Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide AASP100
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This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Deena on Tuesday December 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to AASP100 at University of Maryland taught by Jonathan England in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Intro to African Ameri Studies in African American Studies at University of Maryland.
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Date Created: 12/15/15
AASP Final Review 12/14/15 11:02 PM The Civil Rights Movement • Influences/Setting the Stage o Early Efforts o Booker T. Washington and Accommodation § Accommodation § Halt civil rights, focus on industrial jobs, be content with segregation, stay in the south (despite the lynching)— after all this maybe, just maybe the lynching will stop (it didn’t) o DuBois and self-determination § Self-determination § Founder of NAACP § Main critic of Booker T. Washington § Talented 10 —focus on education leads to potential black leaders, opposite to what Booker T. Washington said about education o Garvey and Black Nationalism § Black Nationalism § Founder of the UNIA (United Negro Improvement Association) § Promoted self-help § Promoted racial pride § Leaned more toward keeping races separate and blacks creating their own business, government, etc. o Walker and Womanism § Womanism- combination of race, politics, and feminism (feminism alone focused too much on issues white women had, did not focus on black women) § She was involved in nearly every political movement § Self-determination and economic/political development (started independent order of St. Luke) • Background o What is Post World War II America like? § Urban/North vs. Rural/South § South ú Segregation ú Labor market discrimination ú Racism ú More rights ú Generally greater economic opportunity o Influenced by Key Developments: § 1. Transformation of Black from rural sharecroppers to urban workers § 2. The growth of the Black Middle Class and the church helped take care of civil rights workers § 3. The expansion of Black institution § 4. Key legal victories over Jim Crow • New Negro Movement Goals/ Strategies o Goals § Political, civil, economic rights § Race pride § Integration o Strategies § 1. Non-violent direct action § 2. Black Power § 3. Self-defense § 4. Political Mobilization • NAACP CORE SCLC SNCC o CORE (Congress of Racial Equality) § Founded in 1943 § Viewed as the godfather of the Civil Rights Movement § Leaders ú Bayard Rustin (some people didn’t respect him due to his sexuality) and James Farmer • Pushed for integration of public accommodation • Served as a vanguard of the Civil Rights Movement (other organizations copied its tactics ú Primary Tactic: Freedom Rides • Began in 1946 • Moved into the South 1961 (Freedom summer) o NAACP § Goals ú Integration ú Equality ú Civil Rights § Strategy=LEGAL ú Long history, led by the NAACP Legal Defense Fund under the guide of Charles Hamilton Houston and later Thurgood Marshall, of fighting Jim Crow in the courts § Tactics ú 3 L’s—lobbying, legislation, litigation § Promotes non-violence o SNCC (Student Non-violence Coordinating Committee) § Formed in 1960 st ú Marion Barry was the 1 President • (4 time mayor of Washington DC) ú Primarily composed of college students § Tactics sit-ins (began at A&T on February 1, 1960) ú Shifts to Black power (1965) and exclusion of whites (1966) ú Led by Stokely Carmichael • Changed from a non-violence organization to a black power organization ú Changed name to Student National Coordinating Committee ú Make it for blacks only o SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conferences) § Formed in 1957 ú Comprised of minsters (primarily young minister) ú Key members: Rev. Joseph Lowery, Rev. Ralph Abernathy ú Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. selected as President o All of the organization worked together • Sit-Ins/freedom rides/ 3”L’s” o 3L’s (NAACP)- Lobbying, Legislation, Litigation • Stokely Carmichael/ SNCC/Black Power • MLK’s Letter from a Birmingham Jail o Dr. King disappointed with white moderates and white church o Four steps of nonviolent direct action § Collect Facts § Negotiation § Self-purification § Direct Action • Why Wait/2 criticism o 1. Untimely § Response= ú A) We can’t wait ú B) “injustice is here, injustice here is a threat to justices everywhere” ú C) Wait almost always means “NEVER” o 2. Unwise § Response= ú A) 2 Types of Laws: just and unjust laws “legal and moral responsibility to break unjust laws” ú B) Points out that the clergy is silent about how whites are practicing unjust laws • 4 steps of non-violent direct action o 1. Collect Facts o 2. Negotiation o 3. Self-purification o 4. Direct Action • “Disappointed with” o 1. White moderates § More Concerned with law and order rather than justice; so they criticize Black activism rather white racism § Point ú Don’t support methods § MLK ú Law and order exists for the purpose of justice, not to exclude o 2. White Church § Don’t understand nor push to end integration § Says the church is weak • If not us (i.e., the Non-violent Direct Action Movement) o MLK sees himself as a middle