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Unit 4 Study Guide

by: Matt Owens

Unit 4 Study Guide MC 101 - Intro to Mass Communications

Matt Owens
GPA 4.22

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Here is the study guide for the 4th test, hope it helps!
Introduction to Mass Communications
Fei Qiao
Study Guide
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Matt Owens on Monday December 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MC 101 - Intro to Mass Communications at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Fei Qiao in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Mass Communications in Communication Sciences and Disorders at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 12/14/15
Matt Owens MC 101 11/18/15 MC 101 Unit 4 Study Guide Chapter 11  Different Types of Advertising Media o Radio o TV o Print o Online Media  Different Types of Advertising Channels o Outdoor Advertising  Billboards  Commonly seen  Easily available o Transit Advertising  Outside display  Car Cards  Station posters  Definition of Advertising: o Paid form of persuasive communication that uses Mass Media or Interactive Media to reach Broad Audiences in order to Connect an Identified Sponsor with Buyers, Provide Information About Products, and Interpret the Product Feature  Functions of Advertising o Identification o Information o Persuasion  Persuasive Techniques  Rational Appeal o Straightforward presentation of factual information o Focus on product’s utilitarian benefits  Emotional Appeal o Attempt to stir up either positive emotions (e.g. love, joy) or negative ones (fear or guilt) that motivate purchase o Positive emotions focus on products’ hedonic benefits  Types of Advertising o Brand Advertising  Also called “consumer advertising”” or “national advertising”  Most visible type of advertising  Most commonly seen o Retail Advertising  Also called “local advertising”  Retailers, distributors, or dealer who sell their merchandise in a certain geographical area o Direct-Response Advertising  Stimulate an immediate response by the customer to the seller  Medium types: Direct Mail or Internet o B2B Advertising  Also called “trade advertising”  Target: business, e.g. wholesaler, retailers, professionals o Corporate Advertising  Establishing a corporate identity/image or winning the public over to the organization’s point of view o Nonprofit Advertising  Used by not-for-profit organizations, such as charities, foundations, etc, to reach customers, members and volunteers o Public Service Advertising  Also called Public Service Announcements (PSAs)  Provide messages on behalf of a good cause  Effect of Advertising o Brand Awareness  How well the consumers can identify the brand under various conditions  Brand Recognition  Consumers’ ability to differentiate the brand  Brand Recall  Consumers’ ability to retrieve brand name from memory  For example, fast-food restaurant o Attitude  Rossiter-Percy Model  Attitude o Cognitive Component  Consumers’ involvement with a purchase decision  High-Involvement Decision o Consumers’ efforts to reduce the likelihood of making a wrong decision  Low-Involvement Decision o Consumers can, and usually do, adopt a “try it and see” perspective, as the consequences of making the wrong choice are perceived as minor o Affective Component  Negative Motivation  Consumers’ informational needs o Problem Removal (i.e. pain reliever) o Problem Avoidance (i.e. detergents) o Incomplete Satisfaction (i.e. new and improved products) o Mixed Approach Avoidance (i.e. most low-tar tobacco products) o Normal Depletion (i.e. any loyal brand that one runs out of)  Positive Motivation  Consumers’ transformational needs o Sensory Gratification (most prepared dessert products) o Intellectual Stimulation (most personal computers) o Social Approval (most cosmetic or status goods)  History of advertising o The Early Age of Print  Classified advertising  Objective  Identify products  Deliver information  Medium  Print  1704  First newspaper ad for real estate published in Boston News-Letter  1729  First advertising section in Pennsylvania Gazette  1742  First ad appeared in General Magazine o The Early Age of Agencies  1848  Valney Palmer opens the first ad agency  The first person to use the term “advertising agency”  1850  P.T. Barnum creates the first ad campaign  Campaign  A set of related ads that are variations on a theme  1864  J. Walter Thompson was formed  Oldest ad agency still in existence  Invents the account executive position o Liaison between the