Final Study Guide
Final Study Guide MC 101 - Intro to Mass Communications
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Matt Owens on Monday December 14, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MC 101 - Intro to Mass Communications at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Fei Qiao in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Mass Communications in Communication Sciences and Disorders at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 12/14/15
Final Exam Study Guide Room: 216, Reese Phifer Date & Time: Tuesday, Dec. 8, 11:30 am – 2:00pm Format: 100 questions (70 multiple choices & 30 T/F) + 5 bonus questions Content: Chapter 1 to Chapter 15 Learning Focus 1. Theoretical and practical perspective of mass communication a. Chapter 1 i. Elements of Mass Comm (SMCR Model, noise examples, etc.) 1. SMCR Model a. Model that helps us identify players b. Onedirectional flow of messages from sender to receiver i. Sender ii. Message iii. Channel iv. Receiver 2. Noise a. Semantic Noise – Receiver does not understand the meaning of the message b. Mechanical Noise – Channel has trouble transmitting the message c. Environmental Noise – Loud stereo prevents you from concentrating on text book ii. Levels of communications (Group, intrapersonal, interpersonal, mass) 1. Group Communication a. Unequal communication b. Audience of two or more people 2. Mass Communication a. Societywide b. Technology c. Sending messages to large, mixed audiences, most of whose members are not known to the center 3. Interpersonal Communication a. Oneonone communication b. We constantly send out messages so we are always using interpersonal communication c. Not all is done face to face 4. Intrapersonal Communication a. Communication within the self b. Most prevalent form of communication and is the base of the pyramid iii. Contemporary models (Ritual, Reception, Publicity) 1. Ritual Model a. Audience members at center b. How and why audience members (receivers) consume media c. Media consumption becomes a shared experience d. Audience actively responding to news 2. Publicity Model a. Not always trying to convey info as much as draw attention to a particular person, group, or concept 3. Reception Model a. Receiver decodes message of the media iv. Different dimensions of media literacy (cognitive, emotional, aesthetic, moral) 1. Cognitive Dimension a. Ability to intellectually process information communicated by media b. Includes skills necessary to access the media 2. Emotional Dimension a. Covers feelings created by media messages 3. Aesthetic Dimension a. Artistic or critical point of view 4. Moral Dimension a. Examining values of the medium or message b. Chapter 3 i. Long tail vs. short head 1. Long Tail a. Portion of a distribution curve where a limited number of people are interested in buying a lot of different products 2. Short Head a. Portion of a distribution curve where a large number of people are interested in buying a limited number of products ii. Synergy & vertical integration 1. Synergy a. Combination in which the whole is more than the sum of its parts 2. Vertical Integration a. A business model in which a company owns different parts of the same industry iii. Cultural Imperialism 1. The displacement of a nation’s custom with those of another country c. Chapter 15 i. Four theories of press (authoritarian, libertarian, communist, neolibertarian/social responsibility) 1. Authoritarian a. Oldest theory of the press b. The role of the press is to be a servant of a government c. Country is at the highest level d. Belief that without a state (government), people will return to a primitive state 2. Libertarian a. Free press i. Government should not interfere with the media b. “Marketplace of ideas” i. Everybody’s opinion matters c. Truth defeats falsehoods i. 3 things crucial to credibility 1. Message 2. Source 3. Medium 3. Communist a. Calls for government ownership and operation of media, not just government control b. Media serves as propaganda vehicle for bureaucrats to protect their power and continually redefine the meaning of the vague, constitutional role of the press 