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PSY 110: Winters/ exam 2 study guide answers

by: Alicia Caprio

PSY 110: Winters/ exam 2 study guide answers PSY110 Ray Winters Intro to Psychology

Marketplace > University of Miami > Psychlogy > PSY110 Ray Winters Intro to Psychology > PSY 110 Winters exam 2 study guide answers
Alicia Caprio
Introduction to Psychology
Ray Winters

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These are the answers from the book to the study guide for exam 2 for the book portion of the exam.
Introduction to Psychology
Ray Winters
Study Guide
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alicia Caprio on Saturday January 31, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY110 Ray Winters Intro to Psychology at University of Miami taught by Ray Winters in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 206 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 01/31/15
Exam 2 Text Study Questions 1 De ne the following temperament character personality introvert extrovert central traits source traits cardinal traits factor analysis archetypes social reinforcement trait situation interactions he hereditary aspects of personality including sensitivity activity levels prevailing mood irritability and adaptability Personal characteristics that have been judged or evaluated a person39s desirable or undesirable qualities A person39s unique and relatively stable patterns of thinking emotions and behavior A person whose attention is focused inward a shy reserved self centered person A person whose attention is directed outward a bold outgoing person The core traits that characterize an individual personality The visible or observable traits of one s personality A personality trait so basic that all of a person s activities relate to it A statistical technique used to correlate multiple measurements and identity general underlying factors A universal idea image or pattern found in the collective unconscious Praise attention approval andor affection from others The in uence that external setting or circumstances have on the expression of personality traits 2 What leads to high selfesteem in Japanese and other Asian cultures What is selfesteem based on in individualistic cultures What leads to high self esteem in Japanese and Asian cultures is self esteem is based on a secure sense of belonging to social groups People of this culture are more apt to engage in selfcriticism By correcting personal faults they add to the wellbeing of the group When the group succeeds individuals feel better about themselves which raises their selfesteem 3 Is an individual39s taste in music related to her personality An individual39s taste in music is related to her personality because Peter Rentfrow and Samuel Gosling found that the types of music people prefer tend to be associated with their personality characteristics 4 Describe the 5 factors in the quotbig vequot factor model of personality Factor 1 Extroversion how introverted or extroverted someone is Factor 2 Agreeableness friendly nurturant vs cold indifferent Factor 3 Conscientiousness responsible achieving vs careless undependable Factor 4 Neuroticism negative upsetting emotions calm vs worried Factor 5 Openness to Experience intelligent amp open to new ideas uncreative vs original 5 What are the functions of the id ego and superego in psychoanalytic theory Your answer should include the terms pleasure principle libido and reality principle ID made up of innate biological instincts and urges It operates on the pleasure principle It is selfserving irrational impulsive and totally unconscious Acts as a power source for the entire psyche personality This energy called libido ows from the life instincts Libido underlies our efforts to survive as well as our sexual desires and pleasure seeking Most id energies are aimed at discharging tensions related to sex and aggression EGO sometimes described as the quotexecutivequot because it directs energies supplied by the id the ego wins power to direct behavior by relating the desires of the id to external reality guided by the reality principle ego is the system of planning problem solving and deciding It is in conscious control of the personality and often delays action until it is appropriate SUPEREGO acts as a judge or censor for the thoughts and actions of the ego One part of the superego called the conscience re ects actions for which a person has been punished 2nOI part of superego is the ego ideal Ego ideal re ects all behaviors one s parents approved of or rewarded t is a source of goals and aspirations when its standards are met we feel pride Superego acts as an quotinternalized parentquot to bring behavior under control 6 According to Adler why do people strive for superiority 9 People strive for superiority because it is a struggle to overcome imperfections and upward drive for competence completion and mastery of shortcomings What motivates people to strive for it is he believed that everyone experiences feelings of inferiority Although everyone strives for superiority each person tries to compensate for different limitations and each chooses a different pathway to superiority This situation creates a unique style oflife for every individual Social learning theory emphasizes the psychological situation expectancy and reinforcement value in the understanding of behavior What do each of these terms mean Psychological situation how the person interprets or de nes the situation Expectancy anticipation about the effect a response will have esp regarding