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ENST exam 2 study guide

by: Sydni Sobers

ENST exam 2 study guide ENST233

Sydni Sobers

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These notes cover next exam- just goes through study guide posted
Intro to Environmental Health
Dr. Lance Yonkos
Study Guide
50 ?




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Popular in Environmental Science

This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sydni Sobers on Saturday April 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ENST233 at University of Maryland taught by Dr. Lance Yonkos in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Intro to Environmental Health in Environmental Science at University of Maryland.


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Date Created: 04/02/16
This study guide will go through the study guide Dr. Yankos uploaded answering the questions  and providing clarifications.  Toxicity and Toxins Toxicant­ any toxic substance can be fine alone but may be toxic in certain environments ex:  mercury Toxins­ anything that is organic in nature Mutagen­ a substance that causes a mutation in an organism, can be fatal, non­fatal and can carry on or not  Carcinogen­ any substance that causes cancer or increases the likelihood of cancer in an  organism – can be a mutagen  Teratogen­ a substance that causes a birth defect in a fetus Acute Toxicity vs. Chronic  ToxicityDose Response:  Threshold, Normal Distribution *Median lethal dose (LD50):  Dose of a toxic substance required to kill half of the members  *Median lethal dose (LD100): dose required to kill 100% of members Chemical Deficiency vs. Chemical Toxicity In situ vs. in vivo vs. in vitro In situ­ on site of the disease where it will run it’s course In vivo­ in life, meaning studying a person infected In vitro­ studying a disease in a test tube or lab Bioaccumulation vs. Biomagnification vs. Biotransformation Why do polar bears have the highest body burdens of PCBs despite the chemicals being banned  30 years ago and never being employed within 2000 miles of their habitat? Be able to discuss mercury, hydrocarbons, dioxin, and various classes of pesticides The Trouble with Pests Mechanical vs. Biological disease vector (often relates to feeding/reproductive strategy) Fecal Oral ROE Some pests and associated pest­borne diseases:  Rodents: hanta virus  Non­biting flies: cholera, amoebic dysentery, parasitic worms  Biting flies: African sleeping sickness (tsetse fly)  Mosquitoes: malaria, West Nile virus, Dengue  Ticks: Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever  Fleas: plague  Kissing bugs: Chagas disease Why might the ranges of certain insects be increasing in the U.S?  As climate change occurs insects that wouldn’t be here under different circumstances can have their ranges increase for a period of time for example the range of a certain type of  mosquito normally found in South America can now spread up through Mexico and to Florida.  Pest control Methods:    Source Reduction – ex: pouring oil on puddles to prevent mosquitoes  Sanitation (empty the trash)  Exclusion (window screens, bed nets)  Mechanical (swatters, fans)  Biological (e.g., natural predators; Sterile Insect Technique; Phorid fly)  Bioengineered  Chemical (pesticides) Organochlorines: slow acting, long lasting, hydrophobico  Organophosphates:  fast acting, short lived, hydrophilico  What is the “To spray or not to spray” debate?  Spraying is very effective but can have costly affects in the long run esp. as it relates to  bioaccumulation Food Safety Origins of food borne hazards / contaminants  Naturally occurring  Products of microorganisms  Pathogens (microorganisms)  Contaminant Incidental / Accidental or Intentional  Pesticides, fertilizers, hormones, antibiotics, GM  Food additives (nutrition, flavor, odor, color, texture, preservation) Case studies of food borne diseases  E. coli in spinach:  massive production and distribution practices coupled with  environmentalmanagement decisions produce risk  Legacy of lead arsenate from orchards:  repurposing land makes residual contaminants  aconcern  Methyl mercury in fish: exposure to mercury is clearly understood, but on­going debate  overwhether advantages of eating fish outweigh dangers Emerging Diseases *Disease of infectious origin whose incidence in humans has either increased within the past two decades or threatens to increase in the near future  What is meant by the concept that we are “victims of our own success”? Nosocomial diseases can make more common diseases that are not eliminated by the  onslaught of antibacterials, sterilization and other things worse as what doesn’t kill you makes  you stronger (or rather ‘resistant’) Factors contributing to emergence of diseases:  ecological change (Lyme disease)  demographic change  travel (SARS­ from China everywhere)  globalization (e. coli, salmonella, mad cow)  microbial adaptation (MRSA, remember there can be many different strands of the same thing  an they can have different antibodies)  decline of public health measures (malaria, measles, TB) Some “emerging” diseases to know something about: Dengue, Chagas, Hanta, SARS, MRSA World’s Major Infectious Diseases  Acute Respiratory Infections (ARIs) Generally viral origin (cold, flu, etc) Often secondary bacterial infections cause mortality  Diarrheal diseases (oral rehydration therapy – ORT)  Tuberculosis (TB)   Malaria (To spray or not to spray) ­ What reason(s) do we have to be hopeful?  Measles – Why an increase in vaccine refusers? And what are consequences? Because measles are a rarer thing now and vaccinese do put a child at risk for catching  the disease if the strand it too strong, the immune system is too weak, or the needle was  improperly sterilized something bad can happen.   HIV/Aids – How does it relate to other major diseases? If you have Aids then you have a weakened immune system and so something as  common and typically non­lethal as the flu can kill. 


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