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Final Study Guide Media & Society

by: Madelyn Chassay

Final Study Guide Media & Society MSCH-C 213

Marketplace > Indiana University > Media > MSCH-C 213 > Final Study Guide Media Society
Madelyn Chassay
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This is the Final Media & Society study guide for Friday, Dec. 18.
Intro to Media & Society
Andrew Weaver
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madelyn Chassay on Tuesday December 15, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MSCH-C 213 at Indiana University taught by Andrew Weaver in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 331 views. For similar materials see Intro to Media & Society in Media at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 12/15/15
Media & Society Final Study Guide a i d e M e h t n i n e r d l i h C 1. (a) Why treat children as a special audience? Because they are all in various stages of development. They are still developing and are very vulnerable. (b) What is Piaget’s theory of cognitive development? As we get older, we think in fundamentally different ways. The way we engage with the world changes as we age. We think different ways at different stages. There are 4 main stages. (c) What are the stages of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development? Sensorimotor (0-2 years), pre-operational (2-7 years), concrete (7-12 years), and formal (12+). (d) How could media affect children in the sensorimotor stage? Our engagement with the world is entirely based on our sensory motor interactions. Taste, touch, etc. They put everything in their mouths because their brain is telling them to sense as much as possible. Based on our senses and motor skills, doesn’t go beyond that. So unless the media is making us engage their motor skills, it doesn’t really have an effect. (e) What does the lack in cognitive development in children mean in terms of emotional maturation? Emotional maturation: How we feel. Emotional intelligence. Knowing what we feel and why. 2. (a) Can you name an example of the government trying to protect children from negative TV content? Emphasis on protection (1970s) tried to ban advertising towards children. (b) What was included in the Telecommunications Act of 1996 related to children’s media use? Putting time limits on how much advertising there can be during a children’s program. Although the difference from that of an adult’s program doesn’t make a difference/have an effect. (c) Can you name the two ways in which regulations try to protect children from negative practices in advertising? By putting limits on host selling, so you can’t have a commercial for a toy that’s for the show that’s currently being watched. There also has to be bumpers between a program and an advertisement. (d) When re-examining the case for special treatment does one’s age influence their ability to reason morally? No, the difference between someone for example, 13 to 17, has barely no difference at all. (e) Name and explain the four natural abilities related to media literacy. 3. (a) What does the case of the mini-series The Day After reveal about developmental differences between viewers of differing age groups? Being more developed makes us more frightful of certain kinds of things than children. Fear is developmental. 1 Monday, December 14, 2015 4. (a) What are the two goals of the ratings system? To avoid censorship and to provide information for parents. (b) Who determines the ratings for movies, TV, and video games? Movies: A group of parents go through a list of guidelines, create a rating, then go back to the producers and negotiate. TV shows: The producers themselves have to rate each individual episode, not just a whole series or season. Video games: The ESRB- game makers put together a 20 min video of game play and a written description, ESRB watches video and reads description then decides rating. (c) What are the issues with the ratings system? Consistency, Accuracy, Relevance, Knowledge, Forbidden fruit, Self-censorship. There are many. For movies, there are many different parents rating them all with different backgrounds and views and ideas. For TV shows, there for the most part isn’t parental input unless the producer is a parent and is keeping their own children in mind. Video games have a lot of issues in ratings because the ESRB never even plays the games, and games are very unique so each player has a different experience so it’s hard to dictate a rating just from a video and description. (d) What is a possible alternative to it? Make media ratings look something like cigarette labels: a warning label that provides information. No age base, no restrictions, no censorship, just warnings. “This movie contains __ and can lead to __/studies have shown it leads to __” Allows parents to still decide what their kids can watch. 5. (a) How do Sesame Street and Pre-School relate to one another? Goal is to teach pre-reading skills, pre-math skills, etc. Letters, sounds, counting. Over 4 million watch SS. They gain the same skills as they would in preschool. Not only are the kids entertained, but the parents are as well. (b) What are some of the benefits of Sesame Street? kids who watch Sesame Street vs. kids who don’t, do better in school, get better grades, engage in more leisure reading, take more advanced classes in high school, graduate, go to college, etc.