final study guide
final study guide ANTH 0780
Popular in Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meghan Notetaker on Tuesday December 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 0780 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Laura Brown in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Pittsburgh.
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FINAL STUDY GUIDE Anthropology: The study of human nature, human society and the human past. Holism: A characteristics of the anthropological perspective that describes, at the highest and most inclusive level, how anthropology tries to integrate all that is known about human beings and their activities. Comparison: A characteristic of the anthropological perspective that requires anthropologists to consider similarities and differences in as wide a range of human societies as possible before generalizing about human nature, human society, or the human past. Limit Cases: we do this because if we want to make claims about the human inter-related perspectives on human life and diversity natural sciences, social sciences, humanities Emic: the way in which people understand themselves [fat] vs. [bat] … making a difference in the words tailgate party vs. christening Etic:comparative ‘outsider’ categories [wat] vs. [what] … in terms of pronunciation tailgate party and christening vs. doing laundry Evolution: A characteristic of the anthropological perspective that requires anthropologists to place their observations about human nature, human society, or human past in a temporal framework that takes into consideration change over time. Culture: Sets of learned behavior and ideas that human beings acquire as members of society. Human beings use culture to adapt and to transform the world in which they live. both conscious and unconscious cultures are always changing Habitus: Habits and preference and ways of doing things that are shared within a group without explicit awareness Cute vs. delicious (what animals you call cute or delicious) Thick Description - culture is intersubjective (between people) - emergent - behavior makes sense in context - parts of social life are interconnected - rich detail is needed to figure this out Description as Interpretation · Perfect description is not possible (also not useful) · A map on 1:1 scale is not a useful map · Anthropologists make choices about what to describe · Description is part of theory and analysis · Who is part of an event? · When does the action begin and end? Deep Play: Why Fight Cocks? - why is so much cash and energy spent on cockfights? Deep Play: - ‘Play where the stakes are so high that it seems irrational for people to engage in it’ - Jeremy Bentham - Men spend a great deal of time, energy and money on cockfights Why Fight Cocks? - cockfights don’t have an obvious practical use - statistics show that fights are popular, not why they are popular - doesn’t mention women much - explicit answers as to why cockfights are popular aren’t satisfying - no clear answer - participants claim it is an obvious thing to do - Geertz draws on ethnographic fieldwork to answer the question. Ethnographic Fieldwork - aka participant observation - thick description - not just noting why fight happens but pays attention to detail - who what where when why - Study social life where it happens - We must create situations that allow for study - go to the place and observe in normal environment - establishing rapport - do things along with the people we study - rapport doesn’t need to be complete or absolute Azande Belief in Witchcraft - why did I stub my toe? - why did the tower fall? - why did that pot break? - Witchcraft explains misfortune - Witchcraft doesn’t rule out other forms of causation - Witchcraft as the ‘second spear’ - page 79…’witchcraft has its own logic, its own rules of thought…’ Ethnography as First Person · Personal experience provides meaning · All anthropologist do not have the same experience Objectivity? - objective research suspends judgement - assumes that all researchers will observe the same thing (if they are doing it right) Fieldwork as dialogic · Culture is shared · Meanings are created through dialogue · Fieldwork entails a conversation between researchers and subjects · Someone else’s presence can change how people act Fieldwork as Intersubjective · Anthropologist interact with their subjects · Create conditions for study · We are our own lab equipment *Researcher wants to learn about girl gangs. Has them critique her on hair and makeup to learn how a gang dresses. Situated Knowledge - who you are will shape your research results - anthropologists admit their limitations - use them as ‘data’ in their study - there is no ‘voice from nowhere’ - acknowledging this allows more people to become anthropologists Interviewing as Cultural - not