reinforcement Reinforcement Value the subjective value a person attaches to a particular activity or reinforcer What are the characteristics of someone who is self actualized 1 Ef cient perceptions of reality self actualizers who judge situations correctly and honestly Comfortable acceptance of self others and nature Spontaneity Task centering Autonomy resourceful and independent Continued freshness of appreciation Fellowship with humanity Profound Interpersonal Relationships Comfort with solitude O Nonhostile sense of humor 1 Peak experience HHoooummth De ne incongruence and congruence in terms of the ideal self true self and selfimage lncongruence state that exists when there is a discrepancy between one39s experiences and selfimage or between one s selfimage and ideal self I lncongruence occurs when there is a mismatch between any of these three entities the ideal self your self image and the true self Congruence when ideal image self image and true self are combined self image is consistent with what you really think 10 Describe the differences between someone who experiences conditions of worth and someone who receives unconditional positive regard Someone who has conditions of worth internal standards used to judge the value of one39s thoughts actions feelings or experiences parents may label some feelings as bad or wrong Someone who receives unconditional positive regard unshakable love and approval given without quali cation 11 Give an example of a quotcritical situation from Miller and Dollard An example of a critical situation from miller and dollard is 1 Feeding a basic active or passive orientation toward the world may be created by early feeding experiences It can affect social relationships because the child learns to associate people with pleasure or with frustration and discomfort 2toiet or cleanliness 3sex training 4 learning to express anger and aggression 12 Describe the differences and similarities between the quotJim twinsquot and the identical twins Carolyn and Pamela from Critical thinking The Amazing Twins The Jim Twins had married and divorced women named Linda drove the same car named both their sons James Alan vacationed at the same beach each summer listed carpentry and mechanical drawing among their hobbies and undergone police training Carolyn and Pamela were raised together Pamela tried to commit suicide when they both attended Brown and was later diagnosed with schizophrenia Carolyn became a Harvard Psychiatrist Pamela went on to write award winning poetry 13 Is personality affected by the environment Personality is affected by the environment because it is the in uence that external settings or circumstances have on the expression of personality traits 14 Describe what a projective test is and give two examples of this type of test Projective test psychological tests making use of ambiguous or unstructured stimuli Two examples are lnkblot Test Herman Rorschach 1920 s one of the oldest and most widely used Asked people to describe what they see in a blot It is important for identifying personal con icts and fantasies They detect emotional disturbances by observing how a person perceives the world Thematic Apperception Test Henry Murray 18931988 consists of 20 sketches depicting carious scenes and life situations A person will be asked to look at the sketch and make up a story bout the people in it Interpretations focus on how people feel interact and what events led up to the incidents on the sketch and how the story will end It is especially good at revealing feelings about personal social relationships 15 What are the characteristics of shy people The characteristics of shy people are to avoid others feelings of anxiety preoccupation and social inhibition They fall to make eye contact retreat when spoken to speak too quietly display little interest or animation They lack social skills Have social anxiety Evaluation fears and selfdefeating bias blame themselves 16 What is the difference between private self consciousness and public selfconsciousness Which type of selfconsciousness is associated with shyness Private selfconsciousness preoccupation with inner feelings thoughts and fantasies Public selfconsciousness Intense awareness of oneself as a social object The type that is associated with shyness is Public SelfConsciousness because they are intensely concerned with what others think of them 1 De ne the following terms genetic sex hormonal sex gonadal sex genital sex intersexual person gender identity gender role socialization and gender role stereotypes Sex as indicated by the presence of XX female and XY male chromosomes Sex as indicated by the preponderance of estrogens female ot androgens male in the body Sex as indicated by the presence of ovariesfemale or testes male Sex as indicated by the presence of male or female gentab A person who has genitals suggestive of both sexes One s personal private sense of maleness or femaleness The process of learning gender behaviors considered appropriate for one s sex in a given culture Oversimpli ed and widely held beliefs about the basic characteristics of men and women 2 What would develop a female or male in terms of reproductive organs from an embryo that has the XX chromosome pattern genetic sex but was never exposed to testosterone Female 3 According to the textbook nature39s primary impulse is to make a female Explain this assertion in terms of the role of testosterone in the development of reproductive organs in the embryo If a Y chromosome is present tests develop in the embryo and supply testosterone