ground between two groups within the Black community § 1. Complacency-part of negro community ú Used to segregation ú Middle class that profits from economic segregation=insensitive to problems of the masses § 2. Militants ú Advocate violence • Accomplishments o Brown v. Board (1954) o Interstate Commerce Commission ruling against segregation on transit and in terminals (1961) o Civil Rights Act of 1964 § Made discrimination illegal o Voting Rights Act of 1965 § Took away all the means of disenfranchisement o Mass voter registration § African Americans were allowed to vote and did vote o Fair Housing Act of 1968 § Prevented the discrimination of housing • Criticisms of the Civil Rights Movement o Did not reach all of its goals, example, economics § MLK: “what good does it do to sit at the counter when you can’t afford a hamburger?” o Was deferential to white liberals and thus constrained o Did not address needs of the Northern Blacks o Too timid (Carmichael, X) Black Power • SNCC and the transformation to Black Power o Black Power § Impetus – Civil Rights Movement adjusted to the tone of whites, but did not speak to the “growing militancy of young black people in the urban ghetto.” § Says Civil Rights Movement demonstrated from a “position of weakness.” § Black Americans problem—they are poor and they are black • Stokely Carmichael o Credited for transferring the SNCC to a Black Power Organization o He has strong ties to the Civil Rights Movement o His frustration with the slow progress of the nonviolent protest pushed him towards the Black Power Movement o Authored the book Black Power • Black Nationalism (Malcolm X’s definition) o Malcolm X’s definition of Black Nationalism § Black control of Black politics and politicians o Types: § Economic ú Control over economy of the community ú Provide jobs and invest in community § Social-unification ú Control over personal lives ú No drugs, high morals, etc. § Political § Cultural ú Being Afro-Centric • Emphasizing a return to African culture § Newton says this is the wrong approach, because it does not mean political freedom. • Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam o Nation of Islam § Established in early 1930’s ú Elijah Muhammad § Goals: ú Religion, Black Pride and Empowerment § Strategies ú Black nationalism, religion § Tactics: ú Religion, business, individual upliftment by focusing on behavior o Malcolm X § Malcolm X was banned from the Nation of Islam after comments he made about JFK’s death ú X also did not agree with the actions of Elijah Muhammad and how he didn’t practice what he preached ú X also went on his journey to Meeca and within that he was praying next to people from all backgrounds § Speaks of revolution, sees a dangerous situation in America, one that if it explodes, could have international consequences ú Not just speaking of Blacks, but all non-whites— Asian, Latino, etc. ú In US, growing militancy amongst AA ú Not a civil, but a human rights struggle § Talks of political power of AA today (1963) ú A ballot or bullet ú B. criticism of sit-ins: takes a man to stand • The Ballot or the Bullet o Speech by Malcolm X that encouraged Blacks to exercise their right to vote, and if necessary take up arms • The Black Panther Party o Established in 1966 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale o Goals: § Pride § Self-Determination § Freedom o Strategies § Self Defense § Black Nationalism o Tactics: § Breakfast programs § Liberation schools § Health clinics § 10 point program o Key Point § UN monitored voting by African Americans to determine their destiny o Young Leaders: Huey Newton and Fred Hampton § Power to people – Hampton § Hampton assassinated o Allied with other revolutionaries (socialists, labor, anti-war, gay organizations, etc) • 10 Point Platform o Freedom o Full Employment o Decent Housing o End of police brutality o Education • Self Defense Stereotypes • Purpose/consequences o Purpose § Justify slavery ú Portray (blacks) as “other” and promote inferiority § Rationalize sexual exploitation § Justify violence/lynching § Deny the reality of resistance § Hawkins ú In contemporary era stereotypes are also about maintaining control and profit from the Black male body • Types: male and female o Black Male Stereotypes § Long history of stereotypes pertaining to Black men § Accepted roles for Black men ú Media representations of Black men: violent, athletic, rhythmic, humorous ú “Only role for Black men is as ‘entertainers’”— either jump high or make us laugh § Sambo ú Childish ú Content ú Dependent ú Happy to serve § Zip Coon § Brute (Nigger)/Savage/Buck ú Savage, Beastly, Violent ú Emasculated, Lynched, and turned into a Sambo ú Application today: relates to the belief that African Americans are super athletes/physical abilities ú Point: Dual Myth of athlete and criminal § Uncle Tom ú Loyal ú Submissive ú Male counterpart of Mammy § The Magical Negro o Black Female Stereotypes § Mammy ú Physical Characteristics • Portly • Dark-skinned • Short hair ú Behavioral Traits • Loyal • Domesticated • Asexual • Subservient • Key: o Happy and Content to be a slave • Role: o Take care of the master’s children o Portray the idea that slavery wasn’t bad • Reality: o