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Final Review

by: Red-Roe

Final Review Anth 1113 003

General Anthropology
Samuel G. Duwe

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Study Guide for the final
General Anthropology
Samuel G. Duwe
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Red-Roe on Tuesday December 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Anth 1113 003 at University of Oklahoma taught by Samuel G. Duwe in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see General Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Oklahoma.


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Date Created: 12/15/15
Renee Roe Final Review General Anthropology the study of human cultures and societies in the past and their changes through time by the examination of their material remains stone tools human bones and feces plant remains o burned corn 0 burned wood 0 pollen 0 animal bones 0 animal and bone elements 0 chemical residue 0 fingerprints all these help determine more factors of life of humans in areas found 0 Australia reached first 0 America 0 source of populations for colonization of Americas came from Siberia and NE Asia 0 people came from NE Asia across the Bering Land Bridge peak cold period 1820000 ya Polar and mountain glaciers expanded glaciers mainly in far North Western Europe Sea level fell to 150 m 0 meaning that the water levels dropped on account of freezing temps r Land bridge between SiberiaNE Asia to North America allowed for migration into N America 0 first visible culture found continent wide o marked by distinctive fluted spear points very widespread in North and Central America 0 most clovis sites have large animal remains such as mammoths many theories that megafauna were killed by humans climate change o greatest return in energy relative to expended time and effort 0 huntergatherers use higher ranked resources when available a minute shaped flint typically part of a composite tool such as a spear ill the annual pattern followed in the production of food f f l quotz JL TZ39 iii39i m li a 7 333493 hut well watt let ell high population densities in circumscribed territories intensification and diversification of food resources food and storage and preservation permanent or at least semipermanent settlements often with associated cemetries highly developed tools and methods division of labor not only by sex and age but also by occupation some form of social ranking exchange of goods more elaborate ritual beliefs ll o began 12500 BP 0 intensive use of wild grains 0 elaborate material culture burials 0 might have domesticated dogs if population continues to grow or available land continues to contract eventually even most abundant wild foods are insufficient solution manipulate food abundance and manage FGSOUFCGS 0 first species to be domesticated 0 dogs are instructive but not economically important o teosinte 0 one primary stalk with developed side branches 0 12 15 seedsspikelets 0 hard fruitcase around seeds o spikelets shatter when mature o eventually modified into maize 0 one primary stalk without side branches 300 seeds 15 ears at nodes of primary stalk naked seeds attached to central cob seeds do not shatter OOOO ll o intensive hunting had major effects on population structure 0 more food more people 0 more people competition for food and land 0 agriculture is uncertain 0 can produce big amounts of food but is also prone to catastrophic failure 0 unequal distribution of resources results in friction o demand for land and need to control territories lead to violent conflict 7 7 inquot is 7 llzeul ill explains legitimates order of things helps to reduce friction within communities in many cases Neolithic religions seemed to be focused on ancestors results in elaborate burial practices Cahokia graphically demonstrates the existence of a preurban society in which a powerful political and economic hierarchy was responsible for the organization of labor communal agriculture and trade This is reflected in the size and layout of the settlement and the nature and structure of the public and private buildings o hierarchy of roles 0 large of common people small ruling elite o extensive specialization o inequality is essentially institutionalized o irrigation water and irrigation centrally controlled leading to the general centralization of power 0 leaders controlled the people by controlling the water supply 0 warfare coercion theory states formed in order to handle burden of fighting and defending against war 0 o tradeconstant need for special materials or exotic trade goods creates pressureopportunities for more integrated and organized commercial systems and communities to supply these goods 0 social factors o communities with large populations continually face demands for food and face constant social conflict greater social control and production organization is given to centralize power 0 in times of stress people can either organize and develop new way of dealing with issues andor they can go to war to control limited existing resources 0 ideology can also give power and prestige to people can mask the fact that one group is exploiting another lMesopotamia Urukl o earliest statelevel societies known from Near East