PSY 110: Intro to Psychology 1st exam study guide answers from the book
PSY 110: Intro to Psychology 1st exam study guide answers from the book PSY110 Ray Winters Intro to Psychology
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PSY110 Ray Winters Intro to Psychology
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PSY110 Ray Winters Intro to Psychology
Barbi Della Polla
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alicia Caprio on Saturday January 31, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY110 Ray Winters Intro to Psychology at University of Miami taught by Ray Winters in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 173 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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TEXT STUDY QUESTIONS EXAM 1 PSY 110 Text Study Questions Chapter 1 1 Psychology has four goals description understanding prediction and control What do each of these terms mean a Description naming and classifying based on making a detailed record of scienti c observations b Understanding we can state the causes of a behavior c Prediction the ability to forecast behavior acurately d Control the ability to alter the conditions that affect behavior 2 De ne palmistry phrenology graphology and indicate why they are considered to be pseudopsychologies a Palmistry lines on hand reveal personality traitspredict future b Phrenology claimed personality traits are revealed by the shape of one39s skull c Graphology personality traits are revealed by handwriting d They are unfounded systems that resemble psychology 3 What is the difference between a psychologist a counseling psychologist and a psychiatrist a Psychologist A person highly trained in the methods factual knowledge and theories of psychology b Counseling psychologist A psychologist who specializes in the treatment of milder emotional and behavioral disturbances c Psychiatrist A medical doctor with additional training in the diagnosis and treatment of mental and emotional disorders 4 De ne the following con rmation bias Barnum effect Survey Method Clinical Method operational de nition positive psychology cultural relativity single blind experiment double blind experiment naturalistic observation anthropomorphic error representative sample biased sample a Con rmation bias remembering or noticing things that con rm our expectations and forgetting the rest b Barnum effect a tendency to consider personal descriptions accurate if they are stated in general terms c Survey Method The use of public polling techniques to answer psychological questions d Clinical Method Studying psychological problems and therapies in clinical settings Operational de nition Positive psychology The study of human strengths virtues and effective functioning Tth h Single blind experiment An arrangement in which subjects remain unaware of whether they are in the experimental group or the control group j Naturalistic observation Observing behavior as it unfolds in natural settings k Anthropomorphic error The error of attributing human thoughts feelings or motives to animals especially as a way of explaining their behavior I Representative sample A small randomly selected part of a larger population that accurately re ects characteristics of the whole population m Biased sample A subpart of a larger population that does not accurately re ect characteristics of the whole population 5 What is a correlational study and what are its limitations a A nonexperimental study designed to measure the degree of relationship if any between two or more events measures or variables 6 De ne positive correlation a negative correlation and zero correlation What are the highest negative and positive correlations possible a Positive A statistical relationship in which increases in one measure are matched by increases in the other or decreases correspond with decreases Negative A statistical relationship in which increases in one measure are matched by decreases in the other 8 What is statistical signi cance a When obtained results occur very rarely by chance alone 10What is the placebo effect a Changes in behavior by the belief that one has taken a drug or received some other treatment Text Study Chapter 10 1 De ne motivation and describe the three categories of motives a Motivation refers to the dynamics of behaviorthe ways in which our actions are initiated sustained directed and terminated b The three categories are biological motives stimulus motives and learned motives 2 Describe the relationship between needs drives and incentives What is incentive value a Many motivated activities begin with a need or internal de ciency Needs cause a drive an energized emotional state to develop Drives activate a response an action or series of actions designed to push us toward a goal the quottargetquot of motivated behavior b The pull of a goal is its incentive value the goal s appeal beyond its ability to ll a need 3 What is homeostasis and give an example to show you understand what a setpoint IS a Homeostasis is body equilibrium b Set point ideal point such as the ideal temperature in your house 4 Give four examples of activities or entities that show a circadian rhythm a Body temperature blood pressure amino acid levels activities in the liver and kidneys 5 How long does it take for people to adjust to jet lag Which direction of travel east west north or south is associated with the greatest dif culty in adjusting to jet lag a It can take up to 2 weeks to resynchronize b Greatest dif culty in adjusting is after you travel east because then the sun comes up earlier relative to your home time 6 What are the roles of exposure to light and melatonin in adjusting to jet lag and rotating work shifts a Exposure to light helps reset ones circadian rhythm b Bright light reduces the amount of melatonin produced by the pineal gland when melatonin levels rise