This stimulates the growth of the penis and other male structures In the absence of testosterone the embryo will develop female reproductive organs and genitals regardless of genetic sex It might be said then that nature s primary impulse is to make a female Without testosterone we would all be females 4 What are the effects of being born with an extra X chromosome called Klinefelter s syndrome or only one X chromosome and no Ychromosome Turner s syndrome lBeing born with an extra X chromosome Kinefelter39s syndrome a boy is born with XXY an extra X chromosome When he matures he may appear feminine have undersixed sexual organs and be infertile lln Turner s syndrome a girl is born with only one X chromosome and no Y chromosome As an adolescent she may appear boyish and also be infertile 5 What is sexual reassignment Use the case of Bruce or Brenda as an example Sexual reassignment is a surgery that can recon gure the external appearance of the genitals while hormone treatments can shift the chemical balance in the body and a deliberate effort can be made to transform the person39s sense of sexual identity 6 Is it possible to change a person39s sexual orientation from homosexual to heterosexual It is possible but very unlikely Sexual orientation is pretty stable It is possible to change over time due to many factors but not likely 7 What percentage of people regard themselves as homosexual or bisexual Do hormonal imbalances during adulthood cause homosexuality that is do hormonal levels of gay men and lesbians fall within the normal range a 34 of adults review themselves as bisexual or homosexual Sexual orientation is mainly genetic and hormonal although social cultural and psychological in uences are also involved b No it is not caused by hormonal imbalances they are within normal range 8 Hormonal variations during pregnancy may alter areas in the brain that orchestrate sexual behavior What area of the brain is involved and what differences among heterosexual and homosexual individuals have been observed in this area According to the prenatal hormonal theory of homosexuality some male fetuses are exposed to too little testosterone Similarity some female fetuses are exposed to too much testosterone Differences in neurotransmitter levels have been detected in the hypothalamus in homosexual and heterosexuals persons 8 What is the role of parenting in the development of homosexuality Although learning contributes to ones sexual orientation it appears that nature strongly prepares people to be either homosexual or heterosexual It is unlikely that parenting makes children homosexual Most gay men and lesbians were raised by heterosexual parents 9 Do heterosexual individuals discover their sexual orientation earlier in their development than homosexual individuals Are homosexual individuals more likely to have emotional problems than heterosexual individuals Is it possible to convert someone with a homosexual sexual orientation to someone with a heterosexual orientation Homosexual persons tend to conform their sexual orientation at a fairly late date often not until early adolescence However most homosexuals tend to sense that they are different during childhood Homosexuals39 problems tend to be related to rejection by family and discrimination in hiring and housing They encounter hostility because they are members of minority groups Social rejection tends to produce higher rates of anxiety depression and suicidal thinking And no it is not possible to convert someone with a homosexual orientation with a heterosexual orientation 10 Females exposed to androgens before birth show quottomboyquot behaviors during childhood What is the impact of being a quottomboyquot as a child on female interests and female gender characteristics as an adult a After adolescence the tomboyism of masculinized girls usually gives way to more female interests and gender characteristics In humans prenatal androgens and estrogens subtly in uence developmental of body nervous system and later behaviors Sex hormones may sextype the brain before birth altering the development of feminine or masculine traits 11 Discuss gender differences in math spatial reasoning and language skills in terms of the amount of overlap in the normal curves based on averages that show differences For example is it reasonable to say that most men are better at math than women are Most malefemale performance gaps can be traced to social differences In the power of opportunities given to men and women Unequal power tends to exaggerate differences between men and women and then makes these arti cial differences appear to be real The overlap for female abilities and men abilities is very large 13 Boys are encouraged to engage in instrumental behaviors and girls are encouraged to show expressive behaviors What behaviors do the terms instrumental and expressive refer to Men are expected to be instrumental conquering controlling and unemotional Women in contrast are expected to be expressive emotional passive and dependent 13 Describe the differences in pay between men and women European Americans in the professions as well as differences between men and both African American women and Latinas Unequal pay for comparable work and experience is a major problem for women Women only earn about 77 for every 1 dollar earned by men The rate for color is worse 64 for African American women and 52 for Latinas 14 Describe gender roles in the Tchambuli people of New Guinea Women in Tchambuli are a nearly perfect reversal of North American stereotypes Tchambuli women