Unit 3 Study Guide
Unit 3 Study Guide MC 101 - Intro to Mass Communications
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Popular in Communication Sciences and Disorders
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Matt Owens on Monday December 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MC 101 - Intro to Mass Communications at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Fei Qiao in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Mass Communications in Communication Sciences and Disorders at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 12/14/15
Unit 3 Study Guide: MC101 Chapter 7: Audio/Radio History of the Radio o Heinrich Hertz: Electromagnetic waves that go from one coil across the room; radio waves; measure of electrical frequency o Guglielmo Marconi: Combined the work of Morse, Hertz, and Edison to creat the wireless telegraph; early radio transmissions before human voices could be carried on airwaves o Reginald Fessenden: First wireless voice transmission o David Sarnoff: Broadcasting – Use of wireless technology to instantaneously reach a wide audience; marketable product. RCA’s David Sarnoff formed the first two national broadcasting networks: NBC Red and NBC Blue; dominant. Music Box Memo RCA: Radio Corporation of America AT&T GE Westinghouse United Fruit Company o Commercial Radio vs. Public Radio Public Radio Congress: National Public Radio (NPR) in 1970; Today 900 stations Interconnect noncommercial stations, produce programs to use; NPR provide 22% of daily schedules EX: all things considered, morning edition Stations: income from memberships and underwriting; must be on 12 hours/day; pay NPR $6000 fee plus programming fee based on size Cut funding in 1980 Around the World: BBC, Japan, China Commercial Radio KDKA: The first commercial radio station WEAF: First station to broadcast commercials o Golden Age of Radio 1920s-1940s Amos n’ Andy Family listen to radio in the evening o Race music problems o AM vs FM radio FM Frequency Modulation Prevailed in the 1960s-1970s Invented by Edwin Armstrong Late 1960s: FM took over AM Amplitude Modulation Strategy after FM took over: o Fairness Doctrine was no longer in force Policy instituted in 1949 that required talk shows to give a balance of views o Talk shows, talking quality was better than music o Different types of radios: Terrestrial radio (Electromagnetic waves) AM, FM, HD-Radio Non-terrestrial Radio Satellite, Internet, Podcasting, etc. o 1912: Titanic leads to changes Lead to the development to send out distress calls Federal Radio Act of 1912 Radio operators have licenses Separate frequency for distress calls 24-hour radio services for ships at sea Call letters o NBC Established in 1926 Red networks and blue networks Had to sell blue network due to monopolization of market, and it became ABC o CBS Bought by William Paley in 1928 New business model Quality news o 1950s-1980s: Music and the DJ Alan Freed AKA “Moondog” Coined the term “Rock and Roll” o “Firsts” TR-63: World’s first pocket sized radio by Sony Not actually pocket sized (unless you had a gigantic pocket) Radio: The first personal electronic mass medium 1850s: First transatlantic telegraph cable completed The first sound: Fessenden’s voice signal over the radio The first commercial radio station: KDKA The first station to broadcast commercials: WEAF Facts: o Who developed the gramophone? Emile Berliner o What were race records? 78 rpm phonograph records marketed to African Americans during the 1920s through the 40s. Contained race music (African American genres such as blues, jazz, and gospel music. Some comedy as well) Chapter 8: Movies Movie Marketing Windows o Marketing Window: Opportunity to sell, rent, or license a product to a different type of customer o Goal for the companies is to make as much money as possible in each marketing window o Marketing Windows (Qiao): North American Theaters Sell it at the International Box Office Non-theater venues DVD sales/rentals Digital viewing TV sales o Marketing Windows (Gozenbach): Domestic Theatrical International Home Media Television History of Movies o George Eastman Demonstrate the value of dry plate Invent emulsion-coating machine Mass produce photographic dry plate 1888: KODAK camera was placed on market o “You press the button – we do the rest” o Birth of snapshot photography o Eadweard Muybridge British Photographer o Frame per second Magic number was 24, but it is now moving to 48 o Thomas Edison Invented Strip Kinetograph (early movie camera) One eye at a time Built Kinetoscope o Machine to watch these movies o Tell Stories The great Train Robbery o Silent Movies Charlie Chaplin o Vitaphone Movies Warner Bros. The Jazz Singer (1927) First talking movie o “Firsts” August and Louis Lumiere built Cinematographe The First Film in the History First Documentary: Nanook of the North First Movie in Color The Wizard of Oz Raymond Turner o Color movie in 1890s Rating system o Voluntary Rating System G PG PG-13 R NC-17 Different Theaters o Old School Theaters Alabama theater: Only for whites Carver theater: Only for blacks 1948: Movie companies could no longer own movie theaters o Drive-in Theaters Popular in the 1940s and 1960s Show mostly B movies Low budget movies o Multiplex Began because of TV’s influence Major Roles in Movies o Producer: Put together financing and creative team o Director: Provides creative vision o Star: Guarantee box office success o Writer: Turn story idea into script o Editor: Creates rhythm, pace, etc. Hays Code o Motion Picture Production Code of 1930 Very Strict No romantic affection, etc. Movie Makers: Oligopoly o Columbia Pictures Sony o Universal NBC/Comcast o Paramount Viacom, with a piece of CBS o Warner Bros Time Warner th o 20 Century Fox News Corp. o Walt Disney ABC, etc. o Control 90% of the movie market Chapter 9: Television Second Screen o Consuming content on an additional screen while watching television Sweeps o Nielson DMA (Designated Market Areas) Sweeps November February May July Data gathered are used by local station to decide how much to charge for advertisements History of Television: o Experimental Period 1884 Paul Nipkow First Electromechanical