late in the evening it s bedtime according to the brain 7 Is the stomach essential for feelings of hunger What is satiety What is a taste aversion and bait shyness how do they develop a The stomach is not essential for feelings of hunger even people who get theirs removed feel hungry b Satiety being satis ed in regards to your feeling of hunger c Taste aversion active dislike for a particular food happens if a food causes sickness or if it is associated with feelings of nausea d Bait shyness a lasting distaste for the tainted food develop if the food makes ou sick 8 Describ3e the effect of the following in the regulation of food intake the hypothalamus neural messages from the stomach and liver neuropeptide Y NPY glucagonlike peptide GLPl and leptin a Hypothalamusregulates many motives including hunger thirst and sex drive b Neural messages messages sent to the hypothalamus that determine whether or not you are hunger c NPY if present in large amounts causes an animal to eat until it cannot hold another bite the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus is sensitive to this d GLP l involved in causing eating to cease after you eat a meal this is released by the intestines traveling thru the bloodstream to the brain and causes you to stop eating e Leptin substance released by fat cells carried in the blood stream to the hypothalamus where it tells us to eat less 9 Explain why college freshman typically gain weight the famous quotFrosh 15 during the rst 3 months of college 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 a All you can eat dining halls in the dorms and nighttime snacking Is it possible to change the fat set point Does the number of fat cells change when you diet What is diet induced obesity a No known way to lower the fat set point b Number of fat cells remains unchanged throughout life c Diet induced obesity when you radical diet but it actually raises the set point for fat What is body mass index BMI and how is it calculated a BMI body mass index b BMI your weight in poundsheight in inchesheight in inches x 703 In terms of rate of metabolism why do quotYoYo dietingquot lead to weight gain a People stop dieting relatively soon dieting slows the metabolic rate and the body becomes good at storing calories What are the differences between anorexia and bulimia a Anorexia starving yourself b Bulimia people gorge on food then puke or take laxatives What are the techniques used in behavioral dieting a Get yourself committed to weight loss exercise learn your eating habits by observing yourself and keeping a quotdiet diaryquot learn to weaken your personal eating cues count calories but don t starve yourself develop techniques to control the act of eating avoid snacks chart your daily progress set a threshold for weight loss What are the typical personality characteristics of people anorexia nervosa a Dissatis ed with their bodies distorted views of themselves exaggerating fears of becoming fat and low self esteem Give examples of communities that do NOT glorify thinness the way Western cultures do a Asian Americans African Americans and Pacific Islander communities What is the difference between extracellular thirst and intracellular thirst Which type requires salty water water with minerals rather than plain water to quench thirst a Extracellular occurs when water is lost from uids surrounding the cells of yourbody i Requires salty water to quench b lntracellular when you eat a salty meal and your body does not lose uid the excess salt just causes uid to be drawn out of cells What are the roles of androgens and estrogen in the sex drives in men and women a They re the hormones that cause sex drive more of them greater sex drive According to the YerkesDodson law what is the relationship between arousal and performance ls performance always best when at moderate levels of arousal Give examples a The ideal level of arousal depends on the complexity of a task if the task is simple the arousal should be high if the task is complex better performance occurs at lower levels of arousal b Golf tournament complex task should have lower arousal so he doesn t get nervous and mess it up Describe the opponent process theOIy and indicate how it accounts for sensation seeking behaviors such as skydiving a Opponent process theory states that strong emotions tend to be followed by an opposite emotional state also the strength of both emotional states changes over time b People are sad when sensation is over so they want to do it again and again Describe the four techniques that the text suggests for coping with test anxiety 22 23 24 25 26 Hard work and preparation Relaxation Rehearsal plan how you will handle every situation Restructuring thoughts list your unsettling thoughts then combat them with positive ones What is the difference between the need for achievement nAch and the need for power Are people whose main goal in life is making money happier than those who donT a Need for achievement the desire to excel or meet some internalized standard of excellence b Need for power the desire to have social impact and control over others c People whose main goal in life is to make lots of money tend to be poorly adjusted and unhappy Discuss high need achievers high nAch with respect to the following the characteristics ofjobs that they had after nishing school risk taking the choice of goals that are quotlong shotsquot or quotsure thingsquot a People with a high need for achievement strive to do well whenever they are evaluated they are overall more successful and strive for more things Even if they don t achieve them they sometimes try again or recognize the value of their rst try What are the most important ingredients for success the keys to success a Dedication and hard work Describe Maslow s hierarchy of human needs in terms of basic needs growth needs and metaneeds Are many people motivated by