4. NeoLibertarian/Social Responsibility a. NeoLibertarian i. “Not everyone shall speak, but that everything worth saying shall be said” ii. Government role is to facilitate the freedom of speech 1. Some government intervention is necessary iii. Media should represent the interest of the people, more important than the interest of the speaker b. Social Responsibility i. News media should be more audience oriented and less politically biased ii. Ombudsmen: A person who investigates and attempts to resolve complaints and problems 1. Represents/protects the interest of the audience/people 2. Unbiased ii. Selective exposure 1. Theory that refers to the individuals’ tendency to favor information which reinforces their preexisting views while avoiding contradictory information 2. Selective exposure causes: a. Racial Prejudice b. Mean World Syndrome i. World is dangerous place ii. Makes the world seem more dangerous than it actually is by only seeing bad/dangerous views c. Deepening Stereotypes i. Using the same news source further the belief of stereotypes portrayed by that source d. Chapter 2 i. Direct Effects model ii. Information twostep flow iii. Agenda setting theory 1. Public Agenda vs. News Agenda a. News: What is covered in the news b. Public: Issues the public thinks are important 2. A relationship between what the public thinks is important and what is covered in news reports 3. Newspaper is able to transfer the issue salience to the public agenda 4. Media are not able to tell the people what to think; but they’ll tell them what to think about iv. Uses and gratifications theory (different needs) 1. Cognitive Needs a. People use the media for acquiring knowledge, information, etc. 2. Affective Needs a. People use media to satisfy their various emotional needs b. Catharsis i. When you feel sad, you watch sad movies to help you clean your emotion ii. Violent video games can help you clean your violent impulses 3. Personal Integrative Needs a. SelfEsteem Need b. People use media to reassure their status and gain credibility 4. Tension Free Needs a. Use media to escape and relieve from tension v. Social learning theory 1. People learn through observing others’ behavior, attitudes, and outcomes of those behaviors vi. Mean world syndrome vii. Spiral of silence 1. When one opinion is dominant, other opinions are silent 2. Fear of rejection fear of isolation 3. The role of media in Spiral of Silence a. Ubiquity b. Cumulation c. Consonance viii. Hot vs. cold medium 1. Hot Medium a. Engages one sense completely b. Demands little interaction because it ‘spoon feeds’ the content 2. Cold Medium a. Engages several senses less completely b. Demands a great deal of interaction i. Required to perceive the gaps in the content ix. Symbolic Interactionism 1. Meaning of an object arises from two ways a. Interaction process between this person and other people b. Selfinteraction process of this person 2. Print Media a. Chapter 4 i. Evolution of writing (pictograph, ideograph, phonography) 1. Pictograph a. Earliest form of writing 2. Ideograph a. An abstract symbol that stands for a word or phrase 3. Phonography a. Symbols stand for spoken sounds rather than objects and ideas i. Alphabet ii. Evolution of printing (Gutenberg’s contribution, etc.) 1. Movable Type a. Gutenberg Movable Type i. He is the first to make movable type on a wide basis ii. Invented typemold iii. Oilbased ink iv. Movable type v. Wooden press iii. Brief history of books in the new world 1. A technology changed the “oral society” 2. Books changed society to a literary society 3. Books in the New World a. 1539 – The Spanish established the first printing press in America b. 1640 – Printing in North America began with the publication of The Whole Booke of Psalmes (Bay Psalm Book) c. 1731 – Benjamin Franklin established one of the colonies’ earliest circulating libraries in Philadelphia b. Chapter 5 i. Brief history of magazine 1. A periodical that contains articles of lasting interest 2. 1672 – The first “periodical of amusement” was published in France 3. 