unit3 study guide
unit3 study guide BIO 208
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Starr walker on Saturday April 2, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 208 at Central Michigan University taught by Gregory Colores in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 04/02/16
Unit 3 study guide: Genetic: study of heredity Genome: A cells genetic material Chromosome: structure of DNA (heredity information) Gene: Parts of DNA that codes for functional products Nucleotide: AT GC( nucleobase), pentose sugar(dioxyribose), phosphate group. DNA Replication: Genetic information from one generation to the next generation (nucleus: eukaryote; cytoplasm: prokaryotes) I parent molecule 2 identical daughter molecules 1. unwound by helicase. 2. Free-floating nucleotides in the cytoplasm match up with exposed bases. 3. DNA polymerase joins the newly added nucleiotide, replication fork. 5’ P S S N N P 3’ Transcription: Promise/ writing down order DNA is transcribed to RNA (in Eukaryotes its in the nucleus; in prokaryote it’s the cytoplasm) Transcription- mRNA mRNA ribosome (make protein) translation RNA polymerase (promoter) begins Terminator sequence (ends) Translation(cytoplasm) Codon: 3 base pair Anticodon: 3 complimentary base pair mRNA tRNA with Amino Acid protein chain Expression: transcription and translation to form functional product. Operon: regulating genes using RNA polymerase Quorum sensing (biofilm & bioluminescent): Bacteria x to increase number to increase the concentration of quorum sensing. Quorum sensing less concentrated, no lux R is activated (no luciferase) Quorum sensing high concentration quorum sensing binds to Lux R Horizontal gene transfer: flow of information from one cell to another cell of the same generation. Recombination= donor: recipient (compotent) Transformation: naked DNA from 1 taken by another (natural) Conjugation: direct contact between cells. (pilus) Transduction: transferring genetic material from 1 cell to another using plasmid or bacteriophage Virus transfer genetic material from 1 bacterial to another Viruses: NOT living, lack many requirements 4 basic needs Getting from 1 host to another Getting in to a cell Command the cells resources for copying virus Get out of cell (lyst), out of host, on to new host Characteristics: very small 1. nucleic acid: DNA or RNA, cannot have both 2. protein coat: protects nucleic acid 3. multiple living cells using host for production (obligate parasite) 4. cause the synthesis of specialized structures that can transfer viral nucleic acid to other cells. Host range: species whose cells will be infected by a virus Infected: attachment (animal cells=plasma membrane) Tisuue tropism: tissue cells a virus can infect. (bacteria receptor are cell wall, fimbrae, or flagella) Capsid: the protective coat, help viral get into target cell Spikes: allow viruses to attach to its target cells Viral multiplication: Lytic cycle: kills the host cell 1. attachment: phage attaches by tail fibers to host cell 2. penetration: phage lysozyme opens cell wall; tail sheath contracts to force tail core and dna into cell 3. biosynthesis: production of phage DNA and protein 4. Maturation: assembly of phage particles 5. Releasing: phage lysozyme breaks cell wall Lysogenic cycle: host cell remains alive 1. attachment: viruses attach to cell membrane 2. penetration: endosytosis or fusion pinocytosis: host plasma membrane engulfs and internalizes the entire virus fusion viral envelope fuses with host plasma membrane, only viral Nucleic acid 3. uncaoting by viral or host enzyme 4. biosynthesis: production of nucleic acid and proteins 5. maturation: nucleic acid and capsid proteins assemble 6. release by budding(enveloped) viruses or rupture
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