metaneeds compared to basic needs and growth needs a Basic needs esteem and self esteem love and belonging safety and security physiological needs b Growth needs selfactualization as expressed through meta needs wholeness perfection completion justice etc c More people are motivated by the lower level basic then growth needs as opposed to meta needs What are the differences between intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation Give examples a lntrinsic motivation motivation that comes from within rather than from external rewards motivation based on personal enjoyment of a task or activity b Extrinsic motivation motivation based on obvious external rewards obligations or similar factors 0069 27 What is the textbook s de nition of mood 28 a Mood a low intensity long lasting emotional state Describe the functions of the following the amygdala the autonomic nervous system the sympathetic nervous system the parasympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic rebound a Amygdala a part of the limbic system within the brain that produces fear responses b Automatic nervous system ANS the system of nerves that connects the brain with the internal organs and glands c Sympathetic branch a part of the ANS that activates the body at times of stress d Parasympathetic branch a part of the autonomic system that quiets the body and conserves energy 29 30 31 32 31 33 34 e Parasympathetic rebound excess activity in the parasympathetic nervous system following a period of intense emotion De ne the following polygraph galvanic skin response control questions a Polygraph a device for recording heart rate blood pressure respiration and galvanic skin response commonly called a quotlie detectorquot b Galvanic skin response GSR a change in the electrical resistance or inversely the conductance of the skin due to sweating c Control questions questions used during a polygraph that act like the control of an experiment Lie detectors do NOT detect lies What do they detect Should they be used as evidence in a murder trial What is the guilty knowledge test a They detect general emotional arousal it can t tell the difference between lying and fear anxiety and excitement b They should not be used because an innocent person can fail them c Guilty knowledge test polygraph procedure involving testing people with knowledge only a guilty person could know Describe cultural differences in the source of positive emotions in the USA and Japan What is a Duchenne smile a In the US it is acceptable to show anger In Asian countries more focus is on harmony In the US positive feelings such as pride and happiness that emphasize our individuality are common In Japan there is more of a focus on unit b A Duchenne smile is an authentic smile as opposed to a posed fake smile involving the mouth and the small muscles around the eyes Describe gender differences in emotion What is alexithymia and who is more likely to experience it a Men are more likely to have difficulty expressing their emotions not necessarily less emotions b Alexithymia a learned difficulty expressing emotions more common in men What are the most general messages that are conveyed with body language What is the quotchameleon effect What is its relationship to being liked by another person 0 The most general messages involve relaxation and tension or liking and disliking Chameleon effect unconsciously imitating the postures mannerisms and facial expressions of other people as we interact with them o If another person imitates your behavior you are more likely to like them Gives examples of illustrators and emblems Why are they important a lllustrators gestures people use to illustrate what they are saying i May reveal lying they decrease when someone is telling a lie ie talking with your hands b Emblems gestures that have widely understood meanings within a particular culture i Le a thumbs up A ok sign nod for yes ii increase when a person is lying What is the facialfeedback hypothesis and what is its relevance to the way a person feels a Facial feedback hypothesis states that sensations from facial expressions help de ne what emotion a person feels i Having facial expressions and becoming aware of them in uences our private emotional expression 1 Exercise for example arouses the body but we don t experience this arousal as emotion because it does not trigger emotional expressions 35 What are the four components of emotional intelligence a Perceiving emotions using emotions understanding emotions and managing emotions Text Study Questions Chapter 13 1 De ne behavioral risk factor and give ve examples a Actions that increase the chances of disease injury or early death b Examples i Smoking ii Obesity iii Stress iv High Blood pressure v Alcohol abuse 2 What are the characteristics of the diseaseprone personality a Depressed anxious hostile 3 What are the implications of the ndings regarding unhealthy health habits described in the Discovering Psychology Box Unhealthy birds of a feather a The people you hang out with and their health habits can affect your own 4 De ne the following lifestyle diseases health psychology behavioral medicine psychoneuroimmunology approachavoidance con ict avoidanceavoidance con ict displaced aggression scapegoating learned helplessness mastery training the progressive relaxation technique and guided imagery Lifestyle diseases Health psychology Behavioral medicine Psychoneuroimmunology Approachavoidance con ict having to choose between two positive or desirable alternatives Avoidanceavoidance con ict choosing between two negative alternatives Displaced aggression Scapegoa ng Learned Helplessness Mastery training Progressive relaxation technique Guided imagery 5 What are the three stages is the General Adaptation Syndrome a Alarm reaction b Stage of resistance c Stage of exhaustion 6 De ne what a stressor is and discuss the roles of