area between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers 0 Uruk civilization composed of independent citystates Sumerian and Akkadian civilizations 0 early Mesopotamian societies were citystates 0 single large community with local elite rulers 0 smaller subordinate outlying communities 0 independent from but equal with neighboring cities 0 one of the early pristine civilization 0 arose without the influence of another civilization mgins of writingJ given to us by Mesopotamia the technology of administration 0 Sumerian writing Cuneiform began as a way of keeping accounts 0 vast archives of Mesopotamian cities full of bills receipts and contracts lPrimary vs secondary civilizationsl Primary urbanization agriculture specialization complex economy stratification and state authority Secondary monumental public works writing metallurgy tribute amp taxation mass production of goods state religion state art and epidemic disease amp malnutrition lMonumental architecture celebrates and legitimizes leadership lCraft specializatiorl assignment of specific tasks to specific people or subsets of people in a community allows a community to get large projects completed wars fought pyramids built and yet still get the daytoday operations of the community done as well E best known civilization in highlands of S America controlled a true empire held together by strings of fortresses and by a vast system of roads reserved for official traffic and trade based on military control but ince were also master administrators kept track of taxes tributes and state properties over vast area used system of knotted and colorcoded cords to send messages and keep records 0 brought down by small army of Spanish conquistadors lSpanish Conquistadorsl o overthrew many small states 0 brought deadly European diseases with them and unknowingly killed many people indigenous to areas they traveled Applied anthromgy application of anthropological data perspectives theory and methods to identify assess and solve social problems a social system or culture defined by specific characteristics a culture that has a formal political organization with a central bureaucracy with the authority to employ legalized force process by which more and more people come to live in cities iSocial complexity NAGPRE Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990 provides protection of indian graves on federal and tribal lands and prohibits commercial sale or transport of NA bodies or body parts also covers associated funerary objects sacred objects and objects of cultural patrimony o establishment of ownership is complicated cultural affiliation scientific interests iCultural heritagd legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations Short answer and essay questions o Americas 0 Central America I sweet potatoes and Manioc most beans chiles sweet peppers chocolate tomatoes rubber o S America I peanuts llamas I potatoes Andes o N America I tobacco I amaranth quinoa SE SW US also in Andes I sunflower sumpweed SE US I maizeMexico 0 Asia 0 W Asia I wheat barley lentils sheep goats 0 Central Asia I horses 0 E Asia I millet rice chickens Wild plant Teosinte Zea has sub species domesticated into Maize known as corn Zea mays First found in Mexico and South America People initially interested in it because it produced so many different versions Corn is a few genetic mutations away from teosinte farmers domesticated it by planting seeds of desirable characteristics for the next season s harvest Traits selected depended on what corn was to be used for Used for things such as sustenance flour and textile dyes Seeds traveled through trade and became popular Important traits kept for breeding depend on the need for corn Carrying capacity is the ability of an environment to humans and animals Postpleistocene adaptations domestication humans domesticated animals and plants to help them survive Animal domesticated as either a food source or into a relationship that benefits both animals and humans like cattle are used to help farm or travel or used for food adoption of agriculture humans manipulate plants and animals into breeding or harvesting season to better provide for their cultures NAGPRA provides protection of indian graves on federal and tribal lands and prohibits commercial sale or transport of Native American bodies or body parts also covers associated funerary objects sacred objects and objects of cultural patrimony For NAGPRA this act gives back many culturally significant artifacts to Native American tribe and pays repatriation to those tribes Can strengthen tribe relations with government Against Takes away scientifically important artifacts that could help with contemporary societies or give a better understanding of history Also who owns the past No one community should be allowed to label artifacts of the past as theirs Both sides if put together could help understand more about past with tangible evidence to back up stories and tales of Native American tribes could help repair tribe relations and could help tribes further understand or learn about their cultural historylegacy that they might not have previously had This can also help tribes reinforce their culture


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