everyone is familiar with interviewing - one way questions and answers associated with a narrow range of situations - most are threatening or not fun Methods for the study of public life counting mapping tracing tracking looking for traces photographing keeping a diary test walks linguistic competence and communicative competence Language in Social Life - linguistic competence - knowing how to say words and put them together grammatically - communicative competence - knowing how to interact in social situations Morphology: minimal units of meaning, the construction of words How do you know what chillax means? What do speakers draw on when creating words? Syntax: Patterns governing the construction of phrases and sentences What phrases can be interpreted as English? Semantics: Meaning in language Mother in Nepali Sign Language Linguistic Relativity - language shapes how we perceive, think, and live in the world - Language and Thought and Culture are all connected Writing in Magar Nepal - technology of development - technology of romance - simply accepting a letter can create a relationship - learned through - novels - letter writing manuals - development literature - talk about (and play with) each others’ letters - writing is connected to desire, self fashion and becoming a particular kind of person - literacy creates the conditions for romantic love - this possibility is not universally part of Play as a Frame - a space that is set apart from everyday activities - in which responsibilities may be suspended - non-play rules, roles and responsibilities may be commented on Art - play with form that attempts transformation presentation - aesthetically successful - experience is transformed as it is represented symbolically in a different medium or setting - Lovasik Estate Sale - everything was sold from a family’s house that died in pittsburgh, moved it to a tent in china and allowed people to buy it and claimed it was art because it displayed working class family life in pittsburgh - forms of art happen all the time Races: Social groupings that allegedly reflect biological differences. language used tied to social evaluating Racism: The systematic oppression of one or more socially defined “races” by another socially defined “race” that is justified in terms of the supposed inherent biological superiority of the rulers and the supposed inherent biological inferiority of those they rule. Cultural Anthropology: The specialty of anthropology that shows how variation in the beliefs and behaviors of members of different human groups is shaped by sets of learned behaviors and ideas that human beings acquire as members of society- that is by culture. Sex: Observable physical characteristics that distinguish two kinds of humans, females and males, needed for biological reproduction. Gender: The cultural construction of beliefs and behaviors considered appropriate for each sex. Fieldwork: An extended period of close involvement with the people whose language or way of life anthropologists are interested, during which anthropologists ordinarily collect most of their data. Informants: People in a particular culture who work with anthropologists and provide them with insights about their way of life. Also called respondents, teachers, or friends. Ethnography: An anthropologist’s written or filmed description of a particular culture. Ethnology: The comparative study of two or more cultures. Language: The system of arbitrary vocal symbols used to encode one’s experience of the world and of others. Culture: Sets of learned behaviors and ideas that humans acquire as members of society. Humans use culture to adapt to and transform the world in which they live. Human agency: The exercise of at least some control over their lives by human beings. Ethnocentrism: The opinion that one’s own way of life is natural or correct and, indeed, the only true way of being fully human. Cultural relativism:Understanding another culture in its own terms sympathetically enough so that the culture appears to be a coherent and meaningful design for living. Fieldwork: An extended period of close involvement with the people whose language or way of life anthropologists are interested, during which anthropologists ordinarily collect most of their data. Participant-observation: The method anthropologists use to gather information by living as closely as possible to the people whose culture they are studying while participating in their lives as much as possible. Positivism: The view that there is a reality “out there” that can be known through the senses and that there is a single, appropriate set of scientific methods for investigating that reality. Objective knowledge: Knowledge about reality that is absolute and true. Intersubjective meanings: The shared, public symbolic systems of a culture. Reflexivity:Critically