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Unit 4 Study Guide

by: Alyssa Schutzenhofer

Unit 4 Study Guide PSY 101

Alyssa Schutzenhofer
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

This study guide covers lectures covered in the fourth unit, that is Lecture 1 Cognitive Factors in Prejudice through Lecture 6: Depression and Anxiety: Diagnosis Risk and Treatment.
Introductory Psychology
Dr. Gross
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Schutzenhofer on Tuesday December 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 101 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Gross in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Grand Valley State University.


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Date Created: 12/15/15
Lecture 1 Cognitive Factors in Prejudice  Heuristics: Mental shortcuts (rules of thumb) used in judgments, decision, reasoning, and problem solving. Fast and frugal strategies that can lead to errors in judgment and decision making.  Illusory Correlation: make a false first impression, people overestimate how often two co-occurring, distinctive events occur together.  First Impressions Lab: o Predictions – because minority members and undesirable behaviors less frequent, participants should form illusory correlations and judge the minority less favorably. o DV: impressions of groups, estimate of percent of negative statements made about alpha deltas and beta omicrons o Outcome: Minority group judged less favorably than the majority group. Made stronger correlation with smaller group and we over exaggerated.  Associations are contagious  Yawning is instinctive  Stroop Effect: o Cognitive processes happen in spite of yourself o Association: one event triggers a response  Implicit Association Effect – measured by difference in Reaction Time o Show own race bias o Social Desirability Bias – Respond so you fit in, testing using speed makes this less likely  Weapons Bias – White participants more likely to misidentify tools as guns when primed with black faces and time-pressure magnified the bias by limiting peoples ability to control responses. Lecture 2 Attachment in Adults  Two important approaches to personality o Cognitive approach: how do cognitive structures (self- schemas) influence information processing that is relevant to personality? (Charlie brown’s self-schema) o Trait Approach: What are the most important personality traits? (Agreeableness, Extraversion)  Attachment Styles o Securely Attached: separation anxiety  Tend to have positive views of themselves and others (their partners). Recognize personal weaknesses. Have positive views of their relationships. o Insecurely Attached – Anxious: clingy, unable to cope with parent’s absence, not easily soothed at reunion  Have less positive views of themselves and their partners. Seek intimacy, approval, and responsiveness from partners. Doubt their worth as a partner; blame themselves for partners lack of responsiveness. o Insecurely Attached – Avoidant: little or no distress on departure, and same with reunion.  Have positive thoughts about self and less positive thoughts about others, high independence, self- sufficient, invulnerable  Schemas hypothesized to: o Guide attention o Guide interpretation o Guide Memory o Provides speed and ease of information processing o Stroop Task taps into associations in the mind including those about the world  Attachment Theory: people with different attachment styles have different mental models of the self. o Secure Attached: positive and negative information about themselves o Anxious Attached: negative information about self not positive o Avoidant Attached: positive information about self not negative  Custom Stroop Test: four tests created for each person given in second session in randomized order (DV: time to complete each card) o Positive Self Referent: five positives that a given participant rated as describing themselves. o Positive Control: Five Positive words that a given participant rated as not self-descriptive o Negative Self-Referent: 5 negative words that a given participant rated as describing themselves o Negative Control: 5 negative word that a given participant rated as not self-descriptive o Secure took longer to name both positive and negative words compared to control words, have equal access to both positive and negative info about self o Avoidants took longer to name self-relevant positive words, greater access to positive information about self than negative information o Anxious took longer to name self-relevant negative words, greater access to negative information about self than positive information Lecture 3 Stress and Health  3 different Concepts of Stress o Stress as a Negative Emotion (tension and worry) o Stress as a Cognitive Appraisal (“my life is out of control”) o Stress as a Negative Life Event (death in the family, loss of job)  People who report more stressful life events also report higher rates of illness, do stressful life events increase exposure to illnesses?  Viral-challenge design: volunteers who complete measures of stress then exposed to cold or flu virus. Symptoms observed. Compared infection and clinical colds of those who scored high and low on measures of life events, stress and negative emotion.  