client and the agency  1868  N.W. Ayer & Son agency was formed  First used Commission System for placing ads  15% commission because an industry standard  $1,000 = $850 (for the medium) + $150 (For the agency)  Advertising becomes a profession  Bild “Brand Names”  Purpose of advertising  Create demand  Create visual identity o The Scientific Era  Need to know the effectiveness of advertising  Introduced scientific research methods to test the effectiveness  Headlines  Copy Writing  Illustration  Targeting  Messages should be directed at particular groups of prospective buyers  Segmentation Strategies  Undifferentiated o Sending the same message to everyone  Concentrated o Designing a message for a single specific segment  Differentiated o Designing more than one message for different segments  The emergence of marketing practices  Using different strategies to position the products o Creative Revolution  Creative Geniuses  Leo Burnett o Inherit Drama  EX: Red on Red Campaign  David Ogilvy o Combining both “image school” and “claim school”  William Bernbach o Persuasion is an art o Focus on feelings and emotions o Functions  Cut through advertising clutter  The excessive number of messages delivered to the target audience  Generate “WOW” factor o Creativity in Interactive Media Era  Use technology to engage consumers  Use social media to engage consumers  Focus on corporate social responsibility  Pinpoint target consumers’ need & technology o Basic Principles of Creativity  ROI of creativity (Proposed by DDB agency)  Relevant  Original Impact  Brief History of Advertising o The Early Age of Print o The Early Age of Agencies o The Scientific Era o The Creative Revolution o The Era of Accountability and Integration  Reputation  Word of mouth (WOM)  Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM)  Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC)  Advertising and SMCR Model  Branding o Branding has been defined as “a name that stands for something positive in the prospect’s mind” o Brand  Name  Logo  Slogan-Jingle  Textualization  Design o Brand Imitation Strategy  The follower brands begin to imitate those unique features of the leading brands by using similar brand names, color, logo, etc.  Brand Confusion  Brand Connection  Types of Brand Imitation  Feature Imitation o Direct imitation of distinctive perceptual features such as letters, colors, shapes and sounds o Advantages:  Directly connect the follower brands to the leading brands  Achieving brand connection o Limitation:  Makes up semantic imitation  Theme Imitation o The semantic similarity between a new brand and the existing brand, such as using similar packaging, etc. o Limitation:  Contains feature imitation  Private Label/Store Brands  Products encompass all merchandise sold under a retailer’s brand  Hierarchy of Effect Model (HOE) to advertising  Awareness  Knowledge  Liking  Preference  Conviction  Purchase  Marketing o Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large o Objective:  Sell Products  Concept of Exchange o Marketing creates demand leading to an exchange o Demand drives the exchange o Facilitate communication exchange  Increase brand awareness  Have interactive communication  Marketing Mix o Also called Four P’s  Product  Goods, service, or ideas  Design, performance, and quality  product success  Price  An amount a seller set for a product  Promotional pricing o A dramatic price reduction  Sale, special, today only  Psychological pricing o Manipulate consumers’ purchase judgment o $50, $500, $5000  Place (distribution)  The channels used to make the product easily accessible to customers  Promotion  Integrated Marketing communication (IMC) o The practice of unifying all marketing communication efforts so they send a consistent brand message to target audiences o Basic Principles of IMC  A brand is a unified vision  Brand relationships drive brand value  People automatically integrate brand messages and experiences  Integration happens when what your brand says matches what it does, and what others say about it Chapter 12  Bad PR & Good PR practices o A good PR is/does NOT  Hype  Hyperbole or magnification  Minimizing  Play down the seriousness of a failure or negative aspects of the problem  Spin  One-sided use of facts or data to create desired impression  Overgeneralization  Drawing sweeping conclusions based on one isolated case or example  Labeling  Portrayal of a person, event, or product as “good” or “bad” with no middle ground  Framing vs. PR o Framing  “Estate Tax” vs “Death Tax”  40% on estates o $5.43 million o or $10.86 million  Estate tax: 15% of Americans Oppose it  Death Tax: 54% of Americans Oppose it  Media uses Death tax to give estate tax a more negative connotation o Framing might cause bad PR practices o Static vs. Dynamic  Public definition o Internal Publics  Employees  Stockholders  Members, etc. o External Publics  Lawmakers  Regulators  Competitors  Customers  New Media, etc.  