(c) Do parents play a role in its effectiveness? How? Watching the show with an adult benefits the kids even more. Media Violence 1. (a) How do we define aggression? Should focus on the intent of the violence, rather than the outcome of it. Ex: if someone dies or not. Should focus on why they are in danger in the first place. (b)What is the third-person effect? That people believe media effects have a greater effect on other people than they don on themselves. Often believe there are no media effects on themselves what so ever. (c) What is the precursor to almost all human aggression? There is some perceived external act, violence is always a response. (d) Why does the amount of aggressive behavior decrease as we get older? Typically as we 2 Monday, December 14, 2015 get older we are able to make somewhat better or more informed decisions, or are at least able to talk things out and don’t have to turn to violence. Violent crime is most common ages 16-18, but human aggression is most often seen in 2 year olds. 1/3 of all social interactions that a 2 year old has, ends in aggression. They can’t talk through problems so they use violence instead. A 2 year old’s frontal cortex isn’t even fully developed yet. 2. (a) What are the 3 points at which violence may occur and what are the descriptions of these 3 points? The nature of the perpetrator, the justification of violence, rewards and punishments (b) Where does the most violence occur on college campuses and why? At parties because alcohol/drugs are involved, people aren’t thinking as well, can’t make the best decisions and usually settle disputes with violence. (d) What kind of physiological effects do audiences experience when exposed to violence in the media? Hostile attribution bias: the more violence we consume, the more likely we are to perceive external acts as provocations. We see more violence and believe it is a violent world- gives us reasoning to do violent acts. 3. (a) Why is the context of media violence important to understand? Different types of media violence have different types of effects. (b) How do the presence of pain and harm cues influence the effect of media violence? If it’s a villain, a character we don’t like or identify with, behaving violently- can decrease our aggression and increase our inhibition. We believe that violence is done by people we don’t like, so we shouldn’t be violent- balance principle. (c) How does the presence of rewards and/or punishments influence the effect of media violence? if the violent act is punished, then we learn that there are consequences and we know it is not something we are supposed to do. While if it is rewarded, we think it is good. (d) How does realism influence the effect of media violence? it matters how realistic the consequences are. Real violence has real consequences, if the media portrayal doesn’t show a consequence, we believe there are none. If we see and understand the consequences, it builds up our inhibition. 4. (a) Whose responsibility is it to do something about media violence? Parents, industry, and the government (b) What is the ultimate goal regarding media violence? We should be focusing on changing the way it’s produced rather than eliminating or censoring violence completely Sex & Media 1. (a) What are the primary public concerns associated with sexual content? That media exposure to sexual content may change behaviors and/or societal values. (b) Where do children and adolescents learn about sex? Mostly in the media, as well as sex ed classes in school or friends/family. They learn the most useful and important information in the media, the stuff we really want to know- 3 Monday, December 14, 2015 such as sexual norms. (c) How has sexual content changed over time? Before the 50s-60s sex was off the board, not in the media at all, now its everywhere. Most sitcoms now revolve around sex. (d) What are the dominant themes in media portrayals of sex? We don’t see much sexual behavior, it’s more so conversations about sex. (e) What are the cognitive effects of viewing sexual content? (f) What are the attitudinal effects of viewing sexual content? directly relates to societal norms- we dramatically overrepresent the prevalence of sex, the amount of sex people are having, the amount of partners people have. The media says its common, casual, varied, etc. Gives us a next-step reality. Blows it out of proportion. Effects our beliefs about sexual norms. (g) What are the behavioral effects of viewing sexual content? do our social norms relate to a change in behavior? If we believe the expectations are to be having sex more often and with a variety of people, it could change our behavior. The more common we believe something is, the more likely we are to change our behaviors to be more similar to the norm. (h) What is the primary source of the above effects (e.g., nudity, sexual dialogue, simulated sex acts)? The current focus of regulations- they’re primarily focused on sexual images Race & Media 1. (a) What are the two big questions concerning race and the media? Are media biased? Is the audience affected? 