thinking about the way one thinks; reflecting on one’s own experience. Dialectic of fieldwork:The process of building a bridge of understanding between anthropologist and informants so that each can begin to understand the other. Language: The system of arbitrary vocal symbols we use to encode our experience of the world. Linguistics:The scientific study of language. Linguistic competence: A term coined by linguist Noam Chomsky to refer to the mastery of adult grammar. Communicative competence: A term coined by anthropological linguist Deli Hymes to refer to the mastery of adult rules for socially and culturally appropriate speech. Linguistic relativity principlposition, associated with Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf, that asserts that language has the power to shape the way people see the world. Phonology: The study of the sounds of language. p, b, how sounds of letters sound Morphology: In linguistics, the study of the minimal units of meaning in language. e.g. prefix, suffix, plural, conjugation Syntax: The study of sentence structure. putting words together in a sentence Semantics: The study of meaning. slang, definitions of words Pragmatics: The study of language in the context of its use. using language correctly in social situations linguistics and communication pausing when someone else is speaking it an example saying ‘mhm’ while you listen to someone to express comprehension - in TSCYAYFD the person that had the linguistic competence was the translator but the translator didn’t have communicative competence, due to the Hmong family’s confusion Pidgin: A language with no native speakers that develops in a single generation between members of communities that possess distinct native languages. Language ideology: A marker of struggles between social groups with different interests, revealed in what people say and how they say it. Language revitalization: Attempts by linguists and activists to preserve or revive languages with few native speakers that appear to be on the verge of extinction. ➢ Frame/Framing: A guide to the perception and interpretation of a given social situation ○ Contained or implied within the situation in question ○ A way to understand situations in which ordinary rules and expectations are suspended ○ metacommunicative message that tells participants what’s going on ○ openings and closings in conversations ■ e.g. hello and goodbye, hugging hello or goodbye ■ *May also help to establish what counts as ordinary ➢ Play: play is a frame or orientation ○ consciously adopted by players ○ systematically related to the non-play work ways that comment on and transform it ○ (somehow pleasurable) ■ e.g. when dogs play, when is biting playful and when is biting hurtful and malicious? ○ Trobriand players ‘play’ and separate event from everyday life ➢ Metacommunication: frames events and enables meanings ○ ‘communication about communication’ ○ guides the interpretation about social events ○ implicit or explicit ○ linguistic or non-linguistic ■ What’s going on here? ■ Who is involved? ■ What can happen? (who is in control) ■ What is at stake? ● e.g. in politics someone speaks for congress even though not all are present ● e.g. think about architecture: seating in a classroom forces everyone to face the teacher; constructive listening ● e.g. the way in which a particular device is used tells about the seriousness and importance of a message ○ via phone, messages, emails ○ generational differences (parents like to email. we like to text) ➢ Language Ideologies: conceptions of language that guide its use connect it to social groups and interests ○ A marker of struggles between social groups with different interests, revealed in what people say and how they say it ○ can judge a group of people by the way they speak or use language ■ steel worker is blue collar maybe underprivileged ○ metalanguage: frames events, guides language use in action ○ metacommunication: frames events, enables meaning ○ Semiotic Ideologies: characterize processes, perception, and interpretation ○ Media Ideologies: discourses between media and the ways they may be interpreted are culturally defined ➢ Laura Ahearn’s Position During Fieldwork: ○ demonstrated REFLEXIVITY by demonstrating how her position in the field impacted what kind of information she acquired ○ demonstrated P ARTICIPATION IN KINSHIP NETWORK ○ worked as a DEVELOPMENTAL AGENT ➢ Magar Love Letters and Development Texts: ➢ Link Between Magar Literacy and Love: ○ in being literate, the person in the relationship is able to write love letters and express their feelings ■ more inclined to elope with love letters (hiding their relationship) ➢ Effects of Literacy in Magar Nepal: ○ literacy supports the possibility of writing love letters ○ literacy is more common in the younger population ➢ Gender in Magar