Reality of Resistance o Few slave owners had house maids o Often nursed white infants (so who was “mammy?”) § Young § Light-skinned § Skinny § Jezebel ú Physical Characteristics • Light-skinned = “pretty” • Long hair • Scantily clad ú Behavior • Promiscuous • Seductive • Hypersexual ú Role • Temptress ú Reality • Slaves were raped • Slaves sought monogamy/little evidence of promiscuity or prostitution or venereal disease • Lynching and the Myth of the Black Male Rapist o Angela Davis § False charge of rape ú Used by WHITES as POLITICAL WEAPON against Black men § Used to justify lynching § Came about after slavery o Lynching § Legacy of “social control” The Family and Poverty • Definition of the Black Family o Intimate association of persons of African descent who are related to one another by: § Adoption § Appropriation ú Fictive kin • In slavery if your parents were sold elsewhere then other people either blood related or not would take care of you § Blood § Marriage • Trends of the Family o Increase divorce (42% à50%) o Decreased number of kids o Increased number of kids born to single mothers o The Net Result: § Increase in Female Headed Households § All Races Never Married: 31% • African American’s make up 13.2% of the population • Herbert Gutman, E. Franklin Frazier, Melville Herskovits o Herbert Gutman § Disproves the idea that there was no Black family during slavery § 80% of Black Familes are two parented from slavery to 1960 o E. Franklin Frazier § View (Problem): ú The black family is a matriarchy § Why? (Cause) ú Slavery destroyed the Black Family ú Placed mother at head of household ú Breakdown of institutions and morals ú African Culture=none; no cultural aspects of the African Family is present in the “negro” family ú “Scraps of memories…are what remains of African heritage.” o Melville Herskovits § View (Problem): ú The Black Family is a matriarchy § Why? (Cause) ú Matriarchy an African practice • Sudarkasa: Institutional Transformation o Definition of Institutional Transformation: § African institutions (practices, values, etc.) of the family practiced by Blacks in America § Point: ú Female headed households are not an African tradition o “The picture of early Afro-American families that emerges…is that an essentially African family structure, behavior, and values being adapted to the political, economic, and social conditions of subjugation under which most ‘free blacks’ lived” § You can’t recreate you culture in bondage § Slavery didn’t destroy African culture (or the Black family) it modified it. o Point: § The discussion is misguided, because it focuses on only female headed households (which historically has not been the majority less than 1/3 rdof Black families o Key: § They look at the wrong issue: Female headed households and the matriarchy, illegitimacy and fleeting ties (ease of divorce/separation) associated with it ú Characteristics of a few Black families have come to represent all Black families. • Conjugal Consanguinity Matrilineal o Conjugal (marriage) vs. Consanguinity (blood) § Blood=African § Marriage=European • The Moynihan Report, (The Negro Family: The Case for Nation Action) o The VIEW myth that Black family is matriarchal o Reversed roles of the husband and wife o ProblemàBlack family is matriarchal § The woman is in charge § This is out of line with “mainstream” America o Cause: § Slavery destroyed the Black family o He says that the Black middle class “broke out” of the pattern o However (effects) half of the Black community live in “desperate and deteriorating circumstances.” • Black Matriarchy/ tangle of pathology/ Solution o Black Matriarchy § The Black family is matriarchal and that is seen as a problem § This is out of line with “mainstream” America o Tangle of pathology § Poverty, unemployment, illegitimacy, crime, drug abuse, etc. § Especially concerned with youth (education/intelligence, delinquency, etc.) o Solution § Black men join the military ú Everyone treated as equal, it’s masculine • Frustenberg: “daddies and fathers”/ gender mistrust/techniques of neutralization/ Child Support o “Daddies and fathers” § Myth: ú Black men do not WANT to be responsible parents § Question: How do the men and women view parenthood? ú Both agree that men are obligated to support their children ú Women: • Not just financial, in fact, the mothers view emotional support as more important than money ú Men • View it differently, mainly money, but also know that emotional support is important o Inability to give money is a failure in men’s eyes. ú Point: • Disconnect between men and women and how they view their obligations § Question: What is a daddy/father? ú Daddy=Men who “do,” caretaker and nurturer ú Fathers= biological, sperm donor § Question: Do all young men shun fatherhood? ú If not, they at least feel obligated and know it is more than just providing financial support. o Techniques of Neutralization § Excuses why people don’t take care of kids ú 1. Not my kid ú 2. She’s seeing someone else ú 3. My support doesn’t help my kid ú 4. I am broke ú 5. Can’t see the kids § Women’s excuses for men ú 1. Men are spoiled (less is expected from men) ú 2. Not responsible ú 3. Not ready to be a father o Gender Mistrust § Don’t trust each other § Don’t trust motives § Don’t believe they can be responsible often because of past ú May have seen their father do wrong, not seen him at all therefore they think all men are like that. o Child Support § Outside Support § Not a friend==bureaucratic, inefficient, etc. • Public Opinion: Factors/ Influences, role of racial stereotypes, how do we view the poor o Factors that shape public opinion § American Values § Racial Stereotypes § Age + income + values + RACIAL STEREOTYPES § Whites underestimate inequality, they think that Blacks are better off § Categories: Jobs, income, schooling, and health care ú Think that blacks have “achieved equality” ú Blacks think there still is inequality ú Leads whites to not support government programs that promote equality o How do we view the poor? § American Values and the Poor ú This tradition rooted in Elizabethan Poor Laws § The Public believes that 50% of poor people in America are Black, when in actuality it is only 29% § Over half of the people who took the survey said that more Blacks are poor § The people who think that most of the poor are African American are less likely to support welfare ú Reason: • If you think most Blacks are poor, then most likely you think that Blacks are lazy and unintelligent § Points: ú Overestimate Black poverty ú Impacts how we view policy (welfare) ú Often driven by stereotypes • Gilens: Black and white perceptions of equality (public opinion/implications) o Gilens believes that misperceptions and media portrayal reflect each other • The underserving and deserving poor o Underserving Poor § Able-bodied individuals, welfare mothers o Deserving Poor § Elderly, Children, Disabled • Culture of Poverty o Oscar Lewis o Theory: § Poverty is tied to culture and behavior ú “Anti-mainstream” behaviors and norms ú Intergenerational § • Magazine Poor o African Americans represent 2/3rds (62%) of the poor o Most portrayed are children and adults (only 2% are elderly) o Most are shown to be unemployed (85%, 88% for Blacks) o Magazines § Blacken poverty § Lazify the poor § Don’t show the deserving poor ú He argues kids viewed as underserving, only are elderly deserving § EVERY PERSON portrayed as a member of the “underclass” was Black Prison Industry/Thug Day • West: Nihilism Politics of Conversion o Total and absolute destructiveness, especially to the world at large and including one’s self o Assess status and culture of Black youth, and explanations of “bad behavior” o Effect of Nihilism § Prison Industry § Institutional Racism • Solutions to Nihilism: (what are they, and what are his critiques?) o Liberal Structuralists § View: ú Constricted Opportunities ú Societal barriers (discrimination, etc.) are the culprits § West’s Assessment: ú Deals just with politics and economics, not culture ú Failure of nerve—don’t talk about culture § Critique: ú Too much emphasis on government o Conservative Behaviorists § View: ú Poor or dysfunctional culture is cause of self- destructive behavior ú Emphasis on SELF ú Anti-mainstream behavior § West’s Assessment: ú They don’t understand nihilism or Black culture § Critiques: ú Talk about values as if they existed in a vacuum (no environment) ú Absolve whites, don’t account for racism—act as if Black’s not victimized o West’s Solution § Politics of conversion § Must instill a “love ethic” because nihilism is a disease of the soul § “Heal the World, Make it a Better Place.” • Davis- race and crime (what is the connection?) structural/institutional racism (What is it) o Argument: § The Prison Industrial Complex as Institutional/Structural Racism o Bill Clinton did a study on race in 1995 and he said that race is a matter of the heart, thus making race a private matter § Davis says that the danger of saying that is that if you regulate race (and problematic behavior) to the individual level, you neglect structural racism o “Race informs the ideological and material structures of the US Society” o “Racism permeates every aspect of live…especially socioeconomic structure.” • Effects of ignoring structural racism o We neglect environment, and place the onus directly on individuals, often unfairly and usually in ways that play on racist views and stereotypes o Point: § Have “color-blind” laws that exist in a racist system, so they adversely affect minorities ú We focus on “eliminating crime” but not on the lives of those we persecute ú End result is an attack on Blacks and Latinos (those perceived to be criminals) • Punishment industry/prison industrial complex/ “New American worker” o Punishment Industry § Cycle that perpetuates itself o Prison Industrial Complex § An economic boom § A complicated system situated at the intersection of governmental and private interest that uses prisons as a solution to social, political, and economic problems § Keys: ú Souring inmate population that were increasing Black or Brown ú New correctional facilities, some privately operated ú Prison work programs that in some cases allowed private firms to use prison labor ú Disfranchisement of felons § Point: ú It is all about PROFIT o “New American Worker” § The prisoners are considered the “new American workers” because of the cheap labor Hip Hop • Kelley: The Post-Industrial Playground o Shift from Industrial economy did not benefit blacks, which lead to an increase in unemployment, poverty and nihilism o Play becomes pay (underground economy) § Due to limited “legitimate” economic opportunities § Example ú Men’s play = basketball, hip hop, and graffiti ú Women’s play = sex and hair o The access to “play” was not equal…women do not have the same opportunities • Play into pay (why? Consequences/ response/ why problematic? o Why? § Transformation of the economy o Result: § Commodification of leisure, women, sex, etc. à permanence of black youth on the street o Response: § Fortification of communities, parks, etc. § Police oppression o Why play is problematic: § “Idle time” is seen as legitimate § Not about empowerment/resistance § Not sustainable nor likely § Doesn’t benefit community § Gendered issue • Origin of rap/hip hop and its Development/Shift/Content o Musical Origins: § More about the beats than the lyrics o Social Origins: § Complex cultural exchanges and larger social and political conditions of disillusionment and alienation.” o Shift: § DJ’s turned audiences away from dancing (Disco tradition) and towards watching § The introduced rappers to the mix o Content: § Rooted in oral history/story-telling (the griot- people that do oral story telling) § Content is focused on story-telling or bragging; political, “often violent, aggressive, or sexist” § Relies on both verbal prowess and technology o Development § “Rapper’s Delight” signified the next phase of rap àcommercialism § Small independent labels were the initial people to produce rap § There wasn’t a lot of opportunities for women, especially in production § Run DMC helped rap reach the white audiences and was commercialized, complete with bigger record labels. § Gangsta rap developed; with more violent theme • Dyson: Gangsta Rap (criticisms/views/real culprits) o Rap can either be uplifting and counters stereotypes or negative and reinforce stereotypes (a view Dyson says is too narrow) o Criticisms: § Hip hop mitigates the deeper issues and the much needed analysis of the roots/sources of those parts of hip hop people find objectionable § Gangsta rap is an indictment of mainstream and bourgeois black institutions who do not find using conventional methods of addressing personal and social calamity useful o Point: § Hip hop is misguided and does not focus on real problems (poverty, racism, etc.) § Gangsta rap is a response to the isolation and alienation, and neglect that Black urban youth experience o Real Culprits: § Corporate Capitalism § Materialism § Pop Culture § The Black Church § Public Policy • Williams: Rap as Anti-Disco/Dissent and Debate o White Privilege • McIntosh: white privilege (definition and examples/ marked vs. unmarked) o White Privilege Definition: § Invisible package of unearned assets which can be cashed in daily ú Examples: • Mortgages • Choice of residence • Shopping • Positive Views of race in media • History • No Stereotypes • Ability to act as an individual • Don’t represent race • Can ignore people of color • Not singled out o Marked vs. Unmarked categories § Ways to distinguish who belongs and who does not § Unmarked belongs…marked does NOT belong § Example of white privilege is that whiteness is unmarked • Lipsitz: The Possessive Investment in Whiteness o Systematic efforts to create economic advantages for whites (both historical and contemporary) § Historical: ú Colonialism ú Slavery ú Jim Crow § Today: ú De jure segregation, FHA, Social Security Act, urban renewal, banking o View that racism is a Black problem, and that “American” means “white” § White privilege hides whiteness o Neoconservatives: § Pursues policies that favor whites ú “color blind policies still favor whites more” • What ways have been used to manifest and continue white privilege? o Primary Theme: § America has systematically constructed a system of white privilege ú Examples: • Social policies that are popular benefit whites and those that are less favorable benefit African-Americans o Examples of ways that have been used to manifest and continue white privilege § Social policies § Views of race in media o Types of oppression § Active- You can see it § Embedded (whites were taught not to see) ú Example: only look at individual acts of racism, not structural • White Nationalism (what is it?/what is it a response to?/what’s the real cause?) o Definition: § Radical aspect of the Conservative movement that intends to use both unofficial and the official power of the state to maintain white supremacy by subordinating Blacks and other non-whites o Ideology § “Blacks are an inferior group making a claim to equality with the dominant class to which they are not entitled” o The Problem: § The Civil Rights Movement threw America into a state of imbalance and has left whites disconnected to the state/government o The Response § A movement to reclaim the status of whites ú (White supremacists have practiced White Nationalism since the inception of the country) § How ú Public Policy ú Perceptions of non-whites o The real cause: § White Economic Stagnation 12/14/15 11:02 PM 12/14/15 11:02 PM
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