do the shing and manufacturing and they control the power and economic life of the community Women also take the initiative in courting an sexual relations Tchambuli men are expected to be dependent irtatious and concerned with their appearance Art games and theatrics occupy most of the males39 time They adorn themselves with owers and jewelry 15 Give examples of gender role socialization That is how are gender role differences created Learning gender roles begins immediately Infant girls are held more gently and treated more tenderly with boys Both parents play more roughly with sons than daughters Sports and toys are also strongly sex typed 16 What percentage of people fall into the quottraditional femalequot masculine and androgynous categories on the Bem Sex Role Inventory BSRI 50 fell into the traditional feminine or masculine categories 15 scored higher on traits of the opposite sex 35 were androgynous 17 Compare the performance of people in the three major categories of the Bem Sex Role Inventory BSRI quottraditional femalequot masculine and androgynous with respect to the followingadaptability emotional intelligence exibility in coping with dif cult situations life satisfaction a Adaptability androgynous individuals are more adaptable than traditional females and males b Emotional intelligence androgynous individuals are higher in emotional intelligence c Flexibility in coping with dif cult situations androgynous people are more exible d Life satisfaction androgynous people tend to be more satis ed with their lives lAndrogynous individuals are more adaptable esp to be less hindered by images of quotfemininequot or quotmasculinequot behavior They are higher in emotional intelligence More exible when it comes to coping with dif cult situations lMasculine males have great dif culty expressing warmth playfulness and concern They nd it hard to accept emotional support They tend to be interested in sports have mostly male friends dislike feminists and sit with their knees wide apart D Highly feminine women have trouble being independent and assertive 18 What are the characteristics of people who have high scores on the quotmasculinequot trait and what are the characteristics of people who have high scores the quotfemininequot trait on the Bem Sex Role Inventory BSRI DMasculine Traits primarily means that a person is independent and assertive related to high selfesteem and to success lFeminine traits primarily means that a person is nurturing and interpersonally oriented therefore more likely to seek and receive social support They tend to experience greater social closeness with others and more happiness in marriage 19 What are the roles of estrogen and testosterone in the strength of the sex drives in men and women When a man chats with a woman he nds attractive his testosterone levels increase Likewise sex drive in women is related to estrogen levels Testosterone also plays a role in female sexuality A women39s sex drive is closely related to the testosterone level in her bloodstream Of oucse women produce much smaller amounts of testosterone than men do Women39s bodies are more sensitive to testosterone and their sex drive is comparable to males 20 Would castration be effective in lowering the sex drive in sex offenders The effects of male and female castration vary At rst some people experience a loss of sex drive in others there is no change Castration of sex offenders is not likely to curb their behavior However after several years almost all subjects report a decrease in sex drive unless they take hormone supplements 22 Compare the scripts quotfriends with a bene tquot and quothookup scriptquot With traditional sexual scripts such as ones involving courtship Friends with bene t script friends who have sex but aren39t romantically involved Hookup script two people having sex are more or less strangers Traditional sex scripts stress courtship romance and marriage 23 Compare the human sexual response in men and women with respect to the amount of time from the excitement phase to orgasm and in terms of multiple orgasms lFemale response The vagina is prepared for intercourse the nipples become erect pulse rate rises skin may become ushed or reddened If stimulation ends the excitement phase will gradually subside If woman moves in plateau phase physical changes and subjective feelings of arousal become more intense Sexual arousal that ends during this phase tends to ebb more slowly which may produce considerable frustration women typically skip the plateau phase During orgasm 3 to 10 muscular contractions of the vagina uterus and related structures discharge sexual tension Orgasm is usually followed by resolution a return to lower levels of sexual tension and arousal About 15 of women return to plateau phase after this D Male response sexual arousal in the male is signaled by erection of the penis during the excitement phase A rise in heart rate increased blood flow to the genitals enlargement of the testicles erection of the nipples and numerous other body changes also occur Continued stimulation moves the male into the plateau phase Further stimulation during the plateau phase brings about a re ex release of sexual tension resulting in orgasm In the mature male orgasm is usually accompanied by ejaculation Afterward it is followed by a short refractory period during which a second orgasm is impossible Only rarely is a male refractory period immediately followed by a second orgasm Both orgasm and resolution in the male usually do not last as long as they do for females 24 Characterize