Nepal: ○ women tend to drop out of school early to have a family and work in the home ○ men stay in school and support the family financially ➢ Distributed Cognition ○ cooking but you can’t say how to do it unless you have the ingredients in front of you ■ particular place, time and activity shape our behavior and memories ➢ Transformation-Representation: ○ the process in which experience is transformed as it is represented symbolically in a different medium ➢ Art: ○ play with some form producing some aesthetically successful transformation-representation ➢ Sports: ○ a physically exertive activity that is aggressively competitive within constraints imposed by definitions and rules ➢ Myths: structured stories about the world that are interpreted (implicitly or explicitly) as a guide for life and action ○ Their truth may seem self-evident (or unimportant) ➢ Reflexivity: Anthropologists admit their position and imitations ➢ Cassette Tape Sermon Listening in Cairo: Listening isn’t just about learning content but feeling ○ People learn to listen in particular ways ○ Speakers coach their listeners in correct listening ○ Serve as a reminder for people to monitor their behavior for vice and virtue ○ Correct listening blocks out distractions ○ Listening is a kind of performance or action ➢ Formation of a Sensorium: ○ People discuss and debate correct listening ○ Good speakers inspire feeling, but not as a persuasive technique ○ Feeling is part of the message ○ Good listeners feel as they listen, but they do not listen solely to feel good ○ Hearing and feeling are cultivated and interpreted as part of culture ○ Listening and feeling are part of culture ○ Religious traditions are more than doctrines and discourses; they may also involve perceptual skills and pre-discursive modes of appraisal ○ Cassettes participate in “visceral substrate enabling of the particular form of life that those who undertook the practice aspired to.” ➢ Listening as a Cultural Practice: ○ hearing and feeling are cultivated and interpreted as part of culture ➢ Authenticity/Fakes: ○ Authenticity: determine what is real, authentic, powerful and legitimate is local ○ Fake: ➢ Ritual: repetitive and organized ○ markedly different from everyday activity ○ occurs according to a culturally defined ritual schema ○ you can know a ritual without having seen one before ○ often connected to myth ➢ Orthodoxy: ○ Emphasis on correct doctrine- sticking to explicit rules and texts ➢ Orthopraxy: ○ Emphasis on regimenting correct behavior, often in religious or ritual contexts ■ good posture ➢ Doxa: ○ Rules that remain unconscious and unstated. Could be habitus. Often the strongest rules of all. ■ habitus for ideas IDEAS/BELIEFS PRACTICE EXPLICIT (conscious) ORTHODOXY ORTHOPRAXY IMPLICIT (unconscious) DOXA HABITUS ➢ Rite of Passage: ○ consists of separation, transition, reaggregation ○ meant to initiate or accept someone into a culture or group ■ e.g. graduation, baptism, marriage, shaman ➢ Separation, Transition, Reaggregation: ○ Separation: removes the participant from everyday life (changes clothing: e.g. wedding) ○ Transition: as the ritual is happening participants are between stages, ■ often seen as vulnerable ■ humiliated ■ not ordinary ○ Reaggregation: subject is reintroduced into society in his or her new position ■ wearing graduation gown and now you’re an adult not in college anymore ➢ Liminality:ambiguous transitional stage or space created by a rite of passage ○ e.g. crying when she didn’t become a shaman ○ e.g. wearing different clothes; graduation gown ➢ Communitas: ○ unstructured community in which people are equal, or to the very spirit of community ○ strong sense of unity, togetherness ➢ College as a Liminal Space/Rite of Passage: ○ liminal with living uncomfortably in a new environment, far away from home ○ once you are done you are in the real world; a real adult ➢ Worldview: ○ Encompassing pictures of reality created by members of societies ➢ Key Metaphors: ○ forms of thought and language that assert meaningful links between domains of meaning ■ e.g. time is money ○ key metaphors serve as foundations for a worldview ○ metaphors that serve as the foundation of a worldview ➢ Symbol: ○ something that stands for something else ○ presence of an important domain of experience ■ O indicates ‘girl’ but a circle doesn’t actually look like a girl ➢ The Five Sexes: ○ our culture appreciates only two genders ■ anyone that exists with intersex or ambiguous genitalia, usually undergo some physical change that will deem them more of a viable member of a sex ○ both the Talmud and the Tosefta, the jewish books of law, list extensive regulations for people of mixed sex ○ physiologically people might be classified as belonging to 5 sexes, rather than 2 ➢ American Tongues: ➢ Trobriand Cricket: ○ played with dances and chants, unlike