1700s – Three Essay Periodicals that set the stage of modern magazines a. Daniel Defoe’s The Review b. Sir Richard Steele’s The Tatler c. Addison and Steele’s The Spectator 4. The Gentlemen’s Magazine a. Published by Edward Cave in 1731 b. First publication to use the word “magazine” c. The first wideranging publication ii. Brow continuum 1. High Brow: Idea 2. Middle Brow: Things 3. Low Brow: People iii. Brief history of magazine in America 1. Saturday Evening Post a. Published weekly from 18211969 b. Founded by Benjamin Franklin c. The first real national medium d. Revived in 1971 2. Magazines experienced steep decline/failure a. Many stopped publishing, and began to go digital b. Can’t attract advertisers iv. Types of magazine (trade, PR, consumer, miscellaneous) 1. Consumer Magazines a. Target: All likeminded consumers b. Advertise: Consumers’ products c. Content: Consumers’ lifestyle 2. Trade Magazines a. B to B magazines b. Target: Those in specific businesses and industries c. Advertise: Products and services that those industries need 3. Public Relations Magazines a. Target: A corporation or institutions’ employees, customers, stockholders, and dealers b. Purpose: Enhance the corporations’ prestige 4. Miscellaneous a. Target: Various types of readers and include: i. Professional and academic journals ii. Little magazines iii. Comic books v. Dick Stolley’s rules for magazine covers 1. Young is better than old 2. Pretty is better than ugly 3. Rich is better than poor 4. Music is better than movies 5. Movies are better than TV 6. Nothing is better than a dead celebrity c. Chapter 6 i. News values ii. Brief history of newspaper iii. Types of newspaper (broadsheet vs. tabloid; national vs. local) iv. Representatives of stunt journalism 3. Electronic Media a. Chapter 7 i. Types of radio (terrestrial vs. nonterrestrial) 1. Terrestrial Radio a. Uses electromagnetic waves i. AM, FM, HDRadio 2. Nonterrestrial radio a. Satellite, Internet, Podcasting, etc. ii. Brief history of radio 1. 1844 a. Samuel Morse b. Invention: Telegraph 2. 1850s a. First transatlantic telegraph cable completed 3. 1888 a. Heinrich Hertz b. Electromagnetic waves 4. 1894 a. Wireless telegraph b. Guglielmo Marconi 5. 1901 a. Reginald Fessenden b. Send our voice signal over radio c. The first sound 6. 1912: Titanic leads to changes a. Lead to the development to send out distress calls b. Federal Radio Act of 1912 i. Radio operators have licenses ii. Separate frequency for distress calls iii. 24hour radio services for ship at sea 7. 1915 a. David Sarnoff b. Music Box Memo 8. RCA a. Radio Corporation of America b. AT&T, GE, Westinghouse, United Fruit Company 9. KDKA: The first commercial radio station 10. WEAF: First station to broadcast commercials 11. NBC a. Established in 1926 b. Red networks and Blue networks i. Had to sell blue networks due to monopolization of market, became ABC 12. CBS a. Bought by William Paley in 1928 i. New business model ii. Quality news 13. Public Radio a. NPR 14. AM vs FM a. AM stands for Amplitude Modulation b. FM stands for Frequency Modulation 15. 1920s1940s a. The Golden age of Radio i. Amos n’ Andy 16. 1950s: Radio Falters a. Introduction to TV 17. 1950s1980s: Music and the DJ a. Alan Freed – AKA “Moondog” i. Coined the term “Rock & Roll” 18. 1950s: Music becomes pocket sized a. TR63 b. Marketed as world’s first pocket sized radio by SONY 19. FM prevails in the 1960s1970s a. Invented by Edwin Armstrong b. Late 1960s: FM took over 20. AM’s strategy a. Fairness Doctrine no longer in force i. Policy that required talk shows to give balance of views b. Talk shows, talking quality was better than music b. Chapter 8 i. Marketing windows of movie 1. Goal for the companies is to make as much money as possible in each marketing windows 2. Marketing Windows: a. North American Theaters b. Sell it at the International Box Office c. Nontheater venues d. DVD Sales/rentals e. Digital viewing f. TV sales ii. Brief history of movie 1. 1879 – Lots of Cameras 2. 1879 a. George Eastman i. Demonstrate the value of dry plate ii. Invent emulsioncoating machine iii. Massproduce photographic dry plates 3. 1891 a. Thomas Edison and his team invented Strip Kinetograph (early movie camera) b. One eye at a time i. Edison and his team built Kinteoscope 1. A machine to watch these movies 4. 