pedophilia in terms of married versus single father versus not father relationship to the child friend acquaintance relative and how frequently rape takes place a married vs single most are married b Father vs not father 23 are fathers c Relationship to the child usually a friend acquaintance or relative serious harm is especially likely to occur if the molester is someone the child deeply trusts d how frequently rape takes place most molestations rarely exceed fondling 25 Are exhibitionists harmless Describe their typical family background and marital status Exhibitionists ashing displaying genitals to unwilling viewers Have high repeat rates among sexual offenders Although it was a long thought that they are harmless one study found that up to 40 of exhibitionists go on to commit more serious sexual crimes and other offenses Are typically male and married most come from strict and repressive backgrounds Most of them feel a deep sense of inadequacy which produces a compulsive need to prove their quotmanhoodquot by frightening women By becoming visibly upset she actually encourages him 26 What is the impact of sex education on the age at which young people rst engage in sexual intercourse Traditional morality calls for female virginity before marriage Yet even by the 194039s and 195039s as many as 75 of married women had engaged in premarital sex The recent decline in sexual intercourse during early adolescence has been accompanied by higher rates of contraceptive use and declining rates of teen pregnancy and abortion 27 What percentage over one year of married people have sex partners other than their spouse in the past year 4 of married people have sex partners other than their spouse 28 Describe the viewed expressed by the authors of the textbook regarding child beauty pageants Oversexualization leads young girls to see themselves as having value only as sexual objects This results in low selfesteem eating disorders depression and feelings of shame 29 Discuss rape in terms of the relationship of the victim to the rapist 75 of American women have been sexually or physically assaulted reported that the perpetrator was a husband intimate partner or acquaintance 30 Describe the motivation of someone who forcibly rapes a woman that is way they do it It is often an act of brutality or aggression based on the need to debase others Many rapists impulsively take on what they want without concern for the feelings of the victim or guilt about their deed Other harbor deepseated resentment or outright hatred of women 1 Describe the results of the study conducted by Zimbardo Haney amp Banks 1973 in which male college students were paid to be quotinmatesquot or quotguardsquot in a simulated prison What do the results tell us about how powerful social roles are a Afterjust 2 days in quotjailquot the inmates grew restless and de ant When they staged a disturbance the guards unmercifully suppressed the rebellion Over the next few days the guards clamped down with increasing brutality In a short time the fake convicts looked like real prisoners they were dejected traumatized passive and dehumanized Four of them had to be released because they were crying confused or severely depressed Each day the guards tormented the prisoners with more commands insults and demeaning tasks After 6 days the experiment had to be halted b The assigned social roles were so powerful that in just a few days the experiment became quotrealityquot for those involved 2 What do the studies using the auto kinetic effect tells us about social in uence a Auto kinetic effect the apparent movement of a stationary pinpoint of light displayed in a darkened room b In a dark room a stationary pinpoint of light will appear to drift or move about People give very different estimates of how far the light moves However when two or more people announce their estimates at the same time theirjudgments rapidly converge This is an example of social in uence in which one person39s behavior is changed by the actions of others What is attribution theory and what is the fundamental attribution error a Attribution theory states that when we make attributions we are sensitive to how consistent and distinctive a person s behavior is A person s behavior is consistent if it changes very little over several occasions It is distinctive if the behavior occurs only under speci c circumstances b The fundamental attribution error is to attribute the actions of others to internal causes What is the actorobserver bias Give an example a The actorobserver bias is the tendency to attribute the behavior of others to internal causes while attributing one s own behavior to external causes situations and circumstances b lE other people who don t leave tips in restaurants are cheap you do it because you received bad service What are the three components of an attitude a Belief component what a person thinks or believes about the object of an attitude b Emotional component one s feelings toward the object of an attitude c Action component how one tends to act toward the object of an attitude What is selfhandicapping and why is it used Give an example Do men selfhandicap more than women a Selfhandicapping is arranging to perform under conditions that impair performance It is used to make people feel better in situations where they might fail by providing an excuse b lE getting drunk before a speech or a test c Men are more likely to selfhandicap than woman What is the role of situational demands making attributions a When we make attributions we are very sensitive to the