predictability and Pressure in stress a A condition or event that challenges or threatens a person b Unpredictability adds to stress c Pressure occurs when a person must meet urgent external demands or expectations adds to stress DPPPquot W 7320 r 7 8 9 10 ll 12 l3 14 15 What is the role of appraisal in stress Your answer should include the term eustress and threat a Eustress some people are stressed by events that others view as a thrill or chaHenge b Threat something potentially harmful What is the difference between primary appraisal and secondary appraisal a Primary you decide whether a situation is relevant or irrelevant positive or threatening b Secondary You assess your resources and choose a way to meet the threat or chaHenge What is the difference between problemfocused coping and emotionfocused coping a Problem aimed at managing or correcting the distressing situation itself b Emotion we try to control our emotional reactions to the situation De ne the following psychological defense mechanisms compensation denial fantasy identi cation intellectualization isolation projection rationalization reaction formation regression repression sublimation a Compensation defenses against feelings of inferiority b Denial protecting oneself from an unpleasant reality by refusing to accept it or believe it c Fantasy ful lling unmet desires in imagined achievements or activities d Identi cation taking on some of the characteristics of an admired person usually as a way of compensating for perceived personal weaknesses or faults e lntellectualization separating emotion from a threatening or anxiety provoking situation by talking or thinking about it in impersonal quotintellectua terms f lsolation separating contradictory thoughts or feelings into quotlogictight mental compartments so that they do not come into con ict g Projection lowers anxiety by exaggerating negative traits in others h Rationalization justifying personal actions by giving rational but false reasons for them i Reaction formation impulses are not just repressed they are also held in check by exaggerating opposite behavior j Regression any return to earlier less demanding situations or habits k Repression holding back painful memories from awareness l Sublimation working off frustrated desires through socially acceptable activities What are the roles of hope and learned helplessness in depression a learned helplessness an acquired inability to overcome obstacles and avoid aversive stimuli b hope leads to not giving up What are the major reasons that college students become depressed ls depression in college students unusual a List on page 460 b It s very common What are the best ways for college students to cope with depression a learning to manage college work and to challenge self critical thinking What is the SRRS and what is a LCU a Social Readjustment Rating Scale rating scale to estimate the health hazards we face when stresses ad up b Life Change Units the impact of life events Give examples of hassles microstressors and indicate their relationship to health compared to the impact of major life events a Minor but frequent stresses i Not enough money too many things to do work schedule etc Iquot 16 17 18 19 20 What is a psychosomatic disorder Is this the same as hypochondriasis a When psychological factors contribute to actual bodily damage or to damaging changes in bodily functioning b It is not the same as hypochondriasis i This is when people imagine they have a disease What is biofeedback and what types of health problems can be treated effectively with this technique a Applying informational feedback to bodily control to control seemingly involuntary bodily activities b Psychosomatic problems What are the major characteristics of the Type A and Type B personalities Which characteristic of the Type A Personality is the most lethal with respect to heart disease a Type A hard driving ambitious highly competitive achievement oriented and striving i Feelings of anger and hostility lead to heart disease b Type B unlikely to have a heart attack What are the major characteristics of the hardy personality a Unusually resistant to stress sense of commitment control over lives and work see life as a series of challenges rather than threats What is stress inoculation What are the roles of negative selfstatements and coping statements in stress inoculation a Learning to fight fear and anxiety with an internal monologue of positive coping statements b Negative thoughts are a problem because they tend to directly elevate physical arousal c Coping statements are reassuring and selfenhancing Define the following a DNA deoxyribonucleic acid a molecular structure that contains code genetic information b Chromosome 46 threadlike structures that organize the human DNA and hold the coded instructions of heredity c Dominant genes a gene whose in uence will be expressed each time the gene is present d Recessive genes genes whose traits are only expressed if paired with another recessive gene PKU e Maturation physical growth development of the body nervous system f Polygenic characteristics Personal traits or physical properties that are in uenced by many genes working in combination g Readiness For rapid learning acquisition of particular skill h Sensitive periods During development increased sensitivity to environmental in uences A time during certain events must take place for normal development to occur i Temperament p 89 inherited physical core of personality emotional perceptual sensitivity energy levels typical mood and so forth j Assimilation p101 Piaget s theory the application of an existing mental patterns to new situations assimilated to existing mental schemes k Accommodation p101 Piaget39s theory existing ideas modi ed to t new requirements schemes l Theory of mind p105 the understanding that people have mental states such as thoughts beliefs and