Chapter 14: Habitat Selection, Territoriality, and Migration
Chapter 14: Habitat Selection, Territoriality, and Migration BIOL 515
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erica Leonard on Monday December 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 515 at Kansas State University taught by Eva A Horne in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Behavioral Ecology in Biology at Kansas State University.
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Date Created: 12/14/15
Chapter 14 Habitat Selection Territoriality and Migration Niche gt ND hyper volume that a species exists in Job habitat food available etc o Fundamental Niche I Under ideal conditions w no others to interact w I Abiotic constraints 0 Realized Niche I Under real world conditions w competitors predators disease etc I Biotic conditions Habitat Hierarchy gt Overall range of hierarchy the area size a species can be found in or occupy 0 Example I Orange Crowned Warbler range in moister norther regions I Virginia s Warbler Range in drier southern regions gt Microhabitat localized choices 0 Example I Orange Crowned Warbler Nests in lowlaying moist areas bottom of hills more water collecting soilnutrients eroded more humidity Microhabitat leaf litter I Virginia s Warbler nests at upper continuum in dry areas Microhabitat leaf litter Habitat Selection gt Factors affecting habitat selection 0 Dispersal ability distance species is able to travel Behavior displaynesting preferences etc Competitive exclusion 1 species outcompetes another Physical amp chemical factors temperature pH etc Natal philopatry species stays at birth place amp shares area w parents amp siblings Natal dispersal species permanently moves away from birth place Niche portioning allowing 2 species to live in same habitat at same time by using different resources and areas of land OOOOOO Natal Philopatry gt Costs 0 Inbreeding mating within relatives I Reduce variability I I chances of homozygous expression of harmful alleles I Inbred pairs fewer surviving offspring 0 Competition I I offspring staying 1 resources I Competition between relatives could I inclusive fitness gt Benefits 0 Inbreeding I Keep genes adapted to local environment together o Familiarity of local conditions I Knowledge of food and hiding spots I 1 aggression levels from familiar neighbors Natal Dispersal gt Costs 0 Energy 0 Risk predation I Moving more lack of familiar hiding place 0 Aggression I Attempt to establish in existing population gt Benefits 0 Avoid overcrowding I 4 Access to mates territories etc Choosing Habitats gt Comparative traits 0 Visit multiple sites revisit some amp choose best available gt Sequential search tactic 0 Visit 1 site decide to stay or go move on quick decision Ideal Free distribution gt Individuals choose habitat to maximize fitness 0 Ideal complete amp accurate knowledge of resources 0 Free can go anywhere wo interferences Shifting sites as adults gt Adult animals that move to new sites due to nest failure gt Males have equal success if they don t move amp at the new site during 2ncl season gt Males that moved had poor success at previous site and better success at new site Territoriality gt Home range 0 Area individual carries out normal activities gt Core area 0 Part of home range were most activities occur gt Territory 0 Any area defended for exclusive use for individuals 0 Larger territory required in poor quality habitat 0 Benefits must outweigh costs 4 fitness 0 Benefit curve is different for different quality habitats Territoriality and fitness gt Territory owners should reproduce more than others 0 Pairs defend territories o Other pairs sneak in o Floaters fledge 4 young not as good due to poor conditions but still better than 0 o Territory owner fledge 8 young due to better conditions 4 fitness When to defend a territory gt Resource abundance o Defend territory as long as owner gains more benefits than the cost of defense gt Feeding territories amp calories 0 Owners should gain more calories than are lost in defense 0 Low nectar from 12 in territories 4 hrs less foraging time 0 High nectar from 68 in territories 30 mins less foraging time gt Resource distribution 0 Defend territory if resources are not too scattered gt Food based territoriality 0 Females in space hypothesis I Abundance distribution renewal rate 9 F spacing 9 M spacing Females spread out males spread out I Sparse patchy slow renewal fruit 9 F territorial uniform 9 M nonterritorial Food is scarce so females are territorial males aren t so they don t have to compete for a females attention cant mate with all so they guard 1 I Abundant even rapid renewal grass 9 F non territorial clumped 9M territorial Lots of food so females stay together to help each other form altruism or leader males become territorial since