situational demands affecting other people s behavior These are pressures to behave in certain ways in particular settings and social situations b lE If you see someone at a funeral and they are quiet and polite that tells you little about their motives and personality traits The situation demands such behavior 8 Describe the attitudes of adults who watch TV violence frequently a This leads some people to develop a mean worldview in which they regard the world as a dangerous and threatening place 9 What is cognitive dissonance Give an example a Cognitive dissonance states that contradicting or clashing thoughts cause discomfort We have a need for consistency in our thoughts perceptions and images of ourselves b E smokers are told on every pack that cigarettes endanger their lives but they light up and smoke anyway How do they resolve the tension between this information and their actions They could quit smoking but it may be easier to convince themselves that smoking is not really so dangerous To do this a smoker might seek examples of heavy smokers who have lived long lives spend time with other smokers and avoid information about the link between smoking and cancen 10 Discuss the ndings of Festinger amp Carlsmith 1959 study in terms of cognitive dissonance theory Subjects in this study were asked to lie about how enjoyable a boring task turning wooden pegs on a board was a Student s who were paid 20 to lie to others about the task did not change their own negative opinion they still believed it to be bo ng b Student s who were paid 1 to lie later rated the task as pleasant and interesting because they had no good reason to lie for only a dollar So they changed their attitude towards what they ve done 11 What is groupthink and why is it important to the understanding of international crises such as the invasion of Iraq by US troops a Groupthink a compulsion by members of decisionmaking groups to maintain agreement and approval even at the cost of critical thinking b It leads people to believe they agree more than they actually do 12 De ne and give examples of the following doorinthe face effect and the lowball technique a Doorintheface effect the tendency for a person who has refused a major request to agree to a smaller request i If a neighbor asks you to feed his dogs water his plants and mow his yard while he is out of town for a month you would feel slightly guilty but reject him But if they return the next day and asks you to at least pick up his mail while he is gone chances are very good that you would say yes even if you originally would have turned it down b Lowball technique getting a person committed to act and then making the terms of acting less desirable i A student asks to borrow 25 for the day You agree However once you give him the money he explains that it would be easier to repay you after payday in 2 weeks 13 Describe the procedure and results of the Milgrim obedience studies What percentage of subjects delivered the maximum amount of voltage 450 volts to the learner What was the effect of running the study in a shabby of ce varying the distance between the teacher and learner placing the teacher and learner in the same room a A person in an experiment is labeled as the teacher while another is labeled as the learner The learner is placed in an electric chair and the teacher asks him questions giving him an electric shock as punishment each time he answers wrong The voltage goes up with every wrong answer b 65 of subjects delivered the maximum amount of voltage In the shabby office 45 of people obeyed The closer distance the teacher was to the learner the less likely they were to obey e When the teacher and learner were in the same room even fewer obeyed an 14 Describe the techniques used by leaders of cults to covert prospective members ls brainwashing used a In recruiting new members cults use a powerful blend of guilt manipulation isolation deception fear and escalating commitment They employ highpressure indoctrination techniques not unlike those used in brainwashing 1De ne the following intelligence operational de nition aptitude reliability validity working memory 9 factor psychometric measure test standardization performance intelligence intelligence quotient IQ deviation IQ uid intelligence uid intelligence crystalized intelligence normal curve Down39s syndrome fragile x syndrome phenylketonuria PKU microcephaly hydrocephaly cretinism eugenics metacognition skills Dove Counterbalance Intelligence Test a b an overall capacity to think rationally act purposefully and deal effectively with the environment the operations actions or procedures used to measure a concept a capacity for learning certain abilities the ability of a test to yield the same sore or nearly the same score each time it is given to the same person the ability of a test to measure what it purports to measure measures the ability to use shortterm memory a general ability factor proposed to underly intelligence the core of general intellectual ability that involves reasoning problemsolving ability knowledge and memory a measurement of a person s mental funcUons standard procedures are used in giving a test and it nds the average score made by a large group of people like those for whom the test was designed intelligence designed to be given to a single individual by a trained specialist an index of intelligence de ned as mental age divided b chronological age and multiplied by 100 an IQ obtained statistically from a person s relative standing in his or her age group that is how far above or below