TV scanning system Nipkow Disc 1907 Boris Rosing Use Cathode Ray Tube to transmit images 1926 John Baird First mechanical television 1927 Philo Farnsworth o Father of television o Developed system for transforming visual images into an electronic signal: 60 lines in picture Electronic Television o Early Developmental Period Late 1920s Vladimir Zworykin o Hired by RCA and David Sarnoff o Completed a working model for a similar system of Farnsworth’s system o Farnsworth sued RCA and won $1 million Kinescope 1939 New York World’s Fair Franklin Roosevelt, first president to appear on TV NBC broadcasted first televised baseball game o Princeton vs. Columbia Universities 1941 CBS – NBC’s biggest competitor Broadcasted 15 minute newscasts Black & White TV Developed in the 1930s Standardized in 1941 Had to wear black lipstick and other shades of makeup to show up Color TV Developed in early 1950s Standardized in 1953 The beginning of commercial TV Late 1940s Borrow the models from the radios Big television networks 1950s 1952: The first rerun o I Love Lucy Edward Murrow: o Pioneering in TV documentaries for news o “Harvest of Shame” Walter Cronkite o First “anchorman” Pat weaver Networks produced programming, not advertisers Multiple sponsors for a show Today… Networks (ABC, CBS, NBC, FOX, PBS) Cable companies Local programming (news, mostly) Syndicated programming (The Ellen Show) Online Sources (Netflix, Amazon, etc.) o Networks and Affiliates Networks Provide programming for affiliates Make money via ads Affiliates Carry network shows Receive space for ads inside the network shows Run syndicated shows o Syndication Syndication is when a show is sold to individual stations for them to do with as they wish Only one syndicated show can be distributed to each station per media market o Cable TV (Community Antenna TV or CATV) Cable TV is a video delivery service provided by a cable operator to subscribers via a coaxial cable or fiber optics Comcast XFINITY Time Warner Cable Cox AT&T U-verse Verizon FiOS Charter o Satellite TV A wireless system for delivering television programming directly to viewer’s house Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) DirecTV Dish Network o Home Box Office (HBO) 1975 First to provide cable only content Subscription service o Cable News Network (CNN) Funded by Ted Turer First channel to provide 24-hour news coverage o 2000s Technology Change From analog to digital TV Analog o A wave is recorded or used in its original form Digital o Convey 1 and 0 to represent pictures and sounds Digital Video Recorder (DVR) TiVo Advertisers angry that consumers could fast forward through the advertisements Response: Advertisements that don’t move too much, use text so that they can see the ad even when fast forwarding Going online Hulu Cable TV shows on their website Everybody tries to put everything online Netflix Chapter 10: Internet History of Internet o Net Neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) should give consumers access to all legal content and applications on an equal basis o The Internet: Hot or Cold? Can be both Individualistic o Global Village Internet can help us to become a “global village” o Digital Divide Gap between those who have and do not have access to computers and the internet o J.C.R Licklider Computers allow you to connect with others and share information ENIAC 1946 World’s first general-purpose computer Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculation (ENIAC) o ARPA Sputnik Scare (Soviet union) Launch man based satellite Led to Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) by the US ARPAnet Packet-switching network Paul Baren Robert Taylor – Connected multiple terminals (3) First “node-to-node” message o “LOGIN” “LO” o TCP/IP 1970s Transmission Control Protocol o Adds an additional protocol IP (Internet protocol) “Internet” o Internetworking of networkds o TCP/IP vs. Domain Name IPv4 (0~255 . 0~255 . 0~255) IPv6 1050:0000:0000:0000:0000:0005:0600:300c:326b) www.ua.edu (domain name) 126.96.36.199 .org, .com, .gov Principles of the Internet o One address to take users to a document o Everything should be accessible/linkable o Any type of data should be available on any type of computer o The web should be a tool for interaction o No central control Internet as Personal Communication o 1972 o Ray Tomlinson: Code for emailing o Spam “Monty Python” Internet as Group Communication o Listserves Emails to exchange information o Bulletin Board System (BBS) “Login and chat” o Comment Forums Used to be anonymous More “Facebook” Internet as Mass Communication o World Wide Web Web does not equal the internet Web is the information model that is part of the internet o 1989 Timothy Berners-Lee URL: Uniform Resource Locator o One address takes users to a document HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol o The standard set of rules used by Web servers for sending and receiving messages HTML: Hypertext Markup Language o Programming language used to create web pages Mosaic o First easy-to-use graphical web browser How we use the Internet today o Emails o Electronic commerce Ads, sales, B-to-B transactions o Entertainment Videos (Netflix) o Cyber communities Social Media Porn Industry o Contagious: Why Things Catch On 50s: Super 8 – movie format 80s: VHS – video format 2000s: Blu-ray 2000s: Online payment system and streaming video Internet’s Ethical Controversies o Aggregation sites o Cyberbullying o Real name comments vs. spiral of silence Journalism in the Internet Era o Driven by page view o Backpack Journalism “in the field, a backpack journalist shoots; acquires sound, produces, reports, interviews. One back from the field, he writes the script and narrates where necessary. Depending on the circumstances, he either edits and uploads the piece alone, or sits side-by-side with an editor” o Citizen Journalism Journalism created by people other than professional journalists. Often distributed over the internet o Easier to access public information o Crowdfunding A large group of people to contribute small amounts of money towards a specific project, usually via the internet
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