2. (a) How are different minority groups portrayed relative to their actual population proportions? Head counts: whites are overrepresented relative to their proportion as a whole, blacks are proportional as a whole (about 13%), any other racial group is underrepresented. Latinos, Asians, Middle Eastern, etc. (b) How does the range of depictions of minority characters differ from those of white characters? Racial tags: are more often to be used if the suspect is of color- ex: “it was a black male” rationale is to eliminate everyone else, but it’s such a huge category it isn’t even all that helpful. In the mind of the viewer/reader it effects their views of the group. (c) How does the audiences’ perspective and background matter when it comes to stereotypes in the media? If the audience only sees negative portrayals of certain groups and has no positive interactions with those groups in their lives, they will only have a negative belief towards that group. (d) What is audience segregation and why does it occur? People believe it’s because whites and blacks have different interests- but if you look at the different content, they’re the same stories being told but with different racial groups. Ex: Jersey Shore (white) and Bad Girls Club (black), or Big Time Rush (white) and Shake it Up (black). Same storylines and ideas, different racial representation. 3. (a) How did the TV show All in the Family influence audiences’ racial thinking? made in baby boomer era- based characters on his father and his 4 Monday, December 14, 2015 fathers friends- created to light heartedly poke fun at his parents’ generation and their racial views. Shows how ridiculous they were. Intentions were great, but the majority of the audience saw the racist dad as the hero, and the non-racist kids as immoral. So because they dealt with race in such explicit ways, they looked at the dad as someone they could identify with. So instead of breaking down their prejudices, it just reinforced it. (b) How did the TV show The Cosby Show influence audience’s racial thinking? unlike many shows that showed negative depictions of blacks, this show broke down some harmful stereotypes. Had a strong emphasis on education and hard work. Did studies and found “enlightened racism” on white audience- whites who watched the show were more likely to believe blacks could be well educated, hard working, etc. Saw racial groups as equal in terms of potential. But the perception was that the Cosby’s were unique- but when you look around at other media coverage of blacks, the stereotype was that blacks were lazy, unmotivated, etc. Gender & Media (a) What are gender stereotypes? Roles or qualities that are generally 1. associated with either males or females, can range from cognitive behavior to genetic. (b) How are gender stereotypes portrayed in media? “Men do the saving, women do the praising” Women have traditional roles or are hyper sexualized in the media, yet men are the expendable gender. (c) What is the media effect of gender stereotypes? Effects the way girls/boys identify themselves, feelings of whats “right” or “wrong”. (d) What did the study that Psychologist did in 2002 reveal about gender stereotypes? How did they categorize these stereotypes? That stereotypical gender roles are still present in American Society. (e) What are tools to gauge gender representations? Bechdel Test, Smurfette Principle, Distoff Principle 2. (a) How might gender stereotypes change across culture? Different cultures have their own gender stereotypes, but for the most part they stay the same where as women are seen as weak and men as strong. It all depends on the upbringings through culture as well as media effects. (b) What does intersectionality mean in terms of gender? Gender and race- layering of identities and going beyond the white female body (c) How do gender stereotypes relate to athletes? Ex: Serena Williams- not only does she face gender stereotypes but racial as well. She is seen as “manly” and instead of being seen as one of one of the worlds greatest athletes, many people tend to focus on the facts she is black and a female. 3. (a) How do children learn gender stereotypes? Ever since they are born they are assigned gender roles, such as a color, blue or pink. Toys targeted towards 5 Monday, December 14, 2015 gender, ex cleaning and cooking toys for girls, cars and guns for boys. (b) Which solutions can be done to change media portrayals and reverse existing audience stereotypes? Increased information, counter-stereotyping, gender stereotyping formation and elementary education, as well as changing media content. Media & Health 1. (a) How is the media utilized when it comes to health behaviors? People use the media as a source of information, which can be good or bad because the info they receive isn't always correct. This can also cause negative perceptions of health care and illness. (b) Can you explain some of the negative effects that advertising certain products has on peoples’ health? Cigarettes, alcohol, food, and prescription drugs can all have negative effects. (c) How has advertising on TV influenced the way drugs are perceived? By causing people to think they need a medication and have an illness they don't really have. (d) In terms of food advertising which foods are predominantly marketed? What is their impact? Mainly fast foods, and people crave foods they see advertised the most so they're most likely going to eat fast food which is not healthy 2. (a) How are health and sicknesses portrayed in entertainment media? health is depicted in a very particular way, you rarely see chronic illnesses or health illnesses that are unresolved. Health in entertainment media has a resolution, but in real life it isn’t necessarily like that. (b) How are healthy behaviors portrayed in entertainment media? characters in entertainment media are most often fit, good looking, etc. but their behaviors do not match up- they sit around drinking, eat unhealthy, never see them working out or doing any of the activities that the actors have to do in real life to look the way they do. (c) How do the body images that we see on TV affect us? Most body images we see on TV are unrealistic and often edited to be fake anyways, setting unrealistic standards for ourselves. 