average the person s score was relative to other scores the ability to solve novel problems involving perceptual speed or rapid insight the ability to solve problems using already acquired knowledge a bellshaped curve characterized by a large number of scores in a middle area tapering to very few extremely high and low scores a genetic disorder caused by the presence of an extra chromosome results in intellectual disability Fragile X syndrome a genetic form of intellectual disability caused by a defect in the X chromosome a genetic disease that allows phenylpyruvic acid to accumulate in the body a disorder in which the head and brain are abnormally small a buildup of cerebrospinal uid within brain cavities t stunted growth and intellectual disability caused by an insufficient supply of thyroid hormone u selective breeding for desirable characteristics 2 What are the ve cognitive factors that make up general intelligence a Reasoning problemsolving knowledge memory and successful adaptation to one s surroundings 3What are the similarities and differences between the StanfordBinet Intelligence scales and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence scales a StanfordBinet designed for children test made up of intellectual questions and problems creators learned which questions an average child could answer at each age b Wechsler designed for adults 4De ne intelligence quotient IQ in terms of chronological age and mental age a Chronological age age in years b Mental age average intellectual performance age c IQ mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100 mental age chronological age x100 5 How old does a person have to be for his intelligence quotient IQ score becomes stable a About 6 years old 6What percentage of the population has an IQ between 120 and 129 What percentage of the population has an IQ over 130 a 67 b 22 7 Do males and females differ in intelligence a Not in overall intelligence but they have different intellectual strengths and weaknesses 8What is the role of age in uid intelligence and crystalized intelligence a Fluid the ability to solve novel problems involving perceptual speed or rapid insight declines rapidly after middle age b Crystalized the ability to solve problems using already acquired knowledge can actually increase or decline very little until advanced age 9How do IQ scores relate to success in school jobs and other endeavors 10 e The correlation between IQ and school grades is at least 50 but if grades depended solely on IQ it would be even stronger Motivation special talents offcampus educational opportunities and many other factors in uence grades and schoolsuccess Persons holding whitecollar professional positions average higher IQs than those in bluecollar settings Describe ve misconceptions about gifted children That they tend to be peculiar but they are usually socially skilled and above average in leadership That they won t be gifted as adults but this is false That they are physically inferior but they are actually above average in height weight and physical appearance as a group That they are more susceptible to mental illness but they enjoy better than average mental health and a greater resistance to mental illness That intelligence has little to do with success but that is false 11 Describe the characteristics Kim Peek the individual with savant syndrome from Meet the Rain Man a He began memorizing books at 18 months of age he knew all the zip codes and area codes in the US could give accurate travel directions between any two major US cities could discuss and play hundreds of pieces of classical music yet he had difficulty with abstract thinking and tests of general intelligence 12 What percentage of adult intelligence is thought to be hereditary a Roughly 50 13 Why do psychologists compare the results of fraternal twins with identical twins when examining the in uence of heredity on behavior a Because despite the fact that fraternal twins share the same genes as regular siblings parents tend to treat them more alike 14Compare the correlations of identical twins raised together and raised apart What does this tell us about environmental in uences on IQ b Identical twins who grew up in the same family have highly correlated IQs When they are reared apart the correlation drops but only from 86 to 72 Some separated identical twins differ by as much as 20 IQ points when the environmenteducational differences are large c This show s that the environment plays a key role in IQ 15Compare the characteristics of modern video games such as Call to Duty and The Sims with early video games such as Pong and PacMan What are the implications of these observations a Modern rich complicated experiences that can take 40 or more hours of intense problemsolving to complete b Early simple repetitive visual experiences c Newer video games are more complex and demand greater cognitive effort from us 16 Discuss the results and implications of studies of the relationship between a mother39s IQ and the IQ of her biological child and adopted child a Studies show that children reared by the same mother resemble her in IQ to the same degree no matter whether they share her genes 17 What is the Flynn effect and what does it say about the role of environment on IQ a 14 nations have shown average IQ gains of from 5 to 25 points during the last 30 years These IQ boosts averaging 15 points occurred in far too short of a time to be explained by genetics It is more likely that they re ect environmental forces


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