females are clumped gt Territoriality based on mating system 0 Females in space amp time hypothesis I F temporal distribution of receptive 9 spatial distribution of females 9 M spacing amp mating system I F asynchronous 9 females clumped or dispersed 9 M nonterritorial promiscuous I F synchronous 9 females clumped 9 M territorial polygamous I F synchronous 9females dispersed 9 M territorial monogamous gt Intruder pressure 0 Defend territory as long as it s not too costly due to l s of intruders 0 Less males more stable consistent territories o More males fewer territories Territoriality decreasing defense cost gt Boundaries easier to defend if boundaries are easy to determine 0 Males defend territories around areas that females will emerge from to mate 0 When visible boundaries are randomly scattered along territories males change boundaries and used physical boundaries as a guideline Territory size gt Varies withinbetween species 0 Depends on I Size of animal group I Function of territory I Amount of resources being defended 0 Older territories are normally smaller than new territories as species adapts relocates changes etc Rhythms gt Ultradian rhythms o lt 24 hours 0 Hormone production 0 Feeding 0 Sleep pressure gt Daily rhythms o Circadian z 24 hours 0 Species that produce similar pheromones will be active at different times of day to avoid mating mix ups gt Lunar day rhythms o Circalunidian z 25 hours 0 2 tides each lunar day 0 Intertidal animals are active at lowhigh tides not at same time every day due to extra hour gt Semilunar rhythms o Fortnight z 2 weeks 0 Spring tides highest high lowest low 0 Neap tide lowest high highest low I When moon is perpendicular to sun or earth 0 Ex Grunion I Females burrow in sand and release eggs while males release sperm during spring tide 9 eggs incubate for 10 days 9 hatch during next spring tide amp wash out to sea I Use spring tide when it s at its lowest low so their eggs will be protectednot washed away until the next highest high gt Monthly rhythms o Circamonthly z 28 days 0 Time for moon to circle earth 0 Ant lion I Larvae builds a pit in the sand in hope that prey will walk into it since its dark I Build pit extralarge on full moon in hope that more prey will be out due to the extra light and more prey will fall into the pit due to its extra large size gt Annual rhythms o Circannual 0 Time for earth to circle sun 0 Seasonal changes I Temperature photoperiod rainfall I Few external cues in tropics migratory birds need internal clock to know when to come back Clocks gt Biological Clock internal time sense 0 Found in all eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms Relatively insensitive to temperature changes Unaffected by metabolic poisons Can run without external cues Entrained by predictable changes in environment used to calibrate internal clock I Light intensity seasons geomagnetism barometric pressure relative humidity cosmic radiation electrostatic field 0 O O O I Tides daily amp biweekly I Nocturnal light intensity lunar months gt Properties of biological clocks o Persist in constant conditions precision in length of activity 0 Entrainment I Process of resetting biological clock I Matches local time schedule 24 hours I Most mammals and birds use photoperiod dawndusk I Function time varies for resetting jetlag Location of clock amp photoreceptor gt Mammals o SCN mater clock suprachiasmatic nuclei located in hypothalamus of brain I Remains rhythmic in tissue culture and when isolated in living brain other parts of brain desynchronize 0 Eyes photoreceptor gt Birds 0 SCN I Talks to pineal via nerves has receptors for melatonin 0 Eyes I Secrets melatonin connects circadian rhythm system via optic nerves 0 Pineal gland I Secretes melatonin at night Cells and clocks gt Isolated cells maintain rhythm 0 Remove neurons from rat SCN o Grow tissue culture 0 Measuring firing rate daily cycle 0 Stop firing when 39I39I39X is added blocks Na channels so they can t fireno AP 0 Washing away 39I39I39X 9 daily cycle returns Fitness Advantages of Clocks gt If SCN is destroyed and then animal is released into wild the animal will become nocturnal and therefore become vulnerable to unfamiliar predators gt When clock is in correct motion animals sleep and wake up on time and become alert to their surrounds food availability predators hiding places etc when clock is not in correct rhythm their body cannot tell what time of day it is to wake them up or make them sleep and therefore they will become nocturnal decreasing their survival rate No light cues gt No real pattern of activities meaning no circadian rhythm gt With no rhythm animal doesn t know how to behave they become disorientated and have no way of telling the time Orientation gt Short distance 0 Posture proper habitat long distance travel