in Britain ○ many dances represent nature, jokes and imitations ○ imitates a white tourist with fake binoculars ○ example of art, sport, ritual and play ○ case study in discussions of authenticity ➢ Initiation Kut for a Korean Shaman: ○ focuses on the rite of passage; ■ shaman at the end reaggregates but isn’t formally perceived as a shaman ■ deals with a liminal state where she cries and expresses a lot of vulnerability ■ wear weird outfits and this is kindof deemed as separation ➢ Made in India: ○ surrogate mother in India participated in surrogacy due to her poverty she lived in; wanting to make more money ➢ Religion: ○ ideas and practices that postulate reality beyond which is immediately available to the senses ➢ Syncretism: ○ synthesis of old religious practices with new practices introduced from outside, often by force ○ if you are given question about religion only, it will be syncretism ➢ Secularism: ○ separation of religion and state ➢ Revitalization: ○ conscious, deliberate, and organized attempt by some members of a society to create a more satisfying culture in a time of crisis ➢ Relatedness: ○ socially recognized ties that connect people in a variety of ways ➢ Imagined Communities: ○ refers to groups whose members knowledge of one another does NOT come from face-to-face interactions, but based on shared experiences with national institutions ➢ Kinship: ○ ties involved in mating, birth, and nurturance ➢ Descent- Bilateral and Unilineal ○ bilateral: defined through mom AND dad equally ○ unilateral: defined through mom OR dad only ➢ Ascribed Status ○ social positions are assigned at birth ■ e.g. last name ➢ Achieved Status ○ social position may be attained later in life, often as the result of their own effort ■ adopted or marriage ➢ Lineage ○ Patrilineal-of or based on kinship with the father or the male line ■ homunculus: semen contains small humans that eat menstrual blood for food; believes inpatrilineallineage ■ US and Turkey believe in patrilineallineage; father’s last name, father supports family; father is the seed that plants in mom’s soil ○ Matrilineal -of or based on kinship with the mother or the female line ■ Trobriand Islands believe inatrilineality ■ believe that most stuff comes from the mother and the mother’s side of family ■ child is of the same legal, baloma, yet it may take its material substance from its father ➢ Matrilocal ○ referring to the societal system in which a married couple resides with or near the wife's parents ➢ Patrilocal ○ couple settles in the husband's home or community ➢ Neolocal ○ type of post-marital residence when a newly married couple resides separately from both the husband's natal household and the wife's natal household ➢ Clan ○ a group of people who claim unilineal descent from the same ancestor but who cannot specify all of the actual links. The ancestor is genealogically so remote that he or she is often thought of as a mythical being, animal, or plant. Clans usually consist of a number of related lineages ➢ Bridewealth ○ transfer of goods from groom’s family to bride’s family ➢ Dowry ○ transfer of goods and wealth from bride’s family to groom’s or from natal family to the bride ➢ Parallel Cousins/Cross Cousins ○ Parallel:hildren of a parent’s persons’ same-gender siblings ○ Cross: hildren of a person’s parents’ opposite-gender siblings ➢ Affinity/Affinal Relations ○ connection through marriage ➢ Consanguinity/Consanguineous Relations ○ based on descent ➢ Kinship in Photographs ➢ Five Sexes ○ Sex: classifies bodies base on observable characteristics ○ Gender: classifies persons based on behavior ○ an estimated 4% of children born in the US are intersexed ○ both the Talmud and the Tosefta, the jewish books of law, list extensive regulations for people of mixed sex ○ physiologically people might be classified as belonging to 5 sexes, rather than 2 ➢ Performing/Creating Kinship ○ Families ■ ties involved in mating, birth and nurturance ■ forms of relatedness and alliance ■ rules about who you can have sex with ● ‘dormcest’ implies inappropriateness of relations ➢ Jocks and Burnouts ○ stylistically opposed social groups ■ distinguished by: ● dress ● pronunciation and speech ● where they eat ● participation in school ● what they do after school ● social class ● attitudes towards smoking ➢ Sex ○ Observable physical characteristics that distinguish two kinds of humans, females and males, needed for biological reproduction. ○ informed by culture ○ PHYSICAL ➢ Gender ○ The cultural construction of beliefs and behaviors considered appropriate for each sex ○ cultural categories ○ BEHAVIOR ➢ Relationship between Biology and Culture ○ 5 sexes vs. 2 ○ procreation is a cultural construction ➢ Virgin Birth Debate ■ Early Explanations ● some anthropologists insist that people know that sex is involved in getting pregnant ● don't