3. (a) What are the three persuasion techniques most commonly used in health campaigns? Fear appeals, linking to the out group, and denormalizing behavior. (b) In order for fear appeals to be successful, what three things have to be established? Threat, Response efficacy and Self efficacy (c) What is response efficacy? have to believe the intended healthy behavior will help avoid the threat (d) What is self-efficacy? the extent to which we can believe we can stop the negative behavior/begin the healthy behaviors. If you can’t believe you can quit smoking, then you won’t. (e) How does linking to the out- group work? What condition is needed for it to be successful? What 6 Monday, December 14, 2015 condition is needed for it to be successful? It can work if it is done will. Since we identify with out in-group members, we want to be like them, we do what they do, etc. Ex: having someone a younger kid looks up to talking to the kids about it, rather than a police officer lecturing kids about not doing drugs. (f) How does de- normalizing the behavior work? only method that has shown some success, if you can denormalize the social norm, you can change behavior. Ex: The Truth Campaign: they don’t talk about lung cancer or dying early, they focus on changing norms associated with smoking Sports & Media 1. (a) Why are media involved in sports from a league’s perspective? It makes sense from the league’s perspective, they want to be covered and could use the exposure, want more fans and support, money, etc. (b) Why are they involved from the media’s perspective? you get to air the product, so you can make money off the advertisements you sell. Sports are more likely to be watched live so viewers are more likely to pay attention to the ads.(c) What are the effects of sports coverage on sports? The schedule, gameplay, rivalries, parity, popularity. (d) What are the effects on media? Most watched cable networks vs. most expensive cable networks: top ones/most expensive carry sports. (e) What are the effects on society? Increased exposure to sports increases participation in sports. Sports change how holidays work. Change university life. Changes how we talk about social issues, such as racism, domestic violence, etc. Changes to Narrative Entertainment 1. (a) How are our entertainment outlets changing? Interactivity control, interactivity socially, user generated feedback (b) Why are video games popular compared to other media? Narrative content, the ability to achieve “Flow” easily (c) What is control and how does it impact appeal? You control where the narrative goes, the direction of the story. Ex: “Choose your own adventure” books (d) How does control and interactivity impact fear and emotional reactions in video games? People usually want more interactivity, but when they get that and experience it, they more often opt out of it. Usually skip through the narrative in video games, goes along with violence in games/ other media as well. We generally don’t really want it there. (e) What is the concept of flow? a desirable psychological state that is marked by a departure of reality in a mental way. You forget about what’s going on in your life, become less stressed and anxious, become completely focused on a particular task, completely immersed. Sense of timelessness is a very positive state.(f) What conditions are necessary for flow? Tasks, Clear goals, control, and feedback. (g) How do control and interactivity impact potential effects? Narrative 7 Monday, December 14, 2015 makes video games too much like movies which most people don’t enjoy- narrative shouldn’t be as important. It actually draws us away from the game. 2. (a) How does media interactivity impact social interaction? It increases social interaction. Networks trying to get people to have conversations while watching a show- using hashtags to discuss on twitter. People tweeting while the show is going on instead of waiting after its over or until the next day.(b) How does social interactivity impact the appeal of content? Increases appeal. The more social interactivity you have, the more immersion you have into the content. (c) What are changes in gatekeeping? It is much more easier/possible to publish your own work, making short films and other videos (ex: YouTube videos/ channels) more available to a wider audience. (d) Is user generated content different than content distributed by gatekeepers? How? The content we consume follows prescribed formulas, not random. We see the same patterns repeat over and over again. People are watching the same kinds of content so we see the same effects across the board. In a way, yes the content changes. 3. (a) Why is media literacy important? It keeps us in control, allows us to make our own decisions without the media influencing too much. (b) How can you affect media literacy of others? Only media literacy approach that has evidence to show it works: getting people to change the amount of time they spend watching television. Ex: watching 5 hours a day to 2 hours a day, turning off the TV for a week, etc. Providing alternatives. (c) When changing media content, what are two important points to consider? To change the content you have to privilege creative freedom and economic model that the media operates under. Has to involve a collaboration between those thinking about the impact the media is making and those making the media itself, and making it in a beneficial way in all aspects- economically and to the audience, having a prosocial impact. 8


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