amp homing o Kinesis movement rate varies with type amp strength of stimulus o Taxis move towardsaway from stimulus I Photo light I Geo gravity I Rheno current I Phono sound I Positive move towards stimulussource I Negative away from stimulus source 0 1 receptor move around to orient o 2 receptors orient so stimulus is same in each Long distance orientation gt Piloting 0 Using landmarks to find way systematically or random o If displaced within a familiar area can make a new route to home 0 Ex Ants gt Compass orientation 0 Move in geographic direction without landmarks o If displaced from normal course bird will still fly south and end up in the wrong location 0 Ex Storks 0 Migration direction is genetic Baltic storks migrate SSE W Germany storks migrate SW if relocated from Baltic to Germany at a young age storks will still fly SSE gt Dead reckoning 0 Distance traveled direction traveled amp compass used to return to start 0 No true path from home doesn t need to use exact same path to get back home o If displaced from normal course they will end up in the wrong location when they make a direct beelie back to start o If they are displaced one direction or the other from their start position they will miss home because they still make a bee line back from an unfamiliar location 0 Example ants gt True navigation 0 Establish amp maintain reference to goal without use of landmarks o If displaced W of normal course bird can still fly south from new course 0 Ex Rock pigeons Cues for use in orientation gt Visual o Landmarks I Physical characters of environment that indicate location I Neurologgers EEG amp GPS measures brain activitylocation recognition I If bird flies alone 4 brain activity because they have to navigate for themselves no leader l entropy I Birds released at the same time narrow pattern due to navigation couple leader that group follows 1 brain activity for nonleaders I Sun is predictable amp can be used as compass I Sun moves through sky 15 hour Bird must keep track of suns locations at all hours of day sun can change perception of directions by changing time conception o Nocturnal navigation Sunset Regardless of stars all rotate around Polaris N star some birds can t orient themselves without ability to see sunset 0 Polarized light gt Magnetic Light waves oscillating in single direction Oscillation can occur in any direction unpolarized light gives a glare which makes sky look darker can be vertical or horizontal Polarization is perpendicular from sun and forms rings pattern moves across sky with sun Water also polarizes light by acting similar to atmosphere Aquatic animals use polarized light when sun is unavailable can be seen on cloudy days used while in water to orient body away from predators and towards land 0 Earth spins solid inner core inside liquid outer core 0 Magnetic poles are offset from geological NS poles by 20 0 Magnetic cues Polarity magnetism force with direction at poles 0 North moves towards plant 0 South moves away from planet Angle of inclination used to determine where to migrate shows direction of force lines in relation to surface 0 NorthSouth vertical to surface 0 Equator horizontal Intensity strength of field 0 NS poles greatest strength 0 Equator weakest strength gt Magnetic visual cues 0 Magnetic sensor of birds in ganglion cells of retina that allow them to see magnetic fields 0 Pigment cytochrome responds to bluegreen wavelengths processed in part of brain called cluster N if removed birds can no longer use magnetic fields to navigate 0 Magnetic maps gt Chemical Used by animals with magnetite in bodies magnetic field grows strongerweaker from place to place 0 Use olfaction as navigation 0 Can t orient home if nose is plugged gt Sound 0 Conspecific communication used to locate prey o nfrasound ultrasound echolocation o 2 categories of bat sounds Frequencymodulated FM 0 Measures wide range of different frequencies with more details of intervals between echoes Constantfrequency CF 0 Measured by Doppler shift with better detection of single frequency gt Electrical 0 Aquatic animals in nonvisual habitats generate electrical fields from specialized organs 0 Objects in water are detected by electroreceptors along lateral line system and distort field identifying their location 0 Size of object is determined by length of signal sensed along body distance by amplitude of signal Migration Movement away then back again Usually between breeding grounds amp over feeding sites Must provide fitness benefit Can be short distances 1km woods to a pond or 20000km arctic costly in energy Lower ranked pigeons will fly behind and to the right of dominant leader see leader with left eye so info goes to right brain which deals more with social status and behavior VVVVV
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