want to think about parents having sex ○ Edmund Leach ■ explanations that people give in some situations may not be the full explained events ■ maybe they don’t know what sex is ○ Trobriand Details ■ sex may help to ‘open’ the womb ■ men don’t create babies, but they look like them from sexual activity and contribute to characteristics ● Jesus is legally the son of Mary and Joseph, yet his substance is from God ➢ Trobriand Explanations for Conception ○ people in the Tully River region of Australia in the Trobriand Islands have explanations for pregnancy other than sex ■ animals, dreams, words, ghosts ■ BALOMA ■ matrilineality ■ sperm is actually a spirit from the dead; not from male ➢ Baloma ○ spirit of the dead in the Trobriand Island society ○ believes in the matrilineal descent from substituting the male sperm with the spirit of the dead ○ male only chisels out some features of what the child will be like ➢ European Explanations for Conception ○ The U.S. and Turkey believe that the male’s semen iseed and the woman’s womb is the oil ➢ Endogamy ○ endogamous (within group) ■ e.g. in India people get married in same caste ■ same religion or race or family ➢ Exogamy ○ exogamous (outside of group) ■ langue group in the vaupes region of columbia ■ different social groups and kinship groups ● catholic vs. judaism ➢ Polygamy ○ more than one spouse at a time ➢ Polygyny ○ man may be married to more than one wife at a time ➢ Polyandry ○ woman may be married to more than one husband at a time ➢ Monogamy ○ only one spouse at a time ➢ Why people sell crack in El Barrio ○ provides income ○ allows men to stay where and how they are ○ allows them to preserve respect ○ the way they talk, dress etc. match with the environment that is similar to factory work, not office work ○ damages communities though ➢ Masculinity and occupation in El Barrio ○ strong, tough walking ○ seen as sexually threatening ○ careless grooming ○ behaving badly in an office ➢ Connections between gender and class ○ ideological difference ○ gender, class, caste, race ethnicity and other categories are cultural practices rather than pre-existing realities ➢ Domination ○ like overt and covert racism, domination is a situation that expresses overt control ○ when someone tries to beat someone up ○ when people are forced to do something through gun force ○ coercive and unstable ➢ Ritual Transformation of Objects ○ Commodity: n the shop ○ Gift: when given ○ Sign of Kinship: when worn and kept ➢ Hegemony ○ situation in which dominated people accept the ideology of the dominant group ○ you will never fight the dominant group; brainwashing ➢ Coercion ○ physical force ➢ Governmentality ○ system to which powerful operators try to control us… ■ e.g. social security number ○ art of governing appropriate to promoting the welfare of populations within a state ➢ Anomie ○ pervasive sense of rootlessness and normlessness in a society ➢ Gifts and obligation ○ ties of indebtedness may be temporary or enduring and create inequality ➢ Reciprocity ○ idea that when something is given, the receiver must give back ➢ Generalized and balanced reciprocity ○ balanced: very rare; receiver gives back same amount ○ generalized: exchanges between individual people are not balanced; plays a significant role in socio/economic life ■ over time it balances out ➢ Gifts vs. commodities ○ gifts:contains spirit of the giver; inalienable ○ commodities: spiritless; alienable ➢ Strategic Essentialism ○ for a particular purpose, if one group imposed a stereotype to another group ■ e.g. tuna local/international businessmen ○ particular group gives a characteristic to another group ■ to be japanese, you must eat our tuna ➢ Alienation ○ feeling that a worker is separated from a product that they create ○ deep and problematic separation between economic activity and other parts of life ➢ English in Relation to Spanish and French ○ is it more acceptable to mess up spanish than mess up english or french ➢ Alienable or inalienable possessions ○ INALIENABLE ■ heirlooms ■ family members ➢ Christmas giving as ritual ○ marks the opposition between ‘family’ and ‘the economy’ ○ in the US, gift giving is ritual transformation of commodities into gifts ○ gift wrapping is a transformation (commodity → gift) ■ puts spirit of the giver into gift ➢ Carrier’s explanation for gift-wrapping ○ gift wrapping is a form of transformation ➢ Money and moonshine in Russia ○ people use moonshine instead of local currency as a form of payment ○ they also use moonshine as a gift or payment ○ it would be paying some friend for a favor ○ object may hold more value than local currency ○ the difference between gift giving and money exchange is very complex ○ russians hold wealth in moonshine but rubles are inalienable and don’t keep well ➢ Liquidity ○ moonshine has more liquidity than rubles because