History of PR o Ancient Greek  Sophist  Persuasion o Aristotle:  Ethics  Encourage people to find the truth o Mid 1730s-1740s  Preaching  Persuasion  George Whitefield o Benjamin Franklin  Positive  Upbeat  Optimistic  Avoid using “certainly” “Undoubtedly”  Using “I conceive” “I Apprehend” o 1776  Thomas Paine  “The Crisis”  Master of political propaganda  First person to use the public relations successfully to convince the soldiers to stay o 1800s  Railroad Companies  Encourage settlement in the American West  First used “public relations” o Mid 1800s  P.T. Barnum  American Museum  Barnum and Bailey Circus o Late 1800s  Press Agentry  Propaganda  Persuade  One-way communication o PR in a New Century  Need for image management  Ida Tarbell  Investigative journalist  John D. Rockefeller  Founder of Standard Oil  Used a lot of illegal ways to improve his company  Ida Tarbell reported on his unethical misdeeds o Modern PR  Ivy Lee  One of founders of modern PR  Three principles o Tell the truth o Provide accurate facts o Access to top management  PR became a profession  Lee’s PR definition o Public relations means the actual relationship of the company to the people and that relationship involves more than talk  Edward Bernays  Father of PR  1923  “Crystallizing Public Opinion” o Functions of PR  To promote the client  Operate the company in a way to gain the approval of the public  PR is a public service  PR should promote new ideas and progress  PR should build a public conscience  Bernays & Lee o Social Responsibility  Procter & Gamble Radio Commercial o External Publics:  He changed the commercial  Offer African-Americans jobs  Invited them to tour the plant o Internal Publics:  Featured African-American in company newsletter  Engineering Consent o Control, influence, and mold opinions o PR and civil rights  Two founders of modern PR, their definitions of PR, their contributions to PR, and their representative PR cases o Ivy Lee  One of founders of modern PR  Three principles  Tell the truth  Provide accurate facts  Access to top management  PR became a profession  Lee’s PR definition  Public relations means the actual relationship of the company to the people and that relationship involves more than talk o Edward Bernays  Father of PR  1923  “Crystallizing Public Opinion”  Functions of PR o To promote the client o Operate the company in a way to gain the approval of the public  PR is a public service  PR should promote new ideas and progress  PR should build a public conscience  Bernays & Lee  Social Responsibility  Procter & Gamble Radio Commercial  External Publics: o He changed the commercial o Offer African-Americans jobs o Invited them to tour the plant  Internal Publics: o Featured African-American in company newsletter  Engineering Consent  Control, influence, and mold opinions  PR’s key functions o News Management  Create and distribute messages to generate favorable publicity  Develop and maintain contact with reporters o Community Relations  Maintain good relations with government and community groups  Use corporate aid and sponsorship o Crisis Management  Repair a client’s public image following an error or accident o Lobbying  Monitor government activities  Determine information to legislators supporting laws favorable to clients  Crisis definition o Major occurrence with a potentially negative outcome affecting the organization, company or industries as well as its publics, products, and services or good name o A crisis can create 3 related threats:  Public Safety  Financial Loss  Reputation loss  The contingency continuum o Stance determines strategy  Refuting Arguments (pure advocacy)  Ex: Syringe in Pepsi can, Pepsi denied that it ever happened  Negotiate  Compromise  Apology (pure accommodation)  Food poisoning in aguala juices, they apologized and paid for medical bills  Crisis management life cycle o Crisis Management is Dynamic o Crisis Management Life Cycle  Proactive Phase  Activities and though processes that can prevent a conflict from arising or from getting out of hand o Environmental Scanning o Develop general crisis plan  Strategic Phase  An issue that has