1896 On Screens a. August and Louis Lumiere built Cinematographe i. The First Film in the History 1. December 28, 1895 5. 1903 – Tell Stories a. The Great Train Robbery 6. 1922 – First Documentary a. Nanook of the North 7. 1930s1950s: The golden Age iii. Movie production & regulation 1. The Hays Code a. The Motion Picture Production Code of 1930 i. Very Strict ii. No romantic affection, etc. 2. Voluntary Rating System a. G b. PG c. PG13 d. R e. NC17 c. Chapter 9 i. Brief history of television 1. Experimental Period a. 1884 i. Paul Nipkow ii. First Electromechanical TV scanning system iii. Nipkow Disc b. 1907 i. Boris Rosing ii. Use Cathode Ray Tube to transmit images c. 1926 i. John Baird ii. First mechanical TV d. 1927 i. Philo Farnsworth ii. Father of television iii. Electronic TV 2. The Developmental Period a. Late 1920s i. Vladimir Zworykin ii. Kinescope b. 1939 i. New York World’s Fair ii. Franklin Roosevelt, first president to appear on TV iii. NBC broadcasted first televised baseball game 1. Princeton vs. Columbia Universities c. 1941 i. CBS – NBC’s biggest competitor ii. Broadcasted 15 minute newscasts d. Black & White TV i. Developed in 1930s ii. Standardized in 1953 e. The beginning of commercial TV i. In the late 1940s ii. Borrow the models from radios iii. Big television networks f. Kinescope vs. Video Tape g. 1950s i. 1952: The first rerun 1. I Love Lucy ii. Edward Murrow 1. Pioneering in TV documentaries for news 2. “Harvest of Shame” iii. Walter Cronkite 1. First “anchorman” h. Pat Weaver i. Networks produced programming, not advertisers ii. Multiple sponsors for shows i. Today… i. Networks (ABC, CBS, NBC, FOX, PBS) ii. Cable Companies iii. Local programming (news mostly) iv. Syndicated programming (The Ellen Show) v. Online Sources ii. Networks and Affiliates 1. Networks a. Provide programming for affiliates b. Make money vie ads 2. Affiliates a. Carry network shows b. Receive space for ads inside the network shows c. Run syndicated shows iii. Sweep months & syndication 1. Syndication a. When a show is sold to individual stations for them to do with as they wish b. Only one syndicated show can be distributed to each station per media market 2. Nielson DMA (Designated Market Areas) a. Sweeps i. November ii. February iii. May iv. July b. Data gathered is used by local stations to decide how much to charge for advertisements iv. Second screen 1. Second screen device 2. Complimentary interactive tool d. Chapter 10 i. Brief history of the Internet 1. ENIAC a. 1946 b. World’s first generalpurpose computer c. Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculation (ENIAC) 2. ARPA a. Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) b. ARPAnet i. Packetswitching network ii. Paul baren iii. Robert Taylor – Connected multiple terminals (3) iv. First “nodetonode” message 1. “LOGIN” “LO” ii. Components of the Web 1. TCP a. Transmission Control Protocol i. Add an additional protocol IP iii. IP address vs. domain name iv. Principles of the Internet 1. One address to take users to a document 2. Everything should be accessible/linkable 3. Any type of data should be available on any type of computer 4. The Web should be a tool for interaction 5. No central control 4. Strategic Communication a. Chapter 11 i. Functions of advertising 1. Identification 2. Information 3. Persuasion a. Persuasive Techniques i. Rational Appeal 1. Straightforward presentation of factual information 2. Focus on product’s utilitarian benefits ii. Emotional Appeal 1. Attempt to stir up either positive emotions (e.g. love, joy) or negative ones (fear or guilt) that motivate purchase 2. Positive emotions focus on products’ hedonic benefits ii. Brief history of advertising iii. Types of advertising 1. Brand Advertising 2. Retail Advertising 3. DirectResponse Advertising 4. B2B Advertising 5. Corporate Advertising 6. Nonprofit Advertising 7. Public Service Advertising iv. Consumers informational vs. transformational needs b. Chapter 12 i. PR functions 1. News Management a. Create and distribute messages to generate favorable publicity b. Develop and maintain contact with