it is easier to exchange ○ money is liquid and easy to spend; all money is equal; alienating ➢ Global tuna trade ○ prices are shaped by the japanese markets ➢ Tuna at Home ○ a new transmission ○ my blue toyota ➢ Tuna Elsewhere ○ red and white ○ samurai fish ○ japanese flag colors ○ tuna embodies kata ➢ Nation ○ group of people believed to share the same history, culture, language, and some physical substance ➢ Taste for Tuna ○ is a national, occupational and class affiliation ➢ Commodity chains ○ integrated social systems that connect production and consumption ■ commodity connects different people from around the world ➢ Care chain ○ describes a commodity chain of migrant domestic work that connects county and city ■ philippines and italy ➢ Covert and Overt Racism ○ covert is unintentional racism ■ assumption in their mind that is indirectly racist ● subconsciously thinking someone is dumb when they are mexican ○ overt is blatantly and intentionally being racist ■ trying to directly express racist behavior ● e.g. you are brown you don’t belong here ➢ Naturalizing Discourses ○ deliberate representation of particular identities as if they were a result of biology or nature, rather than history or culture, making them appear eternal and unchanging ○ sex in general; we learned growing up that sex is a differentiation between gender ○ sex can now also be valued in regard to our culture or social system ■ sex is not necessarily just 2 explicit genders; no longer biologically defined ➢ Nation State ○ ideal political unit in which national identity and political territory coincide ➢ Globalization ○ it involves cultural domination ■ one culture can impose domination over another ○ can reshape local people's way of life ○ reshaping of local conditions by powerful forces on an expanding intensifying scale ○ it cannot destroy all local cultures ■ we don’t have one culture in the entire world ○ never be able to destroy other cultures ■ never leads to cultural homogenization ➢ Cultural imperialism ○ some cultures come to dominate others ○ local people and their ways of living and thinking are subordinated by the culture of those in power ➢ Cultural hybridity ○ how people are connected ○ if a question talks about religion but culture and people as well it it most likely cultural hybridity ➢ Legal citizenship ○ rights and obligations accorded to people by law ➢ Substantive citizenship ○ actions people take to claim membership in and bring about change in a state ➢ Diaspora ○ migrant populations with a shared cultural identity who live in a variety of different locales around the world but share a common origin ■ e.g. indian people in pittsburgh can be a diasporic group ● share a common location of origin with indians in english ➢ Capital ○ stuff that’s needed to make stuff (and money) ➢ Cultural capital ○ knowledge, skills and tastes viewed as valuable by particular groups ➢ Water use as social evaluation ○ where we drink water or individual bottles reflects government's status ○ changing consumption practice ○ reflect our hygiene ○ political ideologies ○ if people trust the government, they will drink from public place ■ if they don’t they might drink from a water bottle ➢ Invented Tradition ○ relatively new practices are often assigned traditional meanings and used to create difference FILMS - “Salamanders: A Night at the Phi Delta House” - probably no questions from this - shown because when unfamiliar situations happen we are in shock -“American Tongues” -“Trobriand Cricket” -“Initiation Kut for a Korean Shaman” -“Made in India” -“Supermen of Malegaon” -“Chain of Love” -The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down -Invitations to Love ➢ White Public Space ○ a place where there is a majority of whites in public; white is the right way to function as a human being etc. ➢ Indexicality: an association between a word, sign or symbol and meaning ○ e.g. gumband from pittsburgh ○ e.g. offering wine in French ○ index of race, class, or another affiliation ➢ Register: a way of speaking associated with a group of people, a kind of activity and a way of being ○ e.g. classroom discussion ○ e.g. honorific or ritual ○ e.g. joking ➢ Mock Spanish ○ not intentionally racist ○ contains many errors ○ creates an index between laziness, informality, disgust and spanish speakers ➢ Kinship in Photographs ○ we use photographs as transformation representation because of the way we see family, creating a bond ➢ Race and Health article ○ found out that in people’s assumption, people often think that certain racial groups have certain diseases ■ is that true or not? ● it is not; it is related about their culture… the food they eat ➢ Culture as Invisible ○ much of culture works because we think of it as natural, unquestionable, historically rooted
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