become an emerging conflict is identified as needing concerted action by PR practitioners o Risk Communication o Conflict-Positioning o Develop a specific crisis management plan  Reactive Phase  React to the events and unfold the external communication environment  Recovery Phase  Repair organizations’ reputation in the eyes of its key publics  Image Restoration typology o Benoit’s Typology o Steps:  Denial  Simple Denial  Shift the Blame  Evade Responsibility  Provocation o Act was response to another’s offense  Defeasibility o Lack of information  Accident o Act was a mishap  Good Intentions o Act was meant well  Reduce Offensiveness  Bolstering o Strengthen public’s positive feelings  Minimization o Minimize the negative feelings associated with the wrong act  Differentiation o Distinguish the act from other similar, but more offensive, acts  Transcendence o Justify the act by placing it in a more favorable context  Attack the Accuser o Reduce the credibility of the accusations  Compensation o Reduce the severity of the injury  Corrective Action  Ensure the prevention or correction of the action  Mortification  Offer a profuse apology  PR and social media o Social media  Sign of Crisis  Four models of PR o Four Models in Pubic Relations  Press Agentry  Purpose: Propaganda  One-way communication  Example: P.T. Barnum  Public Information  Purpose: Dissemination of Information  One-Way communication  Example: Press Release  Two-way Asymmetric  Purpose: Scientific persuasion  Two-way imbalanced communication  Example: Lucky Strikes Cigarettes  Two-way Symmetric  Purpose: Mutual understanding  Two-way balanced communication  Example: Starbucks coffee  PR vs. Marketing o Purpose of PR: build mutual relationship between the organization and the public o Purpose of Marketing: Sell products o IMC (Integrated Marketing Communications) Chapter 14  W’s and H List o What’s your problem?  Define the ethical issue  Potential Ethical Issues?  What rating should I seek?  Should I accept the marketing deal and promote this movie to the children? o Why not follow the rules?  What rules or laws that might help us out in deciding what we should do  Law doesn’t equal ethics  Law & Ethics  Law o Minimum standard that you need to follow  Ethics o Self-disciplined and voluntary conduct o Code of ethics  Legal & Ethical  Illegal & Unethical  Illegal & Ethical  Legal & Unethical  Tobacco Industry o Joe Camel Campaign o Negative influence on children and teens?  Unethical PR Practice o Withholding information o Blame Consumers o Firestone o Who wins, who loses?  Decide whose loyalty deserves your top priority  Conflicting Loyalties to:  Self  Audience  Employer  Profession  Society  People in business with  Another loyalty question  Want you to do right  ask for your integrity  Want you to do wrong  demand your loyalty o What’s it worth?  Values are:  Concepts or beliefs  About desirable end states or behaviors  That transcend specific situations  Guide our selection of behavior  Are ordered by relative importance  Importance of values  Values  Beliefs  Attitudes  Roles/Skills  Behavior  What values play a role in our case?  Money making  Protecting children  Influence o Who’s whispering in your ear?  Absolutist  Immanuel Kant o Categorical Imperative o Do only what you want to be a “Universal Law” o Treat people as an end not a means  Situational  Jeremy Bentham o Utilitarianism o Do the “most good” or the “least harm”  John Stuart Mill o Principle of Utility  Do the greatest good for the greatest number  Virtue  Aristotle o Golden Mean  Moral behavior is the mean between two extremes  At one end is excess  At the other defect  Justice  John Rawls o Egalitarianism o “The veil of ignorance”  The “veil” of ignorance as a matter of justice  Absolutist vs. Situational  Absolutist o A perspective calling for codes of professional ethics that hold true regardless of situation or consequence o Proscriptive codes stress what should not be done  Situational o A perspective calling for making rational ethical choices without adhering to a rigid set of rules o Followers think in terms of “more” or ”less” ethical choices, rather than ethical vs. unethical o How’s your decision going to look?  Relationship between law and ethics  The importance of value  Four ethical approaches, their representatives and their beliefs  Potter Box moral decision making box o Definition  Values  Principles  Loyalties o Ultimately Ethics is about integrity o Do the right thing when nobody’s watching


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