Results: Those that reported higher levels of stress, the virus is growing at a higher rate than those with low stress. Those with higher levels of stress more likely to develop clinically cold. At higher risk the longer the stress is present. Lecture 4 Schizophrenia Diagnosis, Genetic Risk, Treatment  What is a mental disorder? o Clinically Significant distress, impairment in role functioning or increases risk for pain, disability, death or an important loss of freedom o Does not involve conflicts between the individual and society regarding sex, religion, and politics o Rael who thinks that the world was created by aliens is not technically crazy o Narcissistic Personality Disorder – sense of self love o Histrionic Personality Disorder – Characteristic of drawing attention to themselves  Schizophrenia – psychotic disorder in which one loses contact with reality, experiences grossly irrational ideas, or distorted perceptions o Positive Symptoms (adding something to your personality):  Delusions  Hallucinations  Disorganized Thinking  Disorganized Speech  Inappropriate Emotions or Actions o Negative Symptoms (taking something away from your personality)  Slowing down of body movements  Blunted affect  Poverty of speech  Loss of basic drives (hunger, pleasure) o Diagnosis Criteria  Social and occupational functioning seriously impaired  Continuous signs of disturbance for 6 months  Mood disorders and substance use disorders. o Subtypes of Schizophrenia  Paranoid: preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations, suffer from thinking something is talking to you (ideas of reference) or that people are always plotting against you (delusions of persecution).  Catatonic: immobility, purposeless movement, repeat other’s speech and movement  Disorganized: cant understand their speech, inappropriate behavior or disorganized behavior, flat inappropriate emotion  Undifferentiated: a mix of symptoms from all subtypes above. o Twin Studies to find out if Schizophrenia is genetic  Concordance Rate: The probability that if one twin has the trait, the co-twin also has the trait. The probability of the presence of a trait, not the absence of a trait.  Correlation between identical twins and schizophrenia, little correlation between fraternal twins and schizophrenia  Environmental Factors – even though identical twins had the genes for schizophrenia only about 50% developed it  Shared prenatal environmental factors o Treatment for Schizophrenia  Token Economies (Behavior Therapy)  Behavior Therapy: change the environment to get rid of bad and reflexive behaviors and establish new and healthier habits.  Positive reinforcement used to promote positive behavior  Only worked if can exchange for something valuable  Milieu Therapy  Therapeutic communities, increase social interaction, group pressure to function normally, self-governance  Traditional Hospital Care (medication)  Significantly more patients treated with token economy achieve significant release time, very few achieve independence without relapse, six-year study shows superiority to token economies & milieu therapy over traditional hospital care  Tardive Dyskinesia: side effect of old, anti- psychotic drugs, neurological damage is usually permanent, random movement of tongue lips or jaw, uncontrollable movement of arms, legs and fingers and toes Lecture 5 Brain Lateralization with Word Recognition and Mirror Drawing Labs  Broca’s Aphasia: brain damage to part of Left Frontal Cortex called Broca’s Area, show frustration in speech and writing, difficult for them to talk, it is all verbs and subjects so they can get the point across just disjointed and poor sentence construction. They can comprehend fine.  Wernicke’s Aphasia: brain damage to the posterior part of the temporal lobe in the left hemisphere, Wernicke’s Area, their speech is all filler words so it is hard to understand their meaning, their stress level is normal affects their ability to understand language  Epilepsy: Nervous system disorder, convulsive activity of large numbers of nerve cells, very severe cases solution is to cut the corpus callosum = two separate brain hemispheres o Split brain patients: Face perception in Right Hemisphere (if image in left field) and Language in Left Hemisphere (if image in right field) o Spoken language derived in the LEFT HEMISPHERE for most  Generating Verbs – Frontal Lobe  Speaking Words – Broca’s Area  Hearing Words – Temporal Lobe  Seeing Words – Occipital Lobe  Mirror Drawing Lab o DV = Time o IV = Gender and Left or Right handed o Results = left hand should have advantage because right side brain plays role in visuospatial abilities o Males outperform females because visuospatial abilities are influenced by testosterone o Prosopagnosia – sufferer is incapable of recognizing faces despite ability to recognize other objects, either born with it or due to damage to brain center in the right hemisphere that is dedicated to face recognition Lecture 6 Depression and Anxiety: Diagnosis, Risk and Treatment  Antisocial Personality Disorder: sociopath  Mania Bipolar depression: not sleeping, depression to cheerful, impulsive, unrealistic, delusional  Symptoms of depression: o Depressed mood o Loss of interest or pleasure o Weight loss or gain o Insomnia or hypersomnia o Fatigue or loss of energy o Feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate or excessive guilt o Diminished ability to think or concentrate, indecisiveness o Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide  Role of negative life events as risk factors for depression = relative risk associated with stressful events, risk especially strong for death of a close relative, assault, serious marital problems and divorce or breakup.  Cognitive Behavior Therapy effective in treating depression, equally effective as medication, it reduces recurrence when medication is discontinued  Exercise Treatment of Depression  Anxiety Disorder o Treatment: antidepressant medication, o PTSD: symptoms (re-experiences, sleeplessness, depression, anxiety & high arousal, irritability, guilt, emotional numbing, and avoidance)  Use the dichotic listening lab to screen for phobias because those with high anxiety towards something are more likely to pick up on words that are associated with that fear  Cocktail Party Effect: the ability to focus one’s attention on a single talker among a mix of people  Significant Right ear (Left Hemisphere) advantage for language processing o Cognitive Behavior Therapy for anxiety  Habituation to the fear through exposure to it  Cognitive Reappraisal of the fearful experiences by challenging dysfunctional automatic thought & stimulating reinterpretation of misattributions


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