intentions and that others people39s mental states can be different form one39s own 2 What is fetal alcohol syndrome and what causes it Describe the effects of alcohol morphine heroin and tobacco on the unborn child a Repeated heavy drinking during pregnancy i low birth weight a small head bodily defects and facial malformations ii emotional behavioral and mental handicaps b If mother is addicted to morphine heroin or methadone her baby may be born with an addiction c Smoking during pregnancy greatly reduces oxygen to the fetus heavy smokers risk miscarrying or having premature underweight babies who are more likely to die soon after birth i Children of smoking mothers score lower on tests ii Goes for marijuana as well 3 Use the example of Samantha given in the textbook p88 to clarify what the term reaction range means a The limits that ones environment places on the effects of heredity b See page 88 4 Describe the experiments conducted by Harry Harlow p 94 on infant rhesus monkeys and indicate their significance with respect to emotional development Your answer should include the following terms surrogate mother contact comfort separation anxiety a Surrogate mother substitute mother b Contact comfort the pleasant reassuring feeling infants get from touching something soft and warm especially their mother c Separation anxiety cryingsigns of fear when left alone or with a stranger 5 Characterize the emotional bonds between mother and infant that are associated with the securely attached baby the insecureavoidant baby and the insecure ambivalent baby a Securely attached these infants have a stable and positive emotional bond They are upset by their mother s absence and seek to be near her when she returns b lnsecureavoidant have an anxious emotional bond They tend to turn away from the mother when she returns c Insecureambivalent also an anxious emotional bond Babies have mixed feelings they both seek to be near the returning mother and angrily resister contact with her 6 What are the characteristics of the authoritarian parental style the overly permissive parental style and the authoritative parental style a Authoritarian enforce rigid rules and demand strict obedience to authority Typically they view children as having few rights but adultlike responsibilities The child is expected to stay out of trouble and to accept without question what parents regard as right or wrong These children are usually obedient and selfcontrolled but tend to be emotionally stiff withdrawn apprehensive and lacking in curiosity b Overly permissive give little guidance allow too much freedom or don t hold children accountable for their actions Typically the child has rights similar to an adult s but few responsibilities Rules are not enforced and the child usually gets their way Permissive parents tend to produce dependent immature children who misbehave frequently c Authoritative those who supply rm and consistent guidance combine d with love and affection Balance their own rights with those of their children They control their children s behavior in a caring responsive nonauthoritarian way Effective parents are rm and consistent not harsh or rigid Encourage a child to act responsibly to think and to make good decisions Produces children who are resilient and develop the strengths they need to thrive even in difficult circumstances Competent selfcontrolled independent assertive and inquiring Can manage emotions 7 Describe the parenting practices p97 98 of AfricanAmerican Hispanic Asian American and ArabAmerican families a AfricanAmerican stress obedience and respect strict child discipline Loyalty security positive identity independence b Hispanic strict standards of discipline high value on family Stress cooperation over competition can be a disadvantage c AsianAmerican Group oriented children taught their behavior can bring pride or shame to family Stress hard work Parenting is only lenient for rst ve years or so d ArabAmerican Harsh punishment Respect parents and elders group over individuality Polite obedient disciplined conforming 8 Using Piaget s theory of cognitive development characterize each of the following developmental stages sensorimotor stage preoperational stage concrete operations stage formal operation stage a Sensorimotor stage of intellectual development during which sensory input and motor responses become coordinated b Preoperational period of intellectual development during which children begin to use language and think symbolically yet remain intuitive and egocentric in their thought c Concrete operational period of intellectual development during which children become able to use concepts of time space volume and number but in ways that remain simpli ed and concrete rather than abstract d Formal operational period of intellectual development characterized by thinking that includes abstract theoretical and hypothetical ideas 9 What are the characteristics of the preconventional conventional and the post conventional levels of moral development a Preconventional moral thinking based on the consequences of one s choices or actions punishment reward or an exchange of favors b Conventional moral thinking based on a desire to please others or to follow accepted rules and values c Postconventional moral thinking based on carefully examined and self chosen moral principles 10 Describe the characteristics of the following discipline techniques used by parents and indicate what their side effects are power assertion withdrawal of love and management techniques a Power assertion physical punishment or a show of force i Fear hatred of parents and a lack of spontaneity and warmth b Withdrawal of love withholding affection by refusing to speak to a child threatening to leave rejection or acting as if the child is temporarily unlovable Iquot i Selfdisciplined quotmode adults for approval c Management techniques combine