reporters 2. Community Relations a. Maintain good relations with government and community groups b. Use corporate aid and sponsorship 3. Crisis Management a. Repair a client’s public image following an error or accident 4. Lobbying a. Monitor government activities b. Determine information to legislators supporting laws favorable to clients ii. Brief history of PR 1. Ancient Greek a. Sophist b. Persuasion 2. Aristotle: a. Ethics b. Encourage people to find the truth 3. Mid 1730s1740s a. Preaching b. Persuasion c. George Whitefield 4. Benjamin Franklin a. Positive b. Upbeat c. Optimistic d. Avoid using “certainly” “Undoubtedly” e. Using “I conceive” “I Apprehend” 5. 1776 a. Thomas Paine i. “The Crisis” ii. Master of political propaganda iii. First person to use the public relations successfully to convince the soldiers to stay 6. 1800s a. Railroad Companies i. Encourage settlement in the American West ii. First used “public relations” 7. Mid 1800s a. P.T. Barnum i. American Museum ii. Barnum and Bailey Circus 8. Late 1800s a. Press Agentry i. Propaganda ii. Persuade iii. Oneway communication 9. PR in a New Century a. Need for image management b. Ida Tarbell i. Investigative journalist c. John D. Rockefeller i. Founder of Standard Oil ii. Used a lot of illegal ways to improve his company iii. Ida Tarbell reported on his unethical misdeeds 10. Modern PR a. Ivy Lee i. One of founders of modern PR ii. Three principles 1. Tell the truth 2. Provide accurate facts 3. Access to top management iii. PR became a profession iv. Lee’s PR definition 1. Public relations means the actual relationship of the company to the people and that relationship involves more than talk b. Edward Bernays i. Father of PR ii. 1923 iii. “Crystallizing Public Opinion” 1. Functions of PR a. To promote the client b. Operate the company in a way to gain the approval of the public iv. PR is a public service v. PR should promote new ideas and progress vi. PR should build a public conscience vii. Bernays & Lee 1. Social Responsibility viii. Procter & Gamble Radio Commercial 1. External Publics: a. He changed the commercial b. Offer AfricanAmericans jobs c. Invited them to tour the plant 2. Internal Publics: a. Featured AfricanAmerican in company newsletter ix. Engineering Consent 1. Control, influence, and mold opinions 11. PR and civil rights i. ii. Models of PR iii. Definition of publics iv. Image restoration strategies 12. Law and Ethics iii. Models of PR iv. Definition of publics 1. Internal Publics a. Employees b. Stockholders c. Members, etc. 2. External Publics a. Lawmakers b. Regulators c. Competitors d. Customers e. New Media, etc. v. Image restoration strategies 1. Benoit’s Typology a. Steps: i. Denial 1. Simple Denial 2. Shift the Blame ii. Evade Responsibility 1. Provocation a. Act was response to another’s offense 2. Defeasibility a. Lack of info 3. Accident a. Act was a mishap 4. Good Intentions a. Act was meant well iii. Reduce Offensiveness 1. Bolstering a. Strengthen public’s positive feelings 2. Minimization a. Minimize the negative feelings associated with the wrong act 3. Differentiation a. Distinguish the act from other similar, but more offensive, acts 4. Transcendence a. Justify the act by placing it in a more favorable context 5. Attack the Accuser a. Reduce the credibility of the accusations 6. Compensation a. Reduce the severity of the injury iv. Corrective Action 1. Ensure the prevention or correction of the action v. Mortification 1. Offer a profuse apology 5. Law and Ethics a. Chapter 14 i. The Ws and H list. 1. What’s your problem? 2. Why not follow the rules? 3. Who wins, who loses? 4. What’s it worth? 5. Who’s whispering in your ear? 6. How’s your decision going to look? ii. Potter Box’s four dimensions of moral analysis 1. Definition Values Principles Loyalties iii. Philosophers and their ethical approaches iv. Law vs. ethics b. Chapter 13 i. Freedom protected by the First Amendment 1. Religion 2. Speech 3. Press 4. Right to Assemble 5. Petition the Government ii. Alien & Sedition Acts iii. Defamation (libel and slander) iv. Invasion of privacy v. Press and law (prior restraint, shield law, sunshine law, etc.)