? o The surplus is traded! o Where will we trade it? o Trading posts in towns Crusades o 8 of them
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