praise recognition approval rules reasoning and the like to encourage desirable behavior children anxious insecure and dependent on 11 What is the difference between an quotlmessagequot from a quotYoumessage a lmessage s tell children what effect their behavior has on the parent while youmessages take the form of threats namecalling accusing bossing lecturing or criticizing They tell the children what s quotwrongquot with them Text Study Questions Chapter 8 1 What are the three basic units of thought Images concepts and language or symbols 2 What is synesthesia Give an example Synesthesia experiencing one sense in terms normally associated with another sense for example seeing colors when a sound is heard 0 Le spiced chicken tastes pointy pain is the color orange 3 De ne the following cognition kinesthetic imagery conjunctive concept disjunctive concept relational concept prototype denotative meaning connotative meaning phonemes functional xedness mechanical solution algorithm functional solution heuristic convergent thinking divergent thinking inductive thought deductive thought intuition base rate representative heuristic mental set cognition the process of thinking or mentally processing information images concepts words rules and symbols kinesthetic motor imageryimages are created from muscle sensations they help us think about movements and actions 0 Le automatically doing the motion of turning a lock when asked what the combination is conjunctive concept a class of objects that have two or more features in common for example to qualify as an example of the concept an image must be both red AND triangular disjunctive concept a concept de ned by the presence of at least one of several possible features for example to qualify an object must be either blue OR circular relational concept a concept de ned by the relationship between features of an object or between an object and its surroundings for example quotgreater thanquot quotlopsidedquot prototype an ideal model used as a prime example of a particular concept denotative meaning the exact dictionary de nition of a word or concept its objective meaning connotative meaning the subjective personal or emotional meaning of a word or concept phonemes the basic speech sounds of a language functional xedness a rigidity in problem solving caused by an inability to see new uses for familiar objects mechanical solution a problem solution achieved by trial and error or by a xed procedure based on learned rules algorithm a learned set of rules that always leads to the correct solution of a problem functional solution a detailed practical and workable solution heuristic any strategy or technique that aids problem solving especially by limiting the number of possible solutions to be tried convergent thinking thinking directed toward the discovery of a single established correct answer conventional thinking divergent thinking thinking that produces many ideas or alternatives a major element in original or creative thought inductive thought thinking in which a general rule or principle is gathered from a series of speci c examples for instance inferring the laws of gravity by observing many falling objects deductive thought thought that applies a general set of rules to speci c situations for example using the laws of gravity to predict the behavior of a single falling object intuition quick impulsive thought that does not make use of formal logic or clear reasoning base rate the basic rate at which an event occurs over time the basic probability of an event representative heuristic a tendency to select wrong answers because they seem to match preexisting mental categories mental set a predisposition to perceive or respond in a particular way 4 The Cape York aborigines in Australia only use absolute directional references like north and south How does this observation provide support for the linguistic relativey hypothesis 0 Linguistic relatively hypothesis is the idea that the words we use not only re ect our thoughts but can shape them as well People in Cape York talk about everything in terms of direction They do not say left or right but the cardinal directions east west north south For example they will say 39the spoon is to the east of me Because of this the words they use when they talk their language shapes how they think about the relative positions of things 5 Summarize the language abilities of Kanzi the pygmy chimp Does he understand words Can he identify lexigrams Yes he understands words and lexigrams geometric word symbols He can understand about 650 spoken sentences He was taught to communicate by pushing buttons on a computer keyboard He hears words and commands through headphones so his handlers cannot give him visual cues His grammar is on par with that of the average two year old 6 Is it true that people with mood disorders such as bipolar disorder are more creative than others 0 Yes one study found that parents with a history of mood swings and as well as their children scored higher in creativity than did normal parents and their children Further many of history s most creative individuals such as Poe and Dickinson experienced profound mood swings 7 What are ve characteristics of creative people Are people with high le more creative than others 0 Although people with high le can be quite creative there is generally little correlation between creativity tests and IQ tests 8 What is quotthin slicingquot o Quickly making thin slivers of an experience 0 Judging teachers based on two second clips example Testament to the power of the cognitive unconscious intuition 9 If you were operating a restaurant would it be better for you to offer a large or small number of choices on the menu